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Pengembangan Rencana strategis

Dan Implikasi rencana IS/IT


Tinjauan
- Peran IS/IT berubah dari dukungan menjadi enabler
- Konteks strategis sistem informasi
- Menjelajahi permintaan IS/TI
- Rencana IS/IT dalam konteks Indonesia,
di mana kita?
Tujuan
- Memahami bagaimana merumuskan rencana strategis
- Memahami bagaimana merumuskan strategi bisnis
- Memahami bagaimana merumuskan tujuan bisnis
- Memahami implikasi dari rencana strategis untuk IS / IT
rencana
Agenda

Perencanaan Strategis
Krangka Strategis
Mengembangkan strategi bisnis
Implementasi strategi bisnis
Implikasi strategi bisnis ke strategi IS/IT
Pandangan strategi berbasis sumber daya
Apa perencanaan strategis ?
- Proses untuk menetapkan prioritas pada apa yang
anda akan capai di masa depan
- Memaksa Anda untuk membuat pilihan tentang
apa yang akan Anda lakukan dan apa yang Anda
tidak akan melakukan
- Menarik seluruh organisasi bersama-sama sekitar
permainan tunggal rencana eksekusi
- Garis besar di mana sumber daya akan dapat
teralokasi
Pertanyaan Dasar untuk ditanyakan
- Dimana kita sekarang? (Penilaian)
- Dimana kita perlu? (Gap/perbedaan)
- Bagaimana kita akan menutup kesenjangan
(Rencana Strategis)
- Bagaimana kita akan memonitor kemajuan kita
(Balanced Scorecard)
Rencana Strategis Model A B C D E
Bagaimana akan Bagaimana
Mlakukannya
Dimana kita Dimana kita ingin menjadi Melakukannya

Penilaian Dasar Komponen spesifik Evaluasi

Scan lingkungan Situasi sekarang, Visi dan Misi Pengukuran kinerja Kinerja Manajemen
sebelum, sesudah

Latar belakang Significant masalah Nilai / Prinsip Target / standar kinerja Tinjauan kemjuan
Informasi membimbing Balanced Scorecard

Analisis situasi Selaras/ sesuai Tujuan utama Inisiatif dan proyek Tindakan koreksi
dengan kemampuan

SWOT Strengths, Kesenjangan Tujuan spesific Rencana tindakan Tanggapan umpan


Weaknesses, balik revisi rencana
Opportunities,
Threats
Model lain perencanaan strategis

Membuat arah Menetapkan Mencapai


strategis Strategi Strategi
Umpan balik

Rencana Strategis dari


-Tentukan misi dan tujuan Opsi terpilih Menerapkan
- Menilai situasi dan pilihan strategi
- Pilih opsi

Strategis berpikir dan Peluang


pengambilan keputusan
Penilaian
Penilaian Model : S W O T

Penilaian Internal: Aset organisasi,


sumber daya, orang, budaya, sistem,
kemitraan, pemasok,. . .

Penilaian Eksternal: Pasar, pesaing, tren


sosial, teknologi, lingkungan regulasi,
siklus ekonomi.

SWOT SWOT
Kemungkinan
Good Points
kesalahan
Mudah Memahami Perlu analitis dan
Terapkan pada setiap Spesifik
tingkat organisasi Bersikaplah jujur
tentang kelemahan-
kelemahan Anda
Mengapa membuat Dasar ? Dasar

- Menempatkan segala sesuatu tentang organisasi


ke dalam konteks tunggal untuk perbandingan
dan perencanaan.
- Deskriptif tentang perusahaan serta keseluruhan
Lingkungan
- Menyertakan informasi tentang hubungan
pelanggan, pemasok, mitra.
- Format yang lebih disukai adalah Profil Organisasi
Profil Organisasi
LINGKUNGAN OPERASI Dasar

- Produk dan Layanan - Pemasok, Pengiriman,


Saluran, Kontrak, Pengaturan,. . .
- Budaya Organisasi - Hambatan, Kepemimpinan,
Komunikasi, Keterpaduan. . . .
- Produktivitas Tenaga Kerja tingkat skill,
keragaman, kontraktor , penuaan tenaga kerja,. .
- Infrastruktur - Sistem, teknologi, fasilitas,
- Peraturan - Produk / Layanan Peraturan, ISO
Standar Kualitas, Keselamatan, Lingkungan,. .
Profil Organisasi
HUBUNGAN BISNIS Dasar

