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Waste handling, separation,

storage and processing
at the source


Transfer and Separation and processing

Transport and transformation of
solid waste

Learning outcomes

To describe planning of a landfill

To describe the components of a landfill and the
processes which take place in a landfill
To design effective and safe sanitary landfill

Waste - Land

Attenuate and disperse sites Containment sites (landfill)

(dumping site):
Waste - Land

Attenuate and disperse

sites (dumping site/ rubbish
traditional form of
Attenuation mechanisms:
dilution and dispersion
through pores and micro
fissures into underlying
saturated zones.
Impossible to monitor
or track the leachate
Natural attenuation landfill dumping site/
rubbish pit
Waste - Land

Containment sites (sanitary /

MSW landfill)
Wastes, leachate and gas are
isolated from the
surrounding environment.
The containment is
achieved either by natural
clay bottom liners or
synthetic liners or a
combination of both - is
expected to be leak free.
Facilities for leachate and
gas collection and removal
are installed and regular
monitoring is possible.
Modern sanitary landfill
Landfill classification, types & methods
Types of landfill
Generally three types
1. Conventional LF for commingled MSW
2. LF for milled solid wastes
3. Monofills for designated or specialized wastes
4. Other types of landfill
LF for Commingled waste
Majority of LF in the world are designed for commingled MSW
In class III LF, limited amounts of non-hazardous industrial waste and
sludge from water and wastewater treatment plants are also accepted
Normally native soil is used as intermediate and final cover material
If not available, compost, foam, old rugs and carpeting, dredging spoil,
and demolition wastes can be used
To obtain additional LF capacity, abandoned or closed landfills can be
reused to recover materials and using decomposed residue as daily cover
Landfill classification, types & methods
Types of landfill
Landfill for shredded solid waste
Shredded waste can be placed at up to 35% greater density and some
without daily cover since blowing waste, odors, flies and rates not
signification problems
Less soil cover is used because shredded waste can be compacted tighter
and more uniform surface
Disadvantage: needs of shredding facilities, special section for hard to
shred wastes
Potential applications in areas where landfill capacity is very expensive,
cover material not readily available and low precipitation
Shredded waste can also be used to produce compost which can be used as
intermediate cover material

Landfill classification, types & methods
Types of landfill
Landfill for Individual waste constituents (Monofills)
E.g. Combustion ash and asbestos often identified as designated waste
Purpose is to isolate from materials placed in MSW LF
Combustion ash monofill may have odor problem due to reduction of
sulfate gas recovery system is recommended
Other types of LF
1. LF designed to maximize gas production
Deep, individual lined cells, waste is placed without intermediate layers of cover
material and leachate is recycled to enhance AD
2. LF as integrated treatment units
Organic part will be separated and placed in separate landfill for gas recovery and
stabilized waste use for cover material

Sanitary landfill
a method of disposing solid waste on land without
creating nuisance or hazard to public health or
safety. Utilising engineering principles to confine
wastes to the smallest practical area and to reduce
it to the smallest practical volume and cover it with
a layer of earth at the conclusion of each days
operation or at such more frequent intervals as
may be necessary.
The landfilling- terms of definitions
Definition of terms (contd)
Cell volume of material placed in a landfill during one operating period
which includes solid waste deposited and daily cover material surrounding it
Daily cover usually consists of 6 to 12 in of native soil or alternative
materials (e.g. compost) applied to working faces of landfill at the end of
operating period to minimize waste blowing, prevent rats, flies, etc. and
control of water entering the landfill during operation
Lift a complete layer of cells over the active area of the landfill

Bench (terrace) a flat surface commonly used to maintain slope stability of

landfill, placement of surface water drainage channel, location of landfill gas
recovery piping (height LF > 50 to 75 ft)
Final lift includes the cover layer

Final cover layer multiple layers of soil and/or geomembrane material

covering entire surface of landfill after completion of landfill operation to
enhance surface drainage, intercept percolating water and support surface
vegetation 15
The landfilling process
Definition of terms (contd)
Leachate liquid from percolation of precipitation, uncontrolled runoff,
irrigation water, infiltrating groundwater and water initially contained in
Landfill gas mixture of gas produced from anaerobic digestion of waste

Landfill liner several layers of compacted clay and/or geomembrane

material (natural or synthetic) use to line the bottom area and below-grade
sides of a landfill designed to prevent migration of leachate and gas
Landfill control facilities includes liners, landfill leachate and landfill gas
collection and extraction systems, daily and final cover layers
Environmental monitoring involves activities associated with collection and
analysis of water and air samples to monitor the movement of LFG and
Landfill closure steps to be taken to close and secure and landfill after
filling operation is completed
The landfilling process
Definition of terms (contd)
Postclosure refers to activities associated with the long-term monitoring and
maintenance of the completed landfill (30-50 years)

Figure 11-2 pg. 363

Landfill in Malaysia
There are approximately 230 landfills in Malaysia and all
except a few are unsanitary in nature.

