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INTRODUCTION TO NON-DESTRUCTIVE TESTING TECHNIQUE

INTRODUCTION TO NON-DESTRUCTIVE TESTING TECHNIQUE
INTRODUCTION TO NON-DESTRUCTIVE TESTING TECHNIQUE
Testing Semi-destructive testing
Testing
Semi-destructive testing
Coring test Tension test Carbonation test Mortar test
Coring test
Tension test
Carbonation test
Mortar test
Destructive testing (DT)
Destructive testing (DT)
Hardness test Fatigue test Creep test Tensile test Bend test Charpy test Chemical analysis, etc. Metallography
Hardness test
Fatigue test
Creep test
Tensile test
Bend test
Charpy test
Chemical analysis, etc.
Metallography
Non-destructive testing (NDT)
Non-destructive testing
(NDT)
Testing Semi-destructive testing Coring test Tension test Carbonation test Mortar test Destructive testing (DT) Hardness test
Ultrasonic test Eddy current test Radiography test Visual test Magnetic particle test Penetrant test IR thermography
Ultrasonic test
Eddy current test
Radiography test
Visual test
Magnetic particle test
Penetrant test
IR thermography
Leak test
Acoustic emission
Laser shearography
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SURESH SENANAYAKE

Definition

NDT

Non-destructive testing (NDT) is the testing of material to detect internal and surface defects or discontinuities using methods that do not damage or destroy the material under test.

Definition NDT Non-destructive testing (NDT) is the testing of material to detect internal and surface defects

SURESH SENANAYAKE

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Engineering Materials Materials Metals Ceramics Polymers Composites Ferrous Non-Ferrous Steel Stainless steel Aluminum Copper Cast iron
Engineering Materials
Materials
Metals
Ceramics
Polymers
Composites
Ferrous
Non-Ferrous
Steel
Stainless steel
Aluminum
Copper
Cast iron
Zinc
Titanium
Tungsten
Nickel
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SURESH SENANAYAKE

Material Discontinuities

Should identify the types of metal manufacturing and service discontinuities (i.e. to know what causes the defects)

Defects

Inherent Processing Defects Primary Processing Defects Secondary Service Defects Processing Defects
Inherent Processing
Defects
Primary Processing
Defects
Secondary
Service Defects
Processing
Defects

The refining stage

Metal

ingots

are

Final stages of parts

Occurs during

the

where metals are

worked

into

usable

manufacturing

use of the part

extracted from ores

forms such as billets

  • - Grinding cracks

  • - Fatigue cracks

  • - Inclusions (Slag)

or

blooms

by

(thermal cracks)

  • - Stress cracks

  • - (Blown

Porosity

wrought processing

  • - Machining cracks

  • - Corrosion

hole)

or casting

  • - Welding defects

  • - Pipe

  • - Seams

  • - Heat treat cracks

  • - Segregation

  • - Laps

(quenching

  • - Lamination

cracks)

  • - Forging bursts

  • - Inclusions

  • - porosity

Where is NDT used?

where we need to ensure the serviceability of a specimen

where we cannot afford the cost of a failure of the specimen because failure would be

financially unacceptable or cause harm to us

exist to prevent injury or death to the human user of the tested item

Why we need NDT?

Generally, NDT is employed in various industries

for the following reasons;

  • i. To prevent accidents and save human lives To improve product reliability

ii.

iii. To give profit to the user by;

  • a. Ensuring customer satisfaction

  • b. Helping in better product design

  • c. Controlling manufacturing processes

  • d. Lowering manufacturing processes

  • e. Maintaining a uniform quality level

When is NDT used?

NDT is used both before, during and after construction

Using NDT "before or during construction" prevents a substandard material or part from

wasting time and increasing scrap production

Using NDT after to monitor performance after being service.

NDT METHODS

There are six major NDT methods ;

Visual testing (VT)

Radiography testing (RT)

Ultrasonic testing (UT)

Magnetic particles testing (MT)

Liquid penetrant testing (PT)

Eddy current testing (ET)

NDT
NDT
Eddy Current Testing Visual Testing
Eddy Current
Testing
Visual
Testing

Other NDT methods;

Other NDT methods; • Leak testing • Strain gauging • Acoustic emission • IR Thermography •

Leak testing Strain gauging Acoustic emission IR Thermography Laser shearography

Other NDT methods; • Leak testing • Strain gauging • Acoustic emission • IR Thermography •
Other NDT methods; • Leak testing • Strain gauging • Acoustic emission • IR Thermography •
Other NDT methods; • Leak testing • Strain gauging • Acoustic emission • IR Thermography •
Other NDT methods; • Leak testing • Strain gauging • Acoustic emission • IR Thermography •

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NDT….