- Struktur Organisasi - Unit Usaha, Fungsi, Dewan,


Lapisan Manajemen,. .
- Hubungan Pelanggan - Persyaratan, Kepuasan,
Loyalitas, Harapan,. . .
- Rantai Nilai - Hubungan antara orang-orang
dalam rantai nilai. . . .
- Mitra Hubungan - Aliansi, jangka panjang
pemasok, kemitraan pelanggan,. . .
Profil Organisasi
KATAGORI KUNCI KINERJA Dasar

Pelanggan
Produk dan layanan
Keuangan
Human Capital
Operasional
Eksternal (Regulatory Compliance, Sosial
Tanggung jawab,. . . )
Analisis kesenjangan Dasar

Dasar / Profil org Tantangan / SWOT

Kesenjangan = dasar
Untuk perencanaan
strategis jangka panjang
Komponen

Komponen utama Rencana Strategis


Strategic Plan

Action Plans
Mission Mengapa kita saat ini
Evaluasi kemajuan

Vision Apa yg kita inginkan

Goals Apa yg kita harus capai utk jadi sukses

Tujuan O1 Khusus dinyatakan dalam hasil


O2
terukur

Initiatives Rencana Tindakan untuk


AI1 AI2 AI3
mencapai Tujuan

Tindakan Indikator dan indikator


M1 M2 M3 keberhailan

Target T1 T1 T1 Tingkat kinerja yg


diinginkan dan jadwal
Pernyataan Misi Komponen

- Menangkap esensi dari mengapa organisas


ada - Siapa kami, apa yang kita lakukan
- Menjelaskan kebutuhan dasar yang dibutuhkan
- Mengungkapkan nilai-nilai inti organisasi
- Harus singkat dan to the point
- Mudah untuk memahami
- Jika memungkinkan, cobalah untuk
menyampaikan sifat unik dari organisasi anda
dan perannya yang membedakan dari orang lain
Contoh Benar dan salah Komponen

Pernyataan misi
NASA
To Explore the
Universe and Search
Melakukan pekerjaan yang baik untuk
for Life and to
Inspire the Next
mengekspresikan nilai-nilai inti
Generation of organisasi. Juga menyampaikan kualitas
Explorers yang unik tentang organisasi tersebut.

Walt Disney

Terlalu samar dan tidak jelas. Butuh


To Make People Happy
informasi lebih jelas tentang apa yang
membuat organisasi menjadi khusus.
Visi
- Bagaimana organisasi ingin dianggap di masa depan
apa yang tampak seperti keberhasilan
- Sebuah ekspresi keadaan akhir yang diinginkan
- Tantangan setiap orang untuk meraih sesuatu
signifikan - menginspirasi masa depan yang menarik
- Memberikan fokus jangka panjang untuk seluruh
organisasi
Memandu Prinsip dan Nilai
- Setiap organisasi harus dipandu oleh seperangkat nilai-
nilai dan keyakinan
- Memberikan kerangka dasar untuk membuat keputusan
bagian dari budaya organisasi
- Nilai sering berakar pada tema etis, seperti kejujuran,
kepercayaan, integritas, rasa hormat, kejujuran,. . . .
- Nilai harus berlaku di seluruh organisasi
- Nilai mungkin cocok untuk yang terbaik tertentu
manajemen praktek - terbaik dalam hal kualitas,
layanan pelanggan yang luar biasa, dll
Examples of
Components
Guiding Principles and Values

We obey the law and do not compromise moral or ethical principles ever!
We expect to be measured by what we do, as well as what we say.

We treat everyone with respect and appreciate individual differences.


We carefully consider the impact of business decisions on our people and we
recognize exceptional contributions.

We are strategically entrepreneurial in the pursuit of excellence, encouraging original


thought and its application, and willing to take risks based on sound business
judgment.

We are committed to forging public and private partnerships that combine diverse
strengths, skills and resources.
Goals
- Menjelaskan akhir kondisi masa depan - hasil yang diinginkan
yang mendukung misi dan visi.
- Membentuk cara di depan dalam hal ditindaklanjuti.
- Paling baik diterapkan di mana ada pilihan jelas tentang
masa depan.
- Menempatkan fokus strategis ke dalam organisasi - spesifik
kepemilikan tujuan harus diserahkan kepada seseorang dalam
organisasi.
- Mungkin tidak bekerja dengan baik di mana hal-hal yang berubah
cepat- Tujuan cenderung jangka panjang bagi lingkungan yang
memiliki pilihan terbatas tentang masa depan.
Mengembangkan Goals
- Jenjang dari atas Rencana Strategis, Misi, Visi,
prinsip membimbing.
- Lihatlah analisis strategis Anda - SWOT,
- Lingkungan Scan, Kinerja masa lalu, Kesenjangan.
- Batasi sedikit kritis - seperti 5-8 gol.
- Luas partisipasi dalam pengembangan tujuan:
- Konsensus dari atas - beli-in di eksekusi tingkat.
- Harus mendorong tingkat yang lebih tinggi kinerja
dan menutup kesenjangan kinerja kritis.
Components
Examples of Goals
Reorganize the entire organization for better responsiveness to customers

We will partner with other businesses, industry leaders, and government agencies in
order to better meet the needs of stakeholders across the entire value stream.