A sanitary landfill is one that will deposit solid waste onto

or into the land in such a manner that pollution to the
environment is prevented as far as possible.

A sanitary landfill will have leachate management through

internal basin drainage and treatment, external drainage
and surface water management, landfill gas management,
and closure and restoration provisions
Type of Landfill

1. Hazardous Waste Landfill

disposal facility
must be appropriately permitted specify all design &
operating practices necessary to ensure compliance
2. Inert Waste Landfill - deploys environmental-friendly
Acceptable Waste to be disposed Non-Acceptable Waste

Construction Waste Domestic Waste

Soil Toxic Waste
Tyres Fluid Waste
Garden Waste Schedule Waste
Any types of non-leaching waste Condemned Food Waste
3. Open Dumping Landfill
does not protect the environment
susceptible to open burning
exposed to the scavengers

4. Sanitary landfill
new scientific technique
purpose - treat wastes in an environment-friendly way
guarantee protection
risk of pollution minimized
permanent monitoring system
types of solid waste
Figure: Landfill Sites in Peninsular Malaysia (Yusof, 2008)
Level of Landfill

Agamuthu, P. and Fauziah S.H. (2008). Solid waste landfilling: Environmental factors and
health. Proceedings of the EU-Asia Solid Waste Management Conference. Malaysia.
Table: Malaysia adopted a classification system that describes landfill
state of technology (Idris, 2009)

Level Descriptions
1 Controlled tipping
2 Sanitary landfill with a bund and daily soil
3 Sanitary landfill with leachate re-circulation
4 Sanitary landfill with leachate treatment
Landfills in Malaysia
Table: Number of landfill sites and levels in Malaysia (up to March 2002) by Idris,
Number of Landfill Sites According to Types
Open Total
State Dumps Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 Level 4 Number
Perlis 0 0 0 0 1 1
Kedah 3 2 3 0 1 9
Pulau Pinang 0 0 1 1 0 2
Perak 9 5 2 2 0 18
Selangor 0 7 1 1 2 11
Negeri Sembilan 6 3 1 1 0 10
Melaka 2 0 1 0 0 3
Johor 13 8 4 1 0 26
Pahang 5 3 2 3 1 14
Terengganu 2 4 1 0 1 8
Kelantan 10 1 1 0 0 12
Kuala Lumpur 0 0 0 1 0 1
Labuan 0 1 0 0 0 1
Sarawak 15 11 2 0 0 28
Sabah 12 4 0 1 0 17
Principle elements that must be considered include
1. Landfill siting consideration
2. Landfill layout and design
3. Landfill operations and management
4. Reactions occurring in landfill
5. The management of LFG
6. The management of leachate
7. Environmental monitoring
8. Landfill closure and postclosure care

Factors Remarks
1. Available land area Site should have useful life >1 yr (min value)

2. Haul distance Will have significant impact on operating costs

3. Soil conditions and Cover material must be available at or near the

topography site

4. Surface water hydrology Impacts drainage requirements

5. Geologic and hydrogeology Probably most important factors establishment
conditions of landfill site esp. with respect to site

6. Climatologic conditions Provisions must be made for wet-weather


7. Local environmental Noise, odor, dust, vector and aesthetic factors

conditions control requirements

8. Ultimate use of site Affects long-term management for site.

Landfill site selection

The following site selection procedure is performed in

four phases:

Phase 1: Site rating process (negative mapping)

Phase 2: Identification of site areas (positive areas)
Phase 3: Site investigation
Phase 4: Final decision
Phase 1: Site Rating Process (negative mapping)

Exclusion criteria are:

Drinking water protection areas;
High flood areas;
Unstable ground;
Extreme morphology;
Unsuitable geological and hydrogeological conditions;
Residential areas including a protection distance;
Nature protection areas;
Important cultural sites.
Phase 2: Identification of Site Areas (positive area)

Criteria for elimination process by ranking are:

General data, e.g. volume, distance from main waste

Hydro-geology and water management;
Goetechnical and constructional aspects;
Meteorological aspects;
Nature protection and land use.
Protection of soil and water Operations
Installation of liner and Confined to as small an area as
collection systems. possible.
Storm water control Compacted to reduce their
Leachate management. Covered (usually daily) with
Landfill gas management layers of soil

Easy access to transport by Costs
road Feasibility studies
Transfer stations if rail Site Construction Site after care
network is preferred Site investigations
Land value Requirements (costs involved make
Cost of meeting small sites
government requirements uneconomic).
Location of community
Capacity of the waste
Density of the wastes
Underlying geology
Amount of daily cover
Nearby earthquake faults Amount of settlement (density of
Water table compacted waste)
Location of nearby rivers, Construction of lining and drainage
streams, and flood plains layers
Methods of Landfilling