The choice of test method to

be carried out on a certain piece depends on several factors, the most important

ones being;

Types of discontinuity

expected Inherent limitations of

each method Working conditions

Material to be tested

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SURESH SENANAYAKE

Indication

Each non-destructive test is designed to provide visual evidence of discontinuities in parts, which are not normally visible to the unaided eye.

The visual evidence left by each method is called an indication.

NOTE:

There is no single NDT method capable of detecting all type of discontinuities

VISUAL TESTING

VISUAL TESTING Eye of a qualified technician can be supplemented with various optical aids and mechanical
Eye of a qualified technician can be supplemented with various optical aids and mechanical gauges for
Eye
of
a
qualified
technician
can
be
supplemented
with
various
optical
aids
and
mechanical
gauges
for
visual
inspection.
It is a most commonly used NDT method for detecting and
evaluating defects.
Inspect using human eye.
Optical equipment use to enhance sensitivity. But decreases the
area of coverage.

Visual Testing….

Employs the eyes to look directly at the component

Mostly used on detection of corrosion

Needs lot of skill and training

Training- 01

Visual Testing…. • Employs the eyes to look directly at the component • Mostly used on

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Visual Testing… ..

Training- 02

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Visual Testing……

Training- 03

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Visual Inspection

Visual Inspection Most basic and common inspection method. Tools include Lights, Mirrors, fiberscopes, borescopes, magnifying glasses
Visual Inspection Most basic and common inspection method. Tools include Lights, Mirrors, fiberscopes, borescopes, magnifying glasses
Visual Inspection Most basic and common inspection method. Tools include Lights, Mirrors, fiberscopes, borescopes, magnifying glasses

Most basic and common inspection method.

Tools include Lights, Mirrors, fiberscopes, borescopes, magnifying glasses and CCTV.

Portable video inspection unit with zoom allows

inspection of large tanks

and vessels, railroad tank cars, sewer lines.

Robotic crawlers permit observation in hazardous or

tight areas, such as air

ducts, reactors, pipelines.

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SURESH SENANAYAKE

RADIOGRAPHY TESTING (RT)

Principle of Operation

Using electromagnetic radiation (X-, Gamma-, Neutron-, etc.) to penetrate through materials. Discontinuities is recorded on film

RADIOGRAPHY TESTING (RT) • Principle of Operation – Using electromagnetic radiation (X-, Gamma-, Neutron-, etc.) to

SURESH SENANAYAKE

RADIOGRAPHY TESTING (RT) • Principle of Operation – Using electromagnetic radiation (X-, Gamma-, Neutron-, etc.) to

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Radiography… ..

Testing by means of radiation is based on the following factors:

The capacity that radiation has

to pas through matter

Different radiation absorption depending on the piece being tested

The possibility of measuring

this absorption differences

The testing involves the use of,

  • A radiation source

  • A radiation detector (film)

Radiography… .. Testing by means of radiation is based on the following factors: • The capacity

SURESH SENANAYAKE

Radiography… .. Testing by means of radiation is based on the following factors: • The capacity

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Radiographic Image

A radiographic image is a document composed of a

photographic film

on

to which

the

image of an object

which the radiation has passed through is recorded.

Radiographic Image A radiographic image is a document composed of a photographic film on to which
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SURESH SENANAYAKE

Radiography… ..

The radiographic technique gives a true image of the piece section (a photographic image) allowing many different types of material to be examined, even very thick materials.

Main disadvantages

Radiography… .. The radiographic technique gives a true image of the piece section (a photographic image)

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Radiography… .. The radiographic technique gives a true image of the piece section (a photographic image)

SURESH SENANAYAKE

RADIOGRAPHY……

Applications

Applicable to almost all metals and non-metals

Capable of detecting (and subsequently recording on the film) surface and internal discontinuities

Limitations – High capital and running cost – Require source of electricity (in the case of
Limitations
– High capital and running cost
– Require source of electricity (in the case of X-ray)
– Trained and skill operators are necessary
– Pose potential radiation hazard
– Not sensitive to planar defect
SURESH SENANAYAKE
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ULTRASONIC TESTING (UT)

Principle of Operation

Ultrasonic testing is based on the reflection that on acoustic wave is subjected to when, while moving through a certain material, it finds its

propagation impared.