Manage our resources with fiscal responsibility and efficiency through a single
comprehensive process that is aligned to our strategic plan.

Improve the quality and accuracy of service support information provided to our
internal customers.

Establish a means by which our decision making process is market and customer
focus.

Maintain and enhance the physical conditions of our public facilities.


Components
Objectives
Relevant - directly supports the goal
Compels the organization into action
Specific enough so we can quantify and
measure the results
Simple and easy to understand
Realistic and attainable
Conveys responsibility and ownership
Acceptable to those who must execute
May need several objectives to meet a goal
Components
Goals vs. Objectives

GOALS OBJECTIVES

Very short statement, few Longer statement, more


words descriptive
Broad in scope Narrow in scope
Directly relates to the Indirectly relates to the Mission
Mission Statement Statement
Covers long time period Covers short time period (such 1
(such as 10 years) year budget cycle)
Components
Examples of Objectives
Develop a customer intelligence database system to capture and analyze patterns in
purchasing behavior across our product line.

Launch at least three value stream pilot projects to kick-off our transformation to a
leaner organization.

Centralize the procurement process for improvements in enterprise-wide purchasing


power.

Consolidate payable processing through a P-Card System over the next two years.

Monitor and address employee morale issues through an annual employee satisfaction
survey across all business functions.
What are Action Plans? Down to
Specifics

The Action Plan identifies the specific steps that will be taken to achieve
the initiatives and strategic objectives where the rubber meets the road
Each Initiative has a supporting Action Plan(s) attached to it
Action Plans are geared toward operations, procedures, and processes
They describe who does what, when it will be completed, and how the
organization knows when steps are completed
Like Initiatives, Action Plans require the monitoring of progress on
Objectives, for which measures are needed

Objectives

Initiatives

Action
Plans
Down to
Criteria for Good Measures Specifics

Integrity Complete; useful; inclusive of several types of


measure; designed to measure the most important activities
of the organization
Reliable: Consistent
Accurate - Correct
Timely Available when needed: designed to use and report
data in a usable timeframe
Confidential and Secure: Free from inappropriate release or
attack
Examples of Measurements Down to
Specifics
Lead Indicators
Average time to initiate customer contact =>
shorter time should lead to better customer
service
Average response time to incident => below
average response times should lead to
increased effectiveness in dealing with
incident
Facilities that meet facility quality A1 rating
=> should lead to improved operational
readiness for meeting customer needs
Down to
Specifics
Targets
For each measurement, you should have at
least one target
Targets should stretch the organization to
higher levels of performance
Incremental improvements over current
performance can be used to establish your
targets
Targets put focus on your strategy
When you reach your targets, you have
successfully executed your strategy
Down to
Specifics
Examples of Targets
Average Time to Process New 65 days Year 60 days Year 55 days Year
Employee Setups in DB 2007 2008 2009
Utilization Rate for Rental 90% for 92% for 95% for
Housing Units Year 2007 Year 2008 Year 2009
Toxic Sites meeting in-service 55% for 70% for 95% for
compliance Year 2007 Year 2008 Year 2009
Personnel Fully Trained in 65% by 2rd 75% by 3th 90% by 4th
Safety and Emergency Quarter Quarter Quarter
Open Positions Filled after 30 75 positions 100 135
day promotion period Sept 2007 positions positions
Jan 2008 July 2008
% Reduction in Orders Filled 50% by Year 65% by Year 85% by
Short in 1st Cycle 2008 2009 Year 2010
Continuous Feedback Evaluate
through the Balanced Scorecard
Cascade and align from the top to create a
Strategic Management System.
Use the Balanced Scorecard framework to
organize and report actionable components.
Use the Scorecard for managing the
execution of your strategy.
Scorecard forces you to look at different
perspectives and take into account cause-
effect relationships (lead and lag indicators)
Improves how you communicate your
strategy critical to execution.
Evolution of Strategic Planning