Figure: Ramp method Figure: Excavated/ trench method

Figure: Area Method

Definitions : refuse

Figure 4.14: Two methods of constructing a landfill; i) trench method and ii) area/ pit method.
Landfill classification, types & methods
Landfilling methods
Excavated cell/trench method
Ideally suited to areas with adequate depth of cover material is available
at site and deep water table
Waste placed in cells excavated in the soil which is used as daily & final
Cells usually lined with synthetic membrane liners or low permeability clay
or combination of both (Fg 11.8)
Cells are typically square up to 1000 ft (l) x 1000 ft (w) with side slope of
1.5:1 to 2:1
Trenches vary from 200-1000 ft (l) x 15-50 ft (w) x 3-10 ft (h)

Landfill classification, types & methods
Landfilling methods
Canyon/Depression method
Canyon, ravines, dry borrowpits and quarries can be used as landfills
Technique of waste placement and compaction vary with geometry of the
site, characteristics of available cover material, hydrology and geology,
type of leachate and gas control facilities and access to site
Critical factor control of surface drainage
Typically, filling for each lift starts at the head end of the canyon and ends
at mouth
Key of success is availability of adequate material to cover individual lifts
and final cover

Factors to be considered:
Protection of components already
constructed; in particular, sealing layers and
drainage blankets;
Minimum dimensions required for
construction work;
Simple and non-sensitive design and
Climate conditions;
Availability of construction materials.
Overview of Landfill

Landfill Construction Phase

During the phase one of landfill construction, land is excavated

to within 3 feet of the top of the water table.
Confined Area

Confined to as small an area as possible:

refuse cell
confined portion -refuse is spread and compacted in thin layers
several layers may be compacted on top of one another to a
maximum depth of about 10 feet (3 meters).
Landfill Construction Phase

During phase two, a compacted clay or synthetic liner is added. This liner
prevents contaminants from seeping into the groundwater. It has a permeability
of 10-7 centimeters per second
Sanitary Landfill Liner System Installation
Landfill Liners

Natural clay
Soil cements
Asphaltic material
Polymeric membranes
Landfill Construction Phase

During phase three, a leachate collection system is installed. This system is

composed of pipes that overlay the compacted clay or synthetic liner.
Leachate Management Facilities
Landfill liner and leachate collection facilities
Type of landfill liner used will depend on the local geology and hydrology
Generally, landfill sites should be located where there is little or no possibility of
contaminating potable water supplies
Current trend is using composite liners including a geomembrane and clay layer
Leachate treatment facilities
Most common alternative to manage collected leachate depending on local conditions:
1. Leachate recycling
2. Leachate evaporation
3. Treatment followed by disposal
4. Discharge to municiple wastewater collection system

Landfill Construction Phase

During phase four, a geosynthetic liner is installed. This layer will help to
stabilize the waste.
Landfill Construction Phase

During phase five, a sloped, sand drainage layer is installed. This layer will
drain liquids away from the waste into the leachate collection system.
Composite Basal Lining System


transitional layer preventing fine-grained waste from blocking

the drainage blanket
drainage blanket collection and removal of leachate

protective layer distribution of concentrated stresses

geomembrane prevention of leakage

mineral sealing layers

Landfill Deposit Waste

During phase six, the landfill is opened and solid waste is deposited. New waste is
spread and compacted every 6 feet. A soil or synthetic liner is added daily to prevent
waste from blowing and to limit pests.
Compaction Process

Compaction process:
To reduce waste volume
To compact waste in order to reduce the volume it occupies and help
stabilize the landfill
Compactor vehicle to spread the waste evenly in layers over the landfill
and compact it.
Daily Cover

Layer of compressed soil or earth which is laid on top of a day's

deposition of waste on an operational landfill site.
The cover helps prevent the interaction between the waste and the
air, reducing odors and enabling a firm base upon which for
vehicles to operate.
Landfill Deposit Waste

Phase seven occurs throughout the active life of the landfill. During this
phase, groundwater and gas monitoring wells are drilled into full waste cells
Landfill Manage Landfill

Phase eight occurs after the landfill is filled to capacity. During this phase, a
final stabilizing soil layer is placed over the compacted solid waste.
Landfill Manage Landfill

During phase nine, a clay cap is installed. This cap prevents water from
filtering into the landfill. It is about 3 feet thick, with a permeability of 10-7
centimeters per second.
Landfill Manage Landfill

During phase 10, a geosynthetic cap is installed. This cap provides additional
protection against water filtration.
Landfill Manage Landfill

During phase 11, a sand drainage layer is installed. The sand drains rainwater
away from the waste.
Landfill Manage Landfill

During phase 12, a layer of topsoil is added to promote plant growth.