Signal due to discontinuities is presented on cathode ray tube screen (CRT)

ULTRASONIC TESTING (UT) Principle of Operation – Ultrasonic testing is based on the reflection that on
ULTRASONIC TESTING (UT) Principle of Operation – Ultrasonic testing is based on the reflection that on

Ultrasonic……

The test requires a system comprising the following elements:

A probe (which emits the acoustic beam) A detection unit (which records the reflected beam on a screen)

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Ultrasonic… ..

The ultrasonic beam emitted

by the probe passes through

the

test

piece

and,

after

reaching the bottom wall, is reflected back to the probe which signals it on the screen.

Ultrasonic… .. The ultrasonic beam emitted by the probe passes through the test piece and, after

If

the

beam

finds

a discontinuity along its path,

it returns to the probe more

quickly, in this way signaling the presence of a defect.

Ultrasonic… .. The ultrasonic beam emitted by the probe passes through the test piece and, after

Ultrasonic… ..

The ultrasonic technique allows for immediate examination of the piece with extremely low working times.

It is easy to carry out and proves particularly suitable for creating automatic or semi-automatic systems as the discontinuity is

detected by the presence or lack of signal from the reflected waves.

SURESH SENANAYAKE
SURESH SENANAYAKE
Ultrasonic… .. • The ultrasonic technique allows for immediate examination of the piece with extremely low

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ULTRASONIC… ..

Applications

Applicable to almost all metals and non-metals

Capable of detecting surface and internal discontinuities

Automatic inspection and new computerized image processing allows

signal to be permanently recorded on paper Measure thickness

Material characterization (e.g. measure elastic modulus, etc.)

ULTRASONIC… .. Applications • Applicable to almost all metals and non-metals • Capable of detecting surface

Crankshaft - Northern Power Plant Ultrasonic Testing

SURESH SENANAYAKE

ULTRASONIC… .. Applications • Applicable to almost all metals and non-metals • Capable of detecting surface

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ULTRASONIC… ..

Limitations

Relatively high capital cost Requires highly trained and experienced operator Interpretation of results can be extremely difficult Not sensitive to defects parallel to the beam direction

ULTRASONIC… .. Limitations – Relatively high capital cost – Requires highly trained and experienced operator –

SURESH SENANAYAKE

ULTRASONIC… .. Limitations – Relatively high capital cost – Requires highly trained and experienced operator –

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MAGNETIC PARTICLE TESTING (MT)

Principle of Operation

Using magnetic or current flow to produce magnetic field in the materials

The pattern of field distribution provides indication of the existence discontinuities

MAGNETIC PARTICLE TESTING (MT) Principle of Operation – Using magnetic or current flow to produce magnetic
MAGNETIC PARTICLE TESTING (MT) Principle of Operation – Using magnetic or current flow to produce magnetic

SURESH SENANAYAKE

MAGNETIC PARTICLE TESTING (MT) Principle of Operation – Using magnetic or current flow to produce magnetic

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Magnetic Particle… ..

Magnetic Particle… .. 30 • Magnetic testing is based on the following factors: • The possibility

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Magnetic testing is based on the following factors:

The possibility of

magnetizing the piece to be tested;

Magnetic field variations generated by the piece

discontinuities;

The possibility of detecting surface and sub-surface variations piece in the

piece’s magnetic field.

SURESH SENANAYAKE

MAGNETIC PARTICLE……

MAGNETIC PARTICLE…… Applications – Applicable to ferromagnetic materials – Capable of detecting surface and sub- surface

Applications

Applicable to ferromagnetic materials

Capable of detecting surface and sub- surface discontinuities

Easily operated portable equipment makes it suitable for field inspection

MAGNETIC PARTICLE…… Applications – Applicable to ferromagnetic materials – Capable of detecting surface and sub- surface
MAGNETIC PARTICLE…… Applications – Applicable to ferromagnetic materials – Capable of detecting surface and sub- surface

Magnetic Particle……

The test requires a system comprising the following elements:

Equipment for piece magnetization;

Magnetic powders (or particles) to be spread over the piece to reveal the magnetic field variations.

