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Logic

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4 tayangan

Logic

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8.8 Statement Forms and Material

Equivalence

8.9 Logical Equivalence

8.10 The Three Laws of Thought

8.8 Statement Forms and Material

Equivalence

A. What is a Statement Form?

- A statement form is any sequence of symbols containing

statement variables but no statements, such that when

statements are substituted for the statement variables

the result is a statement.

- A statement form is a symbolic representation of a

compound statement. It consists of statement variables

along with logical connectives joining them.

Thus, p v q is a statement form.

What are the Statement Forms?

Name Definition Statement Name of the

Form Symbol

Disjunctive where the resulting (p v q) Disjunction

statement forms statement is disjunction.

statement forms statement is

conjunction.

Conditional where the resulting (p q) Condition/

statement forms statement is Implication

implication.

Negation form or where the resulting (~p) Negation

Denial form statement is negation.

8.8 Statement Forms and Material

Equivalence

B. Tautologous, Contradictory, and Contingent

Statement Forms

1. Tautologous statement forms or Tautology

A statement form that has only true substitution instances.

A formula that is true in every possible interpretation.

p q pvq

T F T

F T T

8.8 Statement Forms and Material

Equivalence

forms

A statement form that has only false substitution

instance.

Example: (p ~p)

8.8 Statement Forms and Material

Equivalence

Statement forms that have both true and false

statements.

Examples:

8.8 Statement Forms and Material

Equivalence

What is a material equivalence?

- It is a truth-functional connective just as

disjunction, conjunction, and material implication.

- Two statements are materially equivalent when

they are both true, or both false.

- The statements they connect have the same truth

value.

8.8 Statement Forms and Material

Equivalence

- The symbol for material equivalence is a three-bar sign or

tribar .

Thus, the truth table of material equivalence is:

P q pq

T T T

T F F

F T F

F F T

8.8 Statement Forms and Material

Equivalence

- p is true if q is true or we could say p is true only if q is

true therefore we could read the three-bar sign as if and

only if.

Example:

I will go to the championship game if and only if I acquire a

ticket.

Meaning: I will go if I do acquire a ticket, but I can go only if

I acquire a ticket.

- It is also often called a biconditional because every

material equivalent entails the truth of the conditional A

B, and also B A.

TO SUMMARIZE:

There are four truth-functional connectives: Conjunction, Disjunction,

Material implication/Conditional, and Material equivalence.

The Four Truth-Functional Connectives

Truth- Symbol and its Proposition Names of Example

Functional name Type component of

Connective Propositions of that

type

And (dot) Conjunction Conjuncts Carol is mean and Bob

sings the blues. ( C B)

Or v (wedge) Disjunction Disjuncts Carol is mean or Tyrell is

a music lover. ( C v T)

Ifthen ( horseshoe) Conditional Antecedent, If Bob sings the blues,

consequent then Myrna gets moody.

(BM)

If and only if (tribar) Biconditional Components Myrna gets moody if and

only if Bob sings the

blues. (MB)

Arguments, Conditional statements, and

Tautologies

- To every argument there corresponds a conditional

statement whose antecedent is the conjunction of the

arguments premises and whose consequent is the

arguments conclusion.

- The argument form is:

pq

p [(p q) p] q

Therefore, q

- If the conjunction of the premise implies the conclusion

will (if the argument is valid) have all and only true

instances. Thus, it is shown to be a tautology.

8.9 Logical Equivalence

What is Logical Equivalence?

- Two statements with equivalent meaning and same truth

values.

So, whats the difference between Material equivalence and

Logical equivalence?

1. Material equivalence is a truth-functional connective but

the logical equivalence is not a connective and expresses a

relation between two statements that is not truth-

functional.

8.9 Logical Equivalence

2. In logical equivalence, the statements always have the

same truth value, the same meaning, and in this case

may be substituted with one another. In material

equivalence, the statements always have the same truth

value, have different meaning, and definitely may not be

substituted with one another.

Thus, in logical equivalence, there will not be a case

where one statement is true and the other is false.

It is tautologous.

Logical equivalence is also material equivalence because

they have the same truth-values.

8.9 Logical Equivalence

Example:

In material equivalence:

(Jupiter is larger than earth and Tokyo is the capital of Japan)

They are materially equivalent because they are both true however,

they cannot be substituted to one another because each have different

meaning.

In logical equivalence:

(He is aware of the difficulty and He is not unaware of the

difficulty)

Either statement may be replaced by one another because they both

say the same thing.

What is a Logical

Equivalence?

- Two statements are logically equivalent if the

statement of their material equivalence is a tautology.

Also known as tautologous biconditional.

- We use the three-bar with a small T above it indicating

that logical relationship that the material equivalence of

the two statement is tautology. For some authors, they

use the symbol .

8.9 Logical Equivalence: The principle of

double negation

What is double negation?

- It is a grammatical construction occurring when two forms of negation are

used in the same sentence.

- Thus, in the principle of double negation, statement p and ~~p are logically

equivalent. This principle is now symbolized as (p ~~p)

- Truth table is:

p ~p ~~p p ~~p

T F T T

F T F T

Example: The law is constitutional. and The law is not unconstitutional.

8.9 Logical Equivalence: De Morgans

Theorem

- This is formally stated by the mathematician and

logician Augustus De Morgan (1806-1871).

- It has a two well-known logical equivalence or logically

true biconditionals is of great importance because they

express the interrelations among conjunction and

disjunction, and their negations.