Site Closure

Soil cover (300mm) Landfill Gas Wells

Liner Clay Layer (1000mm)

Top Soil (200-400)mm Grass or Vegitative Cover

Drainage System
Landfill Final cover/ capping
LF cover configuration
Usually composed of several layers, each with specific functions
Geomembrane liner as a barrier layer is favored by most LF designers to
limit entry of surface water and control the release of LFG
Specific cover configuration depend on location of LF and climate conditions
E.g. to allow for regrading use of deep layer of soil; for rapid removal of
rainfall sloped of about 3-5%

Landfill Manage Landfill

During phase 13, grass and other short rooted plants are planted. These plants
will prevent erosion of the landfill surface.
Landfill Manage Landfill

Phase 14 is the last phase of landfill construction. During this phase, a

methane recovery building is constructed. This building uses landfill gas
released during degradation to generate electricity for the facility.
Environmental Centre Infrastructure Facilities Environmental Centre Leachate Treatment Plant
Surface water drainage facilities
Important to develop an overall drainage plan for the area that shows
location of storm drains, culverts, ditches and subsurface drains as the filling
operation proceeds
Depending on location and configuration of LF and capacity of natural
drainage courses, it may be necessary to install storm water retention basin

Environmental monitoring facilities
Monitoring facilities are required for new landfills for
Gases and liquids in the vadose zone
Groundwater quality both upstream and downstream of landfill sites
Air quality at boundary of LF and from any processing facilities (e.g. flares)
Specific number for monitoring stations will depend on the configuration and
size of LF and the requirements of the local air and water pollution control

Typical landfill progression showing internal, interim, and final
slopes, and the facility bottom.
These types of slopes may also be present at other types of waste
containment facilities.
Part Description
Facility The base of a facility that is usually sloping 5% or
bottom less so that water, leachate, and other liquids can
drain from a facility.
The term facility bottom excludes internal slopes
or interim slopes.
Interfaces on facility bottoms that have grades of
5% or less may be assigned peak shear strength
during stability analyses, if appropriate.

Final slopes Slopes that exist when the final grades for a facility
have been achieved, including the cover system.
Interfaces on final slopes that will never be
loaded with more than 1,440 pounds/ft2 may be
assigned peak shear strength during stability
analyses, if appropriate.
Schematic diagram of sanitary landfill
Closure collection

Landfill Landfill Designs Drainage

design design

Foundation Liner collection and
design design gas collection
Figure: Schematic of double liner, leachate collection and landfill operations and
process (Tchobanoglous et al., 1993).
Layout of landfill sites

Layout of landfill sites

Selection of gas control facilities
New landfills are required to have gas collection and treatment facilities
Quantity of LFG must first be estimated before determining the size of gas
collection and treatment facilities
Several rate should be analyzed as different operating procedures produce
different rate of LFG
Horizontal or vertical gas recovery well depending on design and capacity of
landfill and opportunity to sell power.

Important calculation
Determination of required area
Lifespan of the landfill
Important criteria
Waste composition
Waste generation rate
Waste density
Waste to soil ratio
To estimate the volume required for a landfill, it is necessary to know the
amount of refuse being produce and density of the in-place.
For estimating the annual volume required.

VLF = volume of landfill (m3/years)
P = population
E = ratio value of cover (soil) to compacted fill = (VSW + VC)/ VSW
VSW = volume of solid waste (m3)
VC = volume of cover (m3)
C = average mass of solid waste collected per capita per year
(kg/ person.year)
DC = density of compacted fill (kg/ m3)
Example 1

Determine the area required for a new landfill

site with a projected life of 30 years for a
populations of 250, 000 generating 2.02
kg/ of solid waste. The density of
compacted waste is 470 kg/m3. The height of the
landfill cannot exceed 15 m.
Solutions 1

Known Unknown
projected life = 30 years area required =?
populations = 250, 000
waste generated = 2.02 kg/
density of compacted waste = 470 kg/m3
height of the landfill 15 m
Solutions 1
VLF = volume of landfill (m3 / years)
P = population
E = ratio value of cover (soil) to compacted fill = (VSW + VC)/ VSW
VSW = volume of solid waste (m3)
VC = volume of cover (m3)
C = average mass of solid waste collected per capita per year (kg/ person.year)
DC = density of compacted fill (kg/ m3)

Volume of landfill for life span (years)

VLF X ? yrs

Area needed; 15 m height restriction

Area, m2 = Volume, m3
Height, m
Solutions 1

Volume of waste (compacted at site) per day produced by community

Volume, m3/day = population, cap. X waste generated, kg/cap.d
density of compacted waste, kg/m3

Volume of waste for 30 years

Volume, m3 = Volume, m3 X life span, years X 365 day
day year

Area needed; 15 m height restriction

Area, m2 = Volume, m3
Height, m
Example 2

Estimate the area required (ha) in constructing a

landfill based on the following data:
life span of the landfill = 25 years
density of compacted waste = 530 kg/m3
waste generated = 2.5 kg/
average height = 10 m
population = 50, 000
cover soil to waste ratio = 1:4
1 ha = 10000 m2
Solutions 2