Magnetization Equipment (Yoke)
Magnetization
Equipment (Yoke)

Limitations

Magnetic powders

Not applicable to non-ferromagnetic materials Requires a sources of electricity Magnetization in two perpendicular directions is necessary Inspected objects have to be demagnetized

Magnetic Particle…… The test requires a system comprising the following elements: • Equipment for piece magnetization

Magnetic Particle crack indications

Magnetic Particle crack indications 33 SURESH SENANAYAKE
Magnetic Particle crack indications 33 SURESH SENANAYAKE
Magnetic Particle crack indications 33 SURESH SENANAYAKE
Magnetic Particle crack indications 33 SURESH SENANAYAKE
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Magnetic Particle crack indications 33 SURESH SENANAYAKE

SURESH SENANAYAKE

PENETRANT TESTING (PT)

Principle of Operation

Using liquid to penetrate materials

Image of discontinuities become visible after development

PENETRANT TESTING (PT) • Principle of Operation – Using liquid to penetrate materials – Image of
SURESH SENANAYAKE
SURESH SENANAYAKE
PENETRANT TESTING (PT) • Principle of Operation – Using liquid to penetrate materials – Image of

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Penetrant Testing… ..

Penetrant testing requires a use of:

Penetrant liquids

Developer

Penetrant Testing… .. Penetrant testing requires a use of: Penetrant liquids 35 SURESH SENANAYAKE
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SURESH SENANAYAKE

Penetrant Testing……

Advantages

It can be applied to any material (ferromagnetic and non-ferromagnetic);

It can also be carried out on parts that are not

easily accessible;

It is relatively simple in terms of procedure and interpretation;

Compared to other examinations, the equipment is much more economical.

Limitations

It can detect only discontinuities opened to the

surface;

Discontinuities filled with extraneous matter (dirt, oxides, etc.) cannot be detected;

Surface conditioning must be more accurate

than in other types of examination.

Applications

Penetrant Testing…… Advantages • It can be applied to any material (ferromagnetic and non-ferromagnetic); • It

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Inspect non porous materials (metals, glass, ceramic, etc.) Detect surface defects

Simple equipment SURESH SENANAYAKE

EDDY CURRENT TESTING (ET)

Principal of Operation

Use electrical current in coils to induce eddy current within specimen

Indicator will be deflected when discontinuities disturb the path of eddy current

The test probe in eddy current inspection is basically a coil of wire through which AC is passed. When AC is passed through the coil, a magnetic field is generated in and around the coil. When the probe is brought in close proximity to a conductive material, the magnetic field generates current flow in the material. The induced current flows in closed loops in planes perpendicular to the magnetic flux and are named eddy currents.

EDDY CURRENT TESTING (ET) Principal of Operation – Use electrical current in coils to induce eddy

Eddy Current….

Coil’s Coil SURESH SENANAYAKE
Coil’s
Coil
SURESH SENANAYAKE
magnetic field
magnetic field
Eddy Current’s magnetic field Conductive material
Eddy Current’s
magnetic field
Conductive
material

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Eddy Current….

CRACK DETECTION
CRACK DETECTION
Eddy Current…. CRACK DETECTION PROBE PROBE PROBE PROBE 11/24/2017 FLAW MATERIAL SURESH SENANAYAKE 39
Eddy Current…. CRACK DETECTION PROBE PROBE PROBE PROBE 11/24/2017 FLAW MATERIAL SURESH SENANAYAKE 39

PROBE

Eddy Current…. CRACK DETECTION PROBE PROBE PROBE PROBE 11/24/2017 FLAW MATERIAL SURESH SENANAYAKE 39
Eddy Current…. CRACK DETECTION PROBE PROBE PROBE PROBE 11/24/2017 FLAW MATERIAL SURESH SENANAYAKE 39
Eddy Current…. CRACK DETECTION PROBE PROBE PROBE PROBE 11/24/2017 FLAW MATERIAL SURESH SENANAYAKE 39
Eddy Current…. CRACK DETECTION PROBE PROBE PROBE PROBE 11/24/2017 FLAW MATERIAL SURESH SENANAYAKE 39
Eddy Current…. CRACK DETECTION PROBE PROBE PROBE PROBE 11/24/2017 FLAW MATERIAL SURESH SENANAYAKE 39
Eddy Current…. CRACK DETECTION PROBE PROBE PROBE PROBE 11/24/2017 FLAW MATERIAL SURESH SENANAYAKE 39

