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Amy Tenzer

Tujuan:
1. Mengurangi jumlah kromosom sel germa (2n n)

Individu yang dihasilkan dari penyatuan gamet dan


mempunyai jumlah kromosom yang = induknya

2. Mengubah bentuk sel-sel germa sebagai persiapan


untuk fertilisasi
sperma: sitoplasma tereduksi, terbentuk kepala,
leher dan ekor
sel telur: menjadi lebih besar akibat bertambahnya
sitoplasma
GAMETOGENESIS
Asal & migrasi BSK gonad
Mitosis
Reduksi secara meiosis
Pemasakan & deferensiasi gamet sperma/ovum
anura
Terdapat pd daerah vegetatif sel telur
endoderm (gastrulasi)

ukuran sel besar, sitoplasma jernih, fosfatase


alkalin (mamalia), glikogen (burung)
SPERMATOGENESIS

Mulai terjadi pada masa puber


Terjadi di dalam tubulus seminiferus, dari
dasar ke arah lumen.
Terdiri dari 3 tahap:
1. Perbanyakan (proliferasi/
spermatositogenesis)
2. Meiosis
3. Transformasi (spermiogenesis)
Spermatositogenesis ---- proliferasi

mitosis
spermatogonia tipe A spermatogonia tipe B

tumbuh

spermatosit primer

Spermatosit I berada di lapisan kedua tubulus seminiferus ke


arah lumen
Meiosis
Meiosis I Meiosis II
spermatosit I spermatosit II spermatid

Spermiogenesis --- transformasi

transformasi
spermatid spermatozoid

- pembentukan akrosom
- kondensasi materi inti
- pembentukan bagian tengah & ekor
- reduksi sitoplasma
Spermatogenesis
MALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM

SPERMATOGENESIS
SPERMATOGONIA 1 SPERMATOCYTE 2 SPERMATOCYTE SPERMATIDS

SPERMATIDS

2 SPERMATOCYTE

1 SPERMATOCYTE
SERTOLI CELLS:
- columnar with adjoining lateral processes
- extend from basal lamina to lumen
- Sertoli-Sertoli junctions divide
seminiferous tubules into basal and
adluminal compartments SERTOLI SPERMATOGONIA
CELLS
HORMON-HORMON yang BERPERAN dalam
SPERMATOGENESIS

FSH Sebagai starter spermatogenesis


merangsang meiosis & diferensiasi sel2 germa
merangsang sel Sertoli untuk menghasilkan
inhibin & ABP

menghambat sekresi FSH mengangkut testosteron ke dalam


oleh hipofisis anterior tubulus seminiferus

LH : merangsang sel Leydig untuk menghasilkan testosteron


Testosteron: - merangsang meiosis dan diferensiasi sel-sel
germa
- menghambat sekresi FSH & LH
MALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM

HORMONAL REGULATION OF
MALE REPRODUCTIVE FUNCTION
HYPOTHALAMUS REGULATES ACTIVITY OF
ANTERIOR PITUITARY (ADENOHYPOPHYSIS)

ADENOHYPOPHYSIS SYNTHESIZES HORMONES


(LH and FSH) THAT MODULATE ACTIVITY OF
SERTOLI AND LEYDIG CELLS

Luteinizing Hormone (LH): stimulates testosterone


production by Leydig cells

Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH): stimulates production of sperm


in conjunction with testosterone by regulating activity of Sertoli cells
SERTOLI CELLS STIMULATED BY FSH AND TESTOSTERONE RELEASE
ANDROGEN BINDING PROTEIN WHICH BINDS TESTOSTERONE;
THEREBY INCREASING TESTOSTERONE CONCENTRATION WITHIN THE
SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES AND STIMULATING SPERMATOGENESIS
OOGENESIS

Terjadi sejak embrio


Berlangsung di dalam ovarium, dilanjutkan dalam
oviduk
Oosit berkembang dalam bentuk folikel telur.
Oosit manusia diovulasikan dalam bentuk oosit II
tahap metafase meiosis II
Penuntasan perkembangan oosit setelah ovulasi
dapat berlangsung bila terjadi penetrasi sperma
FOLLICLES AND THE OVARIAN CYCLE II
primary primary
unilaminar multilaminar secondary
follicle follicle follicle
primordial
follicles
secondary ocyte
surrounded by
corona radiata

tertiary follicle
antrum
(Graafian follicle)

ovulated
corpus albicans secondary ocyte
surrounded by
corona radiata
follicle cells left
corpus luteum behind in ovary
FOLLICLES AND THE OVARIAN CYCLE I

Primordial follicle
primary ocyte arrested in prophase I + 1 layer of flattened follicle cells
Primary unilaminar follicle
primary ocyte that has resumed meiosis I +
1 layer of cuboidal follicle cells in mitosis and secreting estrogen
Primary multilaminar follicle
primary ocyte that is nearing first meiotic division +
multiple layers of cuboidal follicle cells in mitosis and secreting estrogen
Secondary follicle
secondary ocyte that is arrested in metaphase II +
multiple follicle cells in mitosis and secreting estrogen
Tertiary follicle
secondary ocyte that is arrested in metaphase II +
multiple follicle cells secreting estrogen
Corpus luteum = remnants of follicle cells after ovulation
Corpus albicans = scarred over corpus luteum
Oogenesis
OOGENESIS

Mitosis in fetal life 6 months in utero

number of germ cells


2 meiotic arrests birth

(millions)
puberty
Total number of ova menopause
7 million at 5th month
2 million at birth
age
40,000 at puberty
Use 40 50 per cycle ogonium (2n2c)
(others just die off) enters meiosis primary ocyte (2n4c)
~480 ovulations = arrested in prophase I

~13 per year for 37 years first meiotic division polar body 1 (1n2c)

Stages of ogenesis secondary ocyte (1n2c)


arrested in metaphase II
Hormones
Gn-RF fertilization

FSH
LH completes meiosis II polar body 2 (1n1c)
estrogen
otid (1n1c) + sperm (1n1c) =
2n2c zygote
Differences between male and female Meiosis
In Humans

Stem Cell Regenerated


Stem cells capable of self renewal
SIKLUS ESTRUS

pada mencit 4-5 hari

Fase Endometrium
Ovarium Apusan vagina
-lama (jam) Uterus
Proestrus Folikel tumbuh Menebal E / E, C
(12 jam)
Estrus
awal (12 jam) Ovulasi Glandular EC++
akhir (18 jam) Ovulasi Glandular C+++
Metestrus Korpus luteum Akan luruh CL/ E, C, L
(6 jam) (akan menciut)
Diestrus Folikel muda Tipis E, L, lendir
(48-60 jam)

E = epitel C = epitel kornifikasi L = leukosit


SELAPUT-SELAPUT TELUR

Jenis Penghasil Wujud

Selaput telur Telur sendiri Oolemma, membran vitelin


primer
Selaput telur Sel-sel folikel Zona pelusida (pada mamalia)
sekunder zona radiata (pada amphibia, reptil, aves)

Selaput telur Kelenjar saluran selubung jelly (pada pisces dan amphibia)
tersier reproduksi lapisan albumen, selaput cangkang,
cangkang kapur (pada reptil dan aves)

Selaput telur aves: Tempat sekresi


albumen magnum
selaput cangkang istmus
cangkang kapur uterus