Known Unknown
life span= 25 yrs area required (ha)=?
average height = 10 m
population = 50, 000
cover soil to waste ratio = 1:4
density of compacted waste = 530 kg/m3
waste generated = 2.5 kg/
*1 ha = 10000 m2
Solutions 2
VLF = volume of landfill (m3 / years)
P = population
E = ratio value of cover (soil) to compacted fill = (VSW + VC)/ VSW
VSW = volume of solid waste (m3)
VC = volume of cover (m3)
C = average mass of solid waste collected per capita per year (kg/ person.year)
DC = density of compacted fill (kg/ m3)

Volume of landfill for life span (years)

VLF X ? yrs

Area needed; 10 m height restriction

Area, m2 = Volume, m3
Height, m
Solutions 2
Volume of waste (compacted at site) per day produced by community
Volume, m3/day = population, cap. X waste generated, kg/cap.d
density of compacted waste, kg/m3

Volume of waste for 1 year

Volume, m3 /yr = Volume, m3 X 365 day
day year

Cover soil to waste ratio = 1:4

Volume (cover), m3 /yr = 25% x volume of waste for 1 yr
Total volume (cover and waste), m3 /yr = Volume (cover), m3 /yr + Volume (waste), m3 /yr

Area needed; 10 m height restriction

Area, m2 = Volume, m3
Height, m

Volume of waste for 25 years

Volume, m3 = Volume, m3 X life span, years
Example 3

A community consist of 15, 000 population

generate domestic waste about 2.3 kg/
Land area provided are 182, 000 m2. The height
of the landfill cannot exceed 6 m. The density of
compacted waste are 347 kg/m3. Compute the life
span of the landfill and allow 25% of the volume
for cover material.
Solutions 3

Known Unknown
population = 15, 000 life span=?
waste generate =2.3 kg/
land area =182, 000 m2
height 6 m
density of compacted waste = 347 kg/m3
cover material = 25% of the total volume
Solutions 3
VLF = volume of landfill (m3 / years)
P = population
E = ratio value of cover (soil) to compacted fill = (VSW + VC)/ VSW
VSW = volume of solid waste (m3)
VC = volume of cover (m3)
C = average mass of solid waste collected per capita per year (kg/ person.year)
DC = density of compacted fill (kg/ m3)

Volume of landfill for life span (years)

VLF X ? yrs

Area; 6 m height restriction

Area, m2 = Volume, m3 /years X ? yrs
Height, m
Waste dumping process Waste weighbridge Waste collection

Waste compaction process Daily soil cover Capping/ covering process

Sanitary Landfill Operations
Landfill Compactors Bulldozers

Tipper TrucksWheel Tractor-Scrapers

Motor Graders Backhoe Loaders

Track Loaders Hydraulic Excavators

Standard Landfill Equipment

Covering Operations
soil covering operation
begins after or concurrently
with tipping and
compaction operations.

cover materials helps to

protect the full range of
environmental management

Covering operation at a landfill site

Types of covering operations in
Daily operations :
Carried out after the daily portion of tipping

Intermediate operation :
Carried out as the landfill progresses helps in reducing
leachate . No dump will be raised more than 10 meters.

Final covering operation :

It is laid when the cell is full and depends on the future
purpose of the site. A minimum cover thickness of 60
Final Cover Plan
To provide permanent isolation of the cells from rainwater
by encapsulation

To integrate the site into the environment

To guarantee a long-term future compatible with the

presence of waste

To allow easy management after operation

Finally be covered with a layer of topsoil (30 to 40 cm)

Provides a barrier to the migration of water into the waste,
controls emissions to water and atmosphere, promotes
sound land management and prevents hazards.
Covering operation at a landfill site
Landfill operation
Factors to be considered:
Stability analyses of the waste body;
Waste placement techniques, phasing and
Settlement and other types of deformation,
checked by monitoring programmes;
Operating facility, buildings and roads;
Gas management and monitoring programmes;
Surface water and drainage;
Leachate management and groundwater control;
Environmental concerns, i.e. dust and noise
emissions, etc.
Occurrence of Landfill Leachate and Gases

The following activities occur when solid wastes are

placed in a sanitary landfill:
Biological decay of organic materials (aerobical or anaerobic)
Chemical oxidation of waste materials
Escape of gases from the fill
Movement of liquids caused by differential heads
Dissolution and leaching of organic and inorganic materials by water
and leachate moving through the fill;
Movement of dissolved material by concentration gradients and
osmosis, and
Uneven settlement caused by consolidation of material into voids
Leachate may be defined as liquid that has percolated
through waste and has extracted dissolved or suspended
materials from it.
Landfill leachate arises from the biochemical and physical
breakdown of wastes
Leachate composed of liquid produced from the
decomposition of the waste and liquid

PERC = P - RO - ET - S + G
Typical composition of leachate (new and mature landfills)
Value, mg/Lb

New landfill (less than 2 years) Mature
(greater than
Constituent Rangec Typicald 10 years)