PROBE

PROBE

PROBE

11/24/2017

FLAW
FLAW
MATERIAL
MATERIAL

SURESH SENANAYAKE

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Eddy Current…. CRACK DETECTION PROBE PROBE PROBE PROBE 11/24/2017 FLAW MATERIAL SURESH SENANAYAKE 39

Eddy Current……

Eddy Current…… • Sub surface flaw detection – Multi-layered aircraft structures. - Fuselage - Wings -
Eddy Current…… • Sub surface flaw detection – Multi-layered aircraft structures. - Fuselage - Wings -
Eddy Current…… • Sub surface flaw detection – Multi-layered aircraft structures. - Fuselage - Wings -

Sub surface flaw

detection

Multi-layered aircraft

structures.

structures.
  • - Fuselage

  • - Wings

  • - Around Fasteners

Phase indicates flaw depth

Magnitude indicates flaw severity at depth

Applications

Inspect conducting materials Detect surface and sub-surface disc Measure hardness and thickness of layer and thin sheet

SURESH SENANAYAKE

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Eddy Current… ..

Eddy Current… .. Limitations • Conductivity measurement – Raw materials sorting – Manufacturing process verification Heat

Limitations

Conductivity

measurement

Raw materials sorting

Manufacturing process verification Heat damage

– – Reference measurement

Eddy Current… .. Limitations • Conductivity measurement – Raw materials sorting – Manufacturing process verification Heat

Defect detection is limited to only few mm below surface Does not indicate the shape of discontinuities

Eddy Current… ..

Eddy Current… .. • A typical NDT job – AC failure or fault found – Define

A typical NDT job

AC failure or fault found

Define DEFECT

Choose NDT method

Specify technique and

equipment

Risk analysis of fleet(s) Inspection plan

– – Review design of faulty part

Eddy Current… .. • A typical NDT job – AC failure or fault found – Define

Who is involved in Aerospace in service NDT?

Airline operators Airworthiness authorities Component part manufacturer NDT equipment supplier Aircraft manufacturer Qualified NDT inspector

• Who is involved in Aerospace in service NDT? – Airline operators – Airworthiness authorities –
SURESH SENANAYAKE
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What needs to be avoided?

What needs to be avoided? SURESH SENANAYAKE 44
A defect that went undetected in an engine disk was responsible for the crash of United

A defect that went undetected in an engine disk was responsible for the crash of United Flight

232.

A defect that went undetected in an engine disk was responsible for the crash of United
SURESH SENANAYAKE 46

Reliability of NDT

   

Discontinuity

Method

 

Superficial

 

Internal

 

Detection

Length

Height

Detection

Length

Height

Depth

evaluation

evaluation

evaluation

evaluation

evaluation

VT

Adequate

Adequate

Inapplicable

Inapplicable

Inapplicable

Inapplicable

Inapplicable

PT

Adequate

Adequate

Inapplicable

Inapplicable

Inapplicable

Inapplicable

Inapplicable

     

Applicable

       

MT

Adequate

Adequate

with

limitations

Low

efficiency

Low

efficiency

Inapplicable

Inapplicable

 

Applicable

           

UT

with

limitations

Low

efficiency

Low

efficiency

Adequate

Good

Low

efficiency

Adequate

             

Applicable

Low

with double

RT

Adequate

Adequate

Inapplicable

Adequate

Good

efficiency

exposure

and calculus

       

Low

Low

Low

Low

ET

Good

Good

Adequate

efficiency

efficiency

efficiency

efficiency

Advantages of NDT

Tested

objects

or

parts

can

be

re-used

(unless proven

defective)

Tests can be conducted to all samples (100% inspection) or

representative samples

 

More than one inspection techniques can

be

applied

to

a

similar object Inspection on a certain product may be repeated

 

Requires minimum (or no) specimen preparation

Equipment

are

normally

portable

and

suitable

for field

inspection

Inspection may be performed while the objects or parts are in service

 

Limitations of NDT

 

Results are normally qualitative

   

Requires highly trained and experienced personnel

Advantages of DT

Results are normally quantitative

Does not require highly trained and experienced personnel

Limitations of DT

Tested objects or parts become scrap and considered loss

Tests can only be conducted to representative samples (100% inspection is not possible)

Each object or part can only be tested once

Repetitive inspection cannot be performed on a similar object

Objects or parts to be inspected have to be taken away from the system and replaced

Require systematic specimen preparation

Equipment are normally stationary

Thank you!