Effectiveness of
strategic decision
making Well defined strategic
framework
Strategically focused
organization
Multi-year budgets Situation analysis and Widespread strategic
Gap analysis competitive assessments thinking capability
Static allocation of Evaluation of strategic Reinforcing management
resources options processes
Annual budgets Dynamic allocation of Supportive value system
Functional focus resources and climate

Stage 1 Stage 2 Stage 3 Stage 4


Financial Forecast-based Externally Strategic
planning planning oriented management
(meet budget) (predict the (think (create the
future) strategically) future)
Strategic Framework for Strategic
Planning
External Environments Economic Political Ecological
Technological Social Legal
Pressure
Values
Customers
Groups
Suppliers Objectives Identify current Identify future Threats and Competitors
Shareholders strategies strategies opportunities Customers
Employees Suppliers
Evaluate Analyze Evaluate Shareholders
Unions
feedback internal strategies Employees
Government resources
Public Unions
Monitor Implement Select
Public
Stake Strategies Strategies Strategies
Media
Holder Financial Ins.
Input to Strategic Planning
External environments - sources of important signals
to organizations
Pressure groups - demand recognition and rapid
management response
Stakeholders - demand fair share of created wealth
Business planning is usually carried out for each
strategic business unit
A unit that sells a distinct set of products or services, serve
a specific set of customers, and competes with a well-
defined set of competitors
Definition of Business Strategy
Definition of business strategy:
An integrated set of actions aimed at increasing the long-
term well-being and strength of the organization relative to
its competitors
Technique to Develop Business Strategy:
Competitive Forces in Industry (Porter, 1980)

Threat of new
entrants

Bargaining Rivalry among Bargaining


power of existing power of
suppliers competitors buyers

Threat of
substitute
product
Factors Affecting The Impact of
Competitive Forces
New entrants
Capital requirements
Patents and specialists skill required
Distribution channels available
Achieved/required economies of scale and resultant
cost advantages
Number and size of existing rivals and intensity of
competition
Differentiation and brand establishment/loyalty
Access to raw materials/critical resources etc.

Business strategy: how to discourage new entrants to come


into the business
Strategic Choices: Factors Affecting The
Impact of Competitive Forces
Substitute products/services
Customer awareness of needs and means of
satisfaction
Customer sensitivity to value for money and
ability to compare
Existing loyalty of customerimpact of industry
promotion
Ability to differentiate products etc.

Business strategy: how to create a loyal customers?


Strategic Choices: Factors Affecting The
Impact of Competitive Forces
Competitive rivalry will be intensified by:
Market growth slow (or in decline)
Small number of similar sized competitors
dominate
High fixed costs and/or high exit barriers for all
rivals
Overcapacity and/or capacity increments are
large units
Commodity-like, undifferentiated products.
Business strategy: how to differentiate your products?
Strategic Choices: Factors Affecting The
Impact of Competitive Forces
Buyers power will be increased by:
Concentrated/few buyers making high volume and/or high
value of purchases
Low switching costs across suppliers
Price sensitive and many alternative sources of supply
Weak brand identities, products not differentiated
Buyers capable of backward integration due to low entry
cost.

Business strategy: how to make the buyers depend on your business


Strategic Choices: Factors Affecting The
Impact of Competitive Forces
Suppliers power will be increased by:
Few suppliershigh switching costs for rivals and
suppliers deal with many small customers
Potential substitute supplier/resources not easily
available
Supplied goods make up large part of firms costs
Suppliers capable of forward integration or bypass
to customers

Business strategy: how to make the suppliers depend on your business


Generic Competitive Strategy

Low
Cost

Competitive
Advantage

Differen-
tiation
Characteristics of Generic Strategies
Generic Commonly Required Commonly Organizational
Strategies Skills and Resources Requirements
Overall cost Sustained capital investment and access to Tight cost control, frequent, detailed control
capital reports.
leadership Process engineering skills Structured organization and responsibilities.
Intense supervision of labor Incentives based on meeting strict
quantitative targets

Differentiation Strong marketing abilities and creative Strong coordination among functions in
flair. R&D, product development, and marketing.
Product engineering skills. Subjective measurement and incentives
Strong capability in basic research. instead of quantitative measures (market
Corporate reputation for quality or based incentives).
technological leadership. Amenities to attract highly skilled labor or
Strong cooperation from distribution creative people.
channels. Looser, more trusting organizational
relationships.

Focus Combination of the above policies Combination of the above policies directed
directed at the particular strategic target. at the particular strategic target.
Exercise Your Thought
Explain the development processes of
strategic planning?
What are the components of strategic
planning?
How to develop business strategy?

How external forces influence business


strategy and IS/IT strategies?
Business strategy imply IS/IT strategy?