BOD5 (5-day biochemical oxygen demand) 2,000-30,000 10,000 100-200

TOC (total organic carbon) 1,500-20,000 6,000 80-160
COD (chemical oxygen demand) 3,000-60,000 18,000 100-500
Total suspended solids 200-2,000 500 100-400
Organic nitrogen 10-800 200 80-120
Ammonia nitrogen 10-800 200 20-40
Nitrate 5-40 25 5-10
Total phosphorus 5-100 30 5-10
Ortho phosphorus 4-80 20 4-8
Alkalinity as CaCO3 1,000-10,000 3,000 200-1,000
pH 4.5-7.5 6 6.6-7.5
Total hardness as CaCO3 300-10,000 3,500 200-500
Calcium 200-3,000 1,000 100-400
Magnesium 50-1,500 250 50-200
Potassium 200-1,000 300 50-400
Sodium 200-2,500 500 100-200
Chloride 200-3,000 500 100-400
Sulphate 50-1,000 300 20-50
Total Iron 50-1,200 60 20-200
Leachate has entered the landfill from external
sources, such as:
Surface drainage
Water from underground springs.

A. Ground Water
B. Compacted Clay
C. Geomembrane
D. Leachate Collection
E. Protection Layer
F. Gravel
G. Drainage Layer
H. Soil Layer
I. Old Cells
J. New Cells
F. Leachate Ponds
Leachate Management


An effective method for the treatment of leachate is to
collect and recirculate the leachate through landfill,

During early stages of landfill operation, the leachate will

contain significant amounts of TDS, BOD, COD, nutrients
and heavy metals.

When leachate recirculated, the constituents are

attenuated by biological activity and other chemical and
physical reactions occurring within the landfill.

Typically, the rate of gas production is greater in leachate

Leachate recirculation system
2. Recirculation Through Landfill
The biochemical activity of the waste has
not been exhausted, potentially offers
advantages both in reducing the volume of
liquid by evaporation and reducing its
Recirculation will be most effective in
summer months or in warm climates when
ambient temperatures and the consequent
losses by evaporation will be high and
leachate production at a minimum.

Enhances landfill stabilisation Increase rate of groundwater
because rate of landfill gas pollution if used in a landfill with
production is increased due to single-composite-lining.
increase waste moisture content.

Reduce volume of municipal solid Increases toxicity of leachate by

waste leachates. concentrating it.
Treatment Option Removal Ob- Comments

Biological BOD/COD Best used on "young" leachate

Activated Sludge Flexible, shock resistant, proven, minimum SRT increases with
increasing organic strength, > 90% BOD removal possible

Aerated Lagoons Good application to small flows, > 90% BOD removal possible

Anaerobic Aerobic polishing necessary to achieve high quality effluent

Powdered Activated > 95 % COD removal, > 99 % BOD removal

Carbon/Act. Sludge

Physical/Chemical Useful as polishing step or for treatment of "old" leachate

Coagula- Heavy Metals High removal of Fe, Zn; moderate removal of Cr, Cu, Mn; little
tion/Precipitation removal of Cd, Pb, Ni

Chemical Oxidation COD Raw leachate treatment requires high chemical dosages, better
used as polishing step

Ion Exchange COD 10-70% COD removal, slight metal removal

Adsorption BOD/COD 30-70% COD removal after biological or chemical treatment

Reverse Osmosis TDS 90-96 % TDS removal

Minimize the contaminants in the leachate
Reduce high concentrations of COD & BOD
Removal of 90% COD and ammonia (10-50 days)
Aerobic treatment (aerated lagoon)
Polishing treatment (reed bed)
Wetland system
Spray irrigation (evaporation)
Shallow ponds (<1m deep)
Light penetrates to bottom
Active algal photosynthesis
Organic matter converted to CO, NO, HSO
Use wetland plants to treat leachate(e.g: cat tail)
Requires enough ground area for construction
Leachate is treated by filtration, adsorption, and
reactions with the soil, roots, and bacteria in the root
Used the energy from combustion of landfill gases
Contaminants in the raw leachate were concentrated to a
small volume.
Exhaust air from the evaporator was used to preheat the
leachate and released to the atmosphere.

a channel
filled with gravel, sand or soil
planted with macrophytes i.e. reeds
Effluent present in a contaminated landfill site for
waste disposal is known as leachate.
Landfill leachate have made a serious pollution threat
to the water environment.
reed bed systems provide reliable treatment with lower
energy requirement and operation cost.
Reed bed for leachate treatment
On-site treatment is the best alternative:
Lowest cost
Prevents public disturbances
Accommodate the changes in leachate
quality and quantity
Potential for fertilizer production
New habitat for wildlife
A product of the degradation of
biodegradable waste (any organic matter
that can be broken down by micro-
organisms such as paper, wood or food
Landfill gas formation
Typical constituents found in MSW landfill gasa

Component % (dry volume basis)b

Methane 45 60
Carbon dioxide 40 60
Nitrogen 25
Oxygen 0.1 1.0
Sulphides, disulphides, mercaptans, etc. 0 1.0
Ammonia 0.1 1.0
Hydrogen 0 0.2
Carbon monoxide 0 0.2
Trace constituents 0.01 0.6
Characteristic Value
Temperature, 0F 100 120
Specific gravity 1.02 1.06
Moisture content Saturated
High heating value, Btu/sft3 400 - 550
The evolution rate and quantity of landfill gas
dependent on a number of factors:

