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INTRODUCTION TO

CONTROL OF
INDUSTRIAL MAJOR
ACCIDENT HAZARDS
( C.I.M.A.H REG. 1996 )

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COURSE OBJECTIVES
To explain the salient provisions of CIMAH
To explain the duties of employer;
To describe the difference between Major
and Non Major Hazard;
To explain the duty of employer both On-
Site and Off-Site Emergency Plan;
To explain the Notification of accident;
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SCOPE
Duties of employer
Major and Non Major Hazard
On Site and Off Site Emergency Plan
Notification of accident
Penalty
Group exercise

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INTRODUCTION TO MAJOR
INDUSTRIAL HAZARDS
Major accidents around the world :

Subs.involved Death Injuries Place/Year


Ammonium nitrate (fire) 60000 evacuated France 1987
Methane (fire) 4 1 Italy 1987
Vinyl chloride (explosion) 17 19 Bulgaria 1986
Chlorine (leak) - 76 USA 1986
LPG (explosion) 650 thousands Mexico city
Propane (explosion) 51 - Ortuella, Spain
Fireworks (explosion) 11 8 Filipina 1986

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TYPE AND CONSEQUENCE OF
MAJOR ACCIDENT
Major Toxic release incident around the world :

Subs. Involved Death Injuries Place/Year


_________________________________________________
Methyl isocyanate 2000 20000 Bhopal,India 1984
Ammonia 30 25 Cartagena,Columbia1977
Sulfur dioxide - 100 Baltimore,Maryland1978
Hydrogen sulphide 8 29 Chicago, Illinois 1978
Chlorine 7 - Wilsum, Germany 1952
Phosgene 10 - Poza Rica, Mexico 1950

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Examples of Major Accident

Bhopal:

Over 3,500 people


were killed
immediately and
170,000 sought
medical treatment

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OBJECTIVE

For the prevention of major industrial


accidents and the limitation of their effects
on man and the environment through a
harmonised policy of prevention,
preparedness and response

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BASIC ELEMENTS OF
CONTROL
Preventing major accidents from occurring:
- Identification
- Prevention
Minimising the consequences of a major
accident on-site and off-site by (mitigation):
- arranging appropriate separation
- appropriate emergency planning
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CURRENT SITUATION
Many major hazard installations operating in the
country

There are many more to be built

Our National Tragedy? ( Bright Sparklers1992)

No uniform system of control implemented by the


Manufacturers
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THE NEED FOR REGULATIONS

Major accidents happened around the world


Protection of workers and other people from
major accident
Protection of environment
To comply with ILO Convention
To harmonise the system of controlling
major accidents

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MAJOR INDUSTRIAL
HAZARDS
Common features of major accidents :

Uncontrolled events
Involving fire, explosion, toxic release
Resulting in deaths and injuries (onsite/offsite)
Extensive property and environmental damages
(both on-site/ off-site )
Resulted from the use or storage of flammable,
toxic
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or explosive substance 11
CONTROL OF INDUSTRIAL MAJOR
ACCIDENT HAZARDS (C.I.M.A.H)
REG. 1996
PART I

1. DEFINITION MAJOR ACCIDENT


"Means an occurrence including in particular, a major
emission, fire or explosion resulting from uncontrolled
development in the course of an industrial activity which
leads to serious danger to person, whether immediate or
delayed or inside or outside and installation, or the
environment, and involving one or more hazardous
substances"
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CONTROL OF INDUSTRIAL MAJOR
ACCIDENT HAZARDS (C.I.M.A.H) REG.
1996

2. MAJOR HAZARDS INSTALLATION


"Means an industrial activity which produces,
process, handles, uses, dispose of or stores,
whether permanently or temporarily, one or more
hazardous substances or a category of hazardous
substance in a quantities which is or are equal to
or exceed threshold quantity, or an industrial
activity which is so determined by Director
General"

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EXAMPLES: SCHEDULE 2
LIST OF SUBSTANCES AND QUANTITIES

Part 1: Name of Substances


Substance Threshold Quantity

Group 1 Toxic sub (quantity < 1 tonne )


- Aldicarb 100 kilograms
- 4-Aminodiphenyl 1 kilogram
- Arsenic pentoxide,Arsenic(V) 500 kilograms
acid and salts

Group 2 Toxic sub (quantity > 1 tonne )