8.9 Logical Equivalence: De Morgans

Theorem

logically equivalent to the conjunction of the negations

of the two statements;

- In symbols, ~(p v q) (~p ~q)

- Any disjunction p v q asserts that at least one of its

disjunct is true but we cannot assert that at least one of its

disjunct is false because in order for a disjunction to be

true, at least one of the disjunct is true. Thus, we can only

assert that both disjuncts are false.

8.9 Logical Equivalence: De Morgans

Theorem

Truth Table:

p q p v q ~(p v q) ~p ~q ~p ~q ~(p v q)

(~p ~q)

T T T F F F F T

T F T F F T F T

F T T F T F F T

F F F T T T T T

(In this case, whatever the truth values of p and q, this biconditional

must always be true. It is a tautology)

8.9 Logical Equivalence: De Morgans

Theorem

2. The negation of the conjunction of two statements is

logically equivalent to the disjunction of the negation

of the two statements.

In symbols, ~(p q) (~p v ~q)

Any conjunction of p and q asserts that both are true

thus, we can contradict this assertion by merely asserting

that at least one is false.

8.9 Logical Equivalence: De Morgans

Theorem

Truth Table:

p q p q ~(p q) ~p ~q ~p v ~q ~(p q)

(~p v ~q)

T T T F F F F T

T F F T F T T T

F T F T T F T T

F F F T T T T T

(In this case, whatever the truth values of p and q, this

biconditional must always be true. It is a tautology.)

8.9 Logical Equivalence: Material Implication

is known to be false if the conjunction p ~q is true.

That is, if its antecedent is true and its consequent is

false

Thus, the negation ~ (p ~q) is true.

In other words, for any conditional If p, then q, to be

true, ~ (p ~q) must also be true.

We can say now, that p q is said to be the same as

~ (p ~q).

8.9 Logical Equivalence: Material Implication

~ (p ~q) is logically equivalent to (~p v ~~q).

Then, applying the principle of double negation,

(~p v ~~q) will result to (~p v q).

- In symbols, we can now write: (p q) (~p v q).

In summary:

(p q) = ~(p ~q)

~(p ~q) = (~p v ~~q)

(~p v ~~q) = (~p v q)

Therefore, (p q) (~p v q)

8.9 Logical Equivalence: Material Implication

p q pq ~p (~p v q) (p q)

(~p v q)

T T T F T T

T F F F F T

F T T T T T

F F T T T T

(Again, whatever the truth values of p and q, this

biconditional must always be true and it is another form

of tautology.)

8.9 Logical Equivalence: Paradoxical

Statements

may seem paradoxical. Paradoxical means a statement

that is opposed to common sense and is perhaps true.

For Example:

The moon is made of green cheese, then the earth is

round (It follows the 4th column of the truth table which

assert that this statement is True).

8.9 Logical Equivalence: Paradoxical

Statements

How do we solve this?

We have to borne in mind that material implication is a truth

function and the meaning of the statements is strictly

irrelevant.

Also, the material implication must be understood that to say p

implies q is only to say that either p is false or q is true.

In the given example, applying the logical equivalent to Either

the moon is not made of green cheese or the earth is round

that is most certainly true. A true statement materially implies

any statement whatever and a false statement materially

implies any statement whatever.

8.10 The Three Laws of Thought

laws of thought and asserted that there are three basic

laws of thought that is both the necessary and the

sufficient condition of correct thinking.

These are also principles governing the construction of

truth tables.

These are:

1. The principle of Identity

2. The principle of noncontradiction

3. The principle of excluded middle

8.10 The Three Laws of Thought: The

principle of Identity

is true. Meaning once having put T under a symbol in a

given row, then when we encounter that symbol in other

column of that row, we regard it as still being assigned as

T.

Every statement of the form p q must be true and is a

tautology.

8.10 The Three Laws of Thought: The

principle of Identity

Problem:

Some thinkers claimed that in fact this principle is not

true on the ground that things change, and are always

changing. But this is a misunderstanding because such

statements are true but is incomplete.

Example:

The statement There were only 13 states in the United

States is no longer true today but this does not

undermine the principle of identity because this is only an

incomplete statement of There were only 13 states in

the United States in 1790.

That statement is now as true today as it was in 1790.

8.10 The Three Laws of Thought: The

Principle of Noncontradiction

This principle asserts that no statement can be both true

and false.

Meaning, we cannot put both T and F in the initial

columns of each row in the truth table.

Every statement form p ~p must be false because such

statement will be self-contradictory.

8.10 The Three Laws of Thought: The

Principle of Noncontradiction

Problem:

Hegelians and Marxists said that genuine contradiction is

everywhere pervasive that the world is replete with the

inevitable conflict of contradictory forces.

It is true that there are conflicting forces in this world

but to call this contradictories is not proper. Labour unions

and the private owners of industrial plants may have

themselves in conflict neither the owner nor the union is

the negation or denial or the contradictory of the other.

8.10 The Three Laws of Thought: The

Principle of Excluded Middle

or false.

Thus, every statement form p v ~p must be true and is a

tautology.

In the initial columns of each row of a table, we place

either T or an F.

8.10 The Three Laws of Thought: The

Principle of Excluded Middle

Problem:

It is object to much criticism on the ground that it leads

to a two-valued orientation which implies that things in

this world must be either black or white (Everything in

this world belongs to the same class) which hinders the

realization of compromise.

This is said to be another misunderstanding. The

statement This is either black or white where this

refers to the same thing cannot both be true but can both

be false. This statements are contraries and not

contradictories thus, one of them must be true and the

other is false.

8.10 The Three Laws of Thought:

long as they are applied to statements

containing unambiguous and precise terms.

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