Waste input rate

Ambient pH
Ambient temperature
Waste density (closely or loosely packed)
The specific site management strategy/strategies
The common landfill gas control
technologies include:

i. Means to collect gases

ii. Control and treat gases
iii. Use gases to benefits the community (eg., to
generate electricity or heat building)
LANDFILL GAS collection
LFG collection is divided into two (2) systems:

1. Passive Gas Collection System

2. Active Gas Collection System

Active Gas
Passive Venting

Passive venting may be

carrier out successfully
gas wells of the type
shown in figure 2
They are normally
constructed from high
density polyethylene or
polypropylene pipe up to
225mm in diameter,
surrounded by no-fines
crushed aggregate
Figure 2: Passive Venting System
Active Venting

This system should be considered for all deep landfill

The pumped wells will need to spaced at maximum of
50 meter intervals around the site perimeter and closer
in high risk areas
An inner ring may be necessary in order to maintain a
negative pressure gradient operating to the site
Over pumping this excess air is not drown into the
~ Prevent odor-causing gases from leaving the
1. Landfill Cover ~ prevent odors from newly
deposited waste or from gases produced during
bacterial decomposition.
2. Flaring ~ eliminate landfill gas odors by
thermally destroying the odor-causing gases.
3. Venting Landfill Gas through a Filter ~ reduce
odors by using a filter of bacterial slime.
1. Gas Production
The rates at which gas will be produced
depend upon the physical, chemical and
microbiological characteristics of the landfill
For proposed and existing sites, the need for
the installation of gas control system, with
monitoring points, should be evaluated
following a detailed assessment of the site
and the surrounding area
Completed sites should be monitored to
establish the composition of the gas, its rate
of production, migration routes and the extent
of any potential hazard
2. Gas Movement and Migration
The extent of gas movement within and
beyond the site boundaries will be
determined by the size of this force and the
permeability of the waste and strata
Movement of gas from the site will be
influenced, to a certain extent, by:
changes in barometric pressure
changes in leachate level
changes in water table levels
3. Gas Monitoring
Surface monitoring
Using portable instruments to assist in
determining the presence of gas escape but
using has chromatography to confirm the
source of the gas.
The use probes driven into waste or strata
provides point source monitoring of the gas
concentration source monitoring of the gas
concentration in a local environment around
the probe
4. Landfill Gas Control Measures
The flammable range for methane is approximately 5
to 15% by volume in air and that for hydrogen
approximately 4-74%.
The presence of carbon dioxide (density 1.5) increases
the density of landfill gas over and above that of
methane and, consequently, it may be either lighter or
heavier than air
As a result, stratification may enable flammable
volumes of gas to collect and remain in buildings,
structures, pipe works or areas which were thought
previously to be free from flammable gas
5. Gas Utilization

Exploitation of the energy available in landfill

gas should always be considered because,
with careful design, even small site can provide
sufficient energy to warrant a survey of
possible nearby users

In order to justify gas exploitation schemes, an

indication or forecast of the rate of gas
generation must be obtained
The landfill gas exploitation may classified as
Direct use of gas, or
Conversion to electricity

Direct use of gas

Include brick-klin firing, boiler firing and cement-

klin firing
It is also technically feasible to clean-up the gas (
ie. remove the carbon dioxide and other gases)
and compress the remaining methane which can
be put into cylinders and sold, used as a vehicle
fuel or put into natural gas systems.
Conversion to electricity

Spark ignition and diesel engineers can both be

converted to operate on landfill gas

Small sites, with less than 1 million tonnes

waste in place are often considered to be below
the threshold of exploitation viability but many
in the UK are being investigated to assess
these as well as larger sites in order to provide
an estimate of national landfill gas resource.
From landfill gas and leachate.
Landfill gas (LFG)
produces from organic material that decomposed anaerobically.
Made up primarily of methane and carbon dioxide

LFG can also transport landfill odors offsite if vented to the

Other odors in landfill gas :
Hydrogen Sulfide largely formed if construction and demolition
debris contain large quantities of wallboard ( drywall/ gypsum
Hydrogen sulfide has the foul smell of rotten eggs.
Ammonia has a strong pungent odor.
Humans can detect hydrogen sulfide and ammonia odors at very low
levels in air, generally below levels that would cause health effects.