- Acetone cyanohydrin 2 tonne
- Acrolein (2-Propenal ) 4 tonne
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Acrylonitrile 5 tonne 14
CONTROL OF INDUSTRIAL MAJOR
EXEMPTED FROM THIS
ACCIDENT HAZARDS (C.I.M.A.H) REG.
REGULATION
1996
A nuclear installation covered by LPTA
An installation under the armed forces
A vehicle or vessel transporting hazardous
substance to or from the site of an industrial
activity covered by JPJ guideline
An industrial activity ( QHS ) is less than
ten percent of the threshold quantity of the
hazardous substance or substances
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CONTROL OF INDUSTRIAL MAJOR
ACCIDENT HAZARDS (C.I.M.A.H)
REG. 1996
PART II

3. IDENTIFICATION AND NOTIFICATION OF AN INDUSTRIAL


ACTIVITY

Submit to D.G, to determine major hazards installations or not.

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CONTROL OF INDUSTRIAL MAJOR
ACCIDENT HAZARDS (C.I.M.A.H)
REG. 1996
PART III
4. DEMONSTRATION OF SAFE OPERATION FOR NON-MAJOR HAZARD
INSTALLATION.
Identified the possible major accident hazard( D.G - final say )
Taken adequate steps to:-
prevent any major accident or minimise consequences to person
and the environment
provide persons working on the site with the information, training
and equipment necessary to ensure their safety
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- Prepared and kept up to date an adequate on-site
emergency plan detailing how major accidents will be dealt
with.
- Review

PART IV
5. PREPARATION OF EMERGENCY PLAN FOR M.H.I
Competent person to prepare a written safety report (as per
schedule 6)
On-site emergency plan :-
(a) how major accident are to be dealt with on the site.
(b) person responsible to take action etc.
(c) update on-site emergency plan.
(d) review on.
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Off-site emergency plan :

(a) for the area surrounding his site which may


be likely to the effected by a major accident
(b) shall inform the local authority or port
authority and provide info. of ind. activity and
include the nature, extent and likely effect off-site
(c) afford to the local authority or port authority upon
request reasonable facilities for the preparation and
implementation of an off-site emergency plan.
(d) provide information to the public (your neighbour)

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EMERGENCY RESPONSE
PLANNING

Aim
The aim of an ERP is to ensure an
immediate and appropriate response in the
event of emergency

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EMERGENCY RESPONSE
PLANNING
Objectives :

minimise personal injury


minimise property damage
minimise damage to the environment and public
provide immediate resumption of normal operations
Provide a basis for training and increasing
preparedness for all people involved in an emergency
meet legislative requirements.

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EMERGENCY RESPONSE
PLANNING

Emergency :

unexpected event requiring prompt action which is


beyond to normal day to day activity.

Response :

the reaction to the actual or potential situation

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EMERGENCY RESPONSE
PLANNING
Plan :

is an organisation of knowledge which outlines how


something should be done or what actions to be taken or
a particular strategy to be followed

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CONTROL OF INDUSTRIAL MAJOR
ACCIDENT HAZARDS (C.I.M.A.H) REG.
1996
PART V

NOTIFICATION OF MAJOR ACCIDENT


To notify DOSH by the quickest means available and provide info :-
(a) the circumstance of the accident.
(b) the hazardous substances involved
(c) the date available for assessing the effects of the accident on
person and the environment
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(d) the emergency measures taken
(e) a statement of the steps envisage to alleviate medium or
long term effect of the accident, if any, and prevent the
recurrence of such an accident

PART VI

RM50,000 or two years imprisonment or both (for employer)


RM1,000 or 3 month or both (for employee)

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THE FIRST DUTY OF BUSINESS IS TO
SURVIVE AND THE GUIDING
PRINCIPLE OF BUSINESS ECONOMICS
IS NOT THE MAXIMISATION OF
PROFIT.

IT IS THE AVOIDANCE OF LOSS

Peter Drucker

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GROUP EXERCISE
Break into 4 or 5 groups.
You are the SHO of a chemical factory with
storage of large amounts of explosive and
poisonous gases.
Describe the types of communication you
would use to increase the awareness of safety
and health in your company.
Describe how you would reassure the people
living in the vicinity of the factory that they
are protected from the risks of an accidental
release or explosion of these gases.
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THANK YOU

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