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ENTROPY

Mengetahui kenaikan dasar-dasar entropy.


Menghitung perubahan entropi selama
berpindah tempat selama proses untuk senyawa
murni, bahan incompressible, dan ideal gases.
Mengetahui golongan khusus pada proses ideal
yang disebut proses isentropic.
Mengembangkan efisiensi isentropic untuk jenis
peralatan steady-flow.
Menggunakan hukum kedua thermodynamics
untuk proses dengan membentuk keseimbangan
entropy terhadap jenis sistem untuk
menentukan apakah proses bisa terjadi atau
tidak
Hukum kedua thermodynamics selalu menunjukan ekspresi yang
meliputi ketidaksamaan (inequalities) Clausius Inequality.

Peralatan siklik
reservoir panas Reservoir
QR dari panas pada
reservoir dan TR konstan
supply panas Q
ke sistem pada T
yang
menghasilkan
kerja Wrev Sistem
menghasilkan
kerja Wsys
sebagai bentuk
perpindahan
panas
Penggunaan Hk 1st yang kombinasi system:
QR Wrev Wsys WC



WC
QR TR

Peralatan siklik adalah reversible
Q T
Q Q
WC TR cyclic
WC TR
processes

T T
3 kemungkinans of WC (TR=+ve):
(i) WC>0 contradict to Kelvin-Planck
Statement (no system can produce a net
amount of work by only exchanging heat
with a single thermal reservoir).
(ii) WC<0 work done on the system.
(iii) WC=0 no work done on the system.

Clausius inequality
Q equality refers QR
WC TR 0
T to reversible cycles
Combined
inequality refers
System
to irreversible WC
Q cycles
T 0
Clausius merealisasikan 1865: dia menemukan sifat thermodynamic
baru Entropy, S (kJ/K):
Q
dS Sifat bergantung pada sifat
T int rev dan tidak jalannya proses
Entropy is a ???? function

Entropy adalah sifat yang luas suatu sistem dan kadang kadang
menunjukan sebagai total entropy
Entropy per unit mass (s) = intensive property (kJ/kg.K).
The entropy change of a system during a process:
2 Q
S S2 S1
1
T int rev Depends on ????
and ????
Perubahan entropy antara dua keadaan spesifik yang sama
apakah prosesnya merupakan reversible atau irreversible
Cyclic Qnet Clausius
processes T int rev 0 Inequality

Qnet
2 1
Qnet
1 T 2 T int rev 0


S
2
Qnet Beberapa entropy
1 T S1 S 2 0 dihasilkan atau
2 Ditimbulkan
Qnet
S 2 S1 selama proses
1
T irreversible
entropy pada sistem isolasi process, dan
Qnet
selama proses selalu dS seluruhnya
meningkat atau , Dalam T
Entropy
kasus yang terbatas pada Qnet
S sys S 2 S1 S gen generation (Sgen)
proses reversibel T
diperkirakan konstan- S gen 0
tidak pernah turun
dasarnya entropi or, Sisolated 0
meningkat.
Sistem isolasi terdiri beberapa subsistem mengalami
perubahan energi antara mereka sendiri.
Sejak sistem diisolasi tidak terdapat transfer energi
sepanjang batasan, transfer panas sepanjang lapisan sistem
adalah nol.


0 (adiabatic)

Qnet
dSisolated
Sgen Stotal Ssys Ssurr 0
T
Sisolated 0
Inequality Irreversible process;
Equality Reversible process
Sgen = measure of the
Qnet magnitudes of the
Untuk proses
dS irreversibilities present during
T
reversible, that process The extent of
perubahan Qnet irreversibilities when Sgen.
dS S gen
entropy sistem T Sgen is always a positive quantity
tergantung pada or zero Sgen 0 :
transfer panas 0 irreversible process
Qnet
(T>0), Qnet dS Sgen = 0 reversible process
T 0 impossible process

Perpindahan panas
sistem akan Internally reversible
meningkatkan entropi
Qnet 0 dS 0 adiabatic process =
(S2>S1) Qnet 0 dS 0 isentropic process
(Q=0;S=0S1=S2)
Qnet 0 dS 0
Perpindahan panas
sistem akan menurun kan
entropi (S2<S1)
Selama proses internal adalah reversible adiabatic
(isentropic), entropy diperkirakan konstan
Untuk proses reversible :

2 Qnet
dS
1 T
Qnet TdS

Diagram T-S, di bawah area kurva


proses menunjukan perpindahan
panas untuk proses reversibel
internal
2
Qnet TdS
1
The entropy of a pure substance is determined from
the tables (like other properties)
1. Substances murni
Any process: s = s2 - s1 [kJ/(kg.K)]
Isentropic process: s2 = s1

2. Incompressible substances (liquids and solids can be


incompressible substances since their specific volumes remain
nearly constant during a process)
du CdT and dv 0
du P
Gibbs Equation : Tds du Pdv ds dv
T T
CdT 2 CdT
ds 0 or s
T 1 T

If the specific heat is constant, hence the entropy for


incompressible substance:
Any process: s s C ln T2 [kJ/(kg.K)]
2 1 av
T1
Isentropic process: T2 = T1
3. Ideal Gases
(a) Constant specific heats:
T2 v
s2 s1 Cv , av ln R ln 2
Any process : T1 v1 [kJ/(kg.K)]
T2 P
s2 s1 C p , av ln R ln 2
and, T1 P1 [kJ/(kg.K)]
T2 v
s2 s1 Cv , av ln Ru ln 2
or per unit mol, T1 v1 [kJ/(kmol.K)]
T2 P
and, s2 s1 C p , av ln Ru ln 2 [kJ/(kmol.K)]
T1 P1
k 1
Isentropic Process : T2 v
1 First relation
T1 s constant v2
( k 1) / k
T2 P
2 Second relation
T1 s constant P1
k
P2 v
1 Third relation
P1 s constant v2

For the 3rd relation, it looks closely to Pvk = constant


Polytropic process: Pvn = constant with n = k = Cp/Cv.
(b) Variable Specific Heats:

Any process :s2 s1 s2o s1o R ln P2 [kJ/(kg.K)]


P1

P2
or, s2 s1 s2o s1o Ru ln [kJ/(kmol.K)]
P1

Data so pada keadaan 1, T1, dan keadaan 2, T2 tergantung hanya


suhu.
Isentropic process : s = 0,

P2 [kJ/(kg.K)]
s2o s1o R ln
P1

Can use relative pressure, Pr or relative velocity vr to


determine other data:

P2 P v2 v
r2 or r2
P1 s const Pr1 v1 s const vr1
Variable specific heats

Constant specific heats

Entropy of ideal gases depends on both T and P. However, s


data for ideal gases only depend on temperature
Peralatan Steady-flow yang meliputi dengan 2 kerja:
Peralatan yang menghasilkan kerja turbines menghasilkan kerja maks
Peralatan mengkonsumsi kerja: compressors, pumps mengkomsi kerja min
Penerapan hukum 1st Law pada peralatan steady-flow :
E in E in
2 2
V V
Q net m i hi i gzi W net m e he e gze
inlets 2 outlets 2
one inlet - outlet (mass unit based) Enthalpy definition and

Gibbs Equation

wrev q rev dh dke dpe hu Pv Tdsdu vdP

Tds
integratio n
wrev Tds

dh dke dpe

vdP
dh Pdv
du vdP

wrev vdP dke dpe Tds dhvdP
2
wrev vdP ke pe
kJ kg
2
1
wrev,in vdP ke pe
1

Kerja Nozzles, Pipes (w=0)


Reversible Kerja Reversible yang 2 2
V V1
yang dihasilkan dibutuhkan vP2 P1 2 g z2 z1 0
2
oleh turbine compressors dan Bernoulli Equation
pumps
Banyak peralatn steady-flow diinginkan untuk beroperasi di
bawah kondisi adiabatik.
Pada proses ideal meliputi no irreversibilities sejak effek
irreversibilities adalah selalu menurunkan performan peralatan
engineering.
Proses ideal yang bisa dijalankan sebagai model yang sesuai
untuk peralatan adiabatic steady-flow adalah proses
isentropic.
Parameter yang menyatakan quantitatif berapa effesiensi
aktual peralatan isentropic untuk effisiensi adiabatic -
diukur dari proses aktual deviasi dari salah satu sifat ideal yang
sesuai.
th,rev > th,irrev
T2a T2s

Kerja Isentropic adalah kerja maks yang dihasilkan yang dicapai


oleh turbin adiabatik.
Effisiensi isentropic turbine = the ratio kerja aktual yang
dihasilkan turbine terhadap kerja yang dihasilkan yang dicapai
jika proses antara tekanan inlet state dan exit inlet state and
the exit adalah isentropic:
Actual turbine work w
T a
Isentropic turbine work ws
ke=0, pe=0
h h
T 1 2a
h1 h2 s
T1
P1

WC
T2
P2

Effisiensi isentropic compressor = ratio kerja input diperlukan


terhadap kenaikan tekanan gas pada nilai specifik dalam cara
isentropic terhadap input kerja:
Isentropic compressor work ws
C
Actual compressor work wa
ke=0, pe=0
h2 s h1
C
h2 a h1
T1 T2
P1 P2

The isentropic efficiency of a nozzle = the ratio of the actual kinetic


energy of the fluid at the nozzle exit to the kinetic energy value at the
exit of an isentropic nozzle for the same inlet state and exit pressure:

Actual KE at nozzle exit V22a / 2
N 2
Isentropic KE at nozzle exit V2 s / 2
2
V Applying 1st Law on
h1 h2 a 2 a nozzles (w=0, pe=0)
2
h1 h2 a
N
h1 h2 s
Based on the increase of entropy principle:

Total entropy Total entropy Total entropy Change in the total



entering leaving generated entropy of the system
Sin Sout S gen S system kJ/K
The entropy balance relation: The entropy change of a system
during a process is equal to the net entropy transfer through the
system boundary and the entropy generated within the system.
Sin S out S gen S system

Entropy transfer across the system Entropy Entropychange
boundary through work and mass generation of the system

Entropy can be transferred The entropy change of a system during


to or from a system as it a process = entropy difference
crosses the boundary by two between the entropy of the system at
mechanisms: the beginning and that of at the end
of the process:
heat transfer Sheat=Q/T
Ssystem=S2-S1
mass flow Smass=ms
For steady-flow devices Ssystem 0
For closed system, entropy
can only be transferred Irreversibilities such as friction,
through heat transfer the mixing, chemical reactions, heat
entropy transfer for an transfer through a finite temperature
adiabatic closed system is difference etc. always cause the
zero. entropy of a system to increase.
The entropy transfer by heat Entropy generation (Sgen) is a measure
Q/T is zero for adiabatic of the entropy created by such
systems. effects during a process.
No entropy is transferred by For a reversible process (with no
work Swork=0 irreversibilities) Sgen=0:
Ssystem=Sin-Sout
Sin Sout S gen S system

Entropy Transfer across Entropy generation Entropy change


system boundary (Sgen) (Ssystem)
(Sin-Sout)

Heat Transfer Mass Flow Steady-flow process


(involve all types (only involves with
( Ssystem 0 )
of systems) control volumes)

Adiabatic process Closed