Gases released from municipal waste landfills have the

potential to cause odors in neighborhoods surrounding the
The household and commercial wastes brought to landfills
decompose over time largely through the action of
Methane and carbon dioxide: 90 to 98% of landfill gas.
The remaining 2 to 10% : nitrogen, oxygen, ammonia,
sulfides, hydrogen and various other gases.
This process produces odorous gases, the amount
formed depends upon a variety of factors:
1. Nature and moisture content of the
2. Amount of oxygen present.
3. Temperature inside the landfill.
4. Type of waste present in the landfill.
5. The age of the landfill.
For example, gas production will increase if the
temperature or moisture content increases.
The amount of gases emitted will vary due to changing
weather, changing landfill content.
Morning winds tend to be most gentle, providing the
least dilution of the gas The worst odor release
Causes of odors at landfills
Landfill odors are caused by landfill gas, trash at the
working face and leachate.

Landfill gas (LFG)- produces from organic material that

decomposed anaerobically.
Made up primarily of methane and carbon dioxide that
contain small amount of odorous compounds that human
nose can perceive at low levels.
LFG can also transport landfill odors offsite if vented to
the atmosphere.
Factors influencing odor

1) Type of waste
2) Volume of potentially odorous material
3) Time required to unload and cover
4) Meteorological and topographic conditions
5) Size of working face
6) Time of day

Health effects or symptoms from exposure to odors

can usually be traced to three causes:
The sensation of the odor
The odorant itself.
The health effects or symptoms vary depending upon
the frequency, concentration, and duration of the odor.
Can the presence of odors
trigger symptoms?
People in communities near landfills are often
concerned about odors emitted from landfills.
They say that these odors are a source of undesirable
health effects or symptoms, such as headaches and
At low-level concentrationstypically associated with
landfill gasit is unclear whether
it is the constituent itself or its odors that trigger a
o Stop accepting waste that cause odors
o Example: Paper mill sludge, animal waste


o Cover waste with more dirt
o Cover with compost waste can reduce odor
o Provide good cover materials (soil)- can filter
odor, control gas and reduced water infiltration.

o Cover mainhole and leachate cleanout riser

o Properly size your LFG collection system
o Example: blower, headers, flares
o Install LFG collector in timely manner
o Make sure that install enough collector in landfills

Masking type
Neutralizing agent
Pleasant smelling agent
Other Controlling and Preventing
odor at landfills
o Close attention to known problem areas, including the ends
of leachate pipes, cleanouts and manholes.
o Making sure there are air- tight seals around all gas control
equipment to keep air out and gas in, direct the gas to the
control device and maintain a safe area.
o Ongoing operation, monitoring and maintenance by a
trained gas technician.
o Improve stormwater management- water increase the
production of landfill gas.
o Use odor-neutralizing chemicals- chemical that contains ore
than 99% water and a trace of soap.
Landfill closure and post closure care
1. Development of long-term closure plan
i. Cover and landscape design
Cover must be design to divert surface runoff and snowmelt from LF site and to support
the landscaping design selected for the LF
Landscaping design is based on local plant and grass species
ii. Control of LFG
Major concern for long-term maintenance of LF
Installation of gas control system in most modern LF, but older completed LF are
retrofitted with gas collection system along with remedial actions
iii. Collection and treatment of leachate
Another major concern for long-term maintenance of LF
Modern LF have some sort of leachate control system but older ones are retrofitted
iv. Environmental monitoring systems
Monitoring facilities must be installed for long-term environmental monitoring
Monitoring requirements: vandose zone for gas and liquids, groundwater and air

Landfill closure and post closure care
2. Post-closure care
i. Routine inspection
Routine inspection program must be established to monitor continually the condition
of completed LF
Criteria must be established when a corrective action(s) must be taken
E.g. How much settlement will be allowed before regrading must be undertaken?
ii. Infrastructure maintenance
Typically involve continued maintenance of surface water diversion facilities, landfill
surface grades, condition of liners, revegetation and LFG and leachate collection
Amount of equipment must be available at site will depend on the extent and
capacity of the LF and the nature of facilities to be maintained
iii. Environmental monitoring systems
To ensure no release of contaminants from LF that may affect health or surrounding
Number of samples and frequency will depend on regulations of local air and water
pollution control agencies (DOE)

Green Areas
At the Sanitary Landfill,
turning the area into a
green area or a park is
one of the best options
selection of the trees will
have to be done carefully
so as not to perforate the
watertight coverings
shows Glovers Landfill
Landfills have also been
converted into golf
courses, play fields,
playgrounds, flower
gardens and parks.
Small light structured
buildings, such as car
Butterworth landfill
depends largely on the
stabilization of the
landfill and the proper
coverage and capping of
the landfill. Growing
grass as feed for cattle
and other pastoral
animals with a very thick
final cover to prevent
roots perforate the lining
of the landfill and
absorbed Gardner Street Landfill
in the West Roxbury
Light structured buildings
have been constructed in
many of the landfills in
the country. It possible
soil movements and
settlements, so takes a
very long time as the
landfill has to be
stabilized first.
Head start school at MSW ash
landfill in Florida
Landfills have served for many decades as ultimate
disposal sites for all manner of wastes: residential,
commercial, and industrial, both innocuous and
However, it is essential to have a properly designed
landfill to avoid unnecessary problem even though
their preparation is a difficult and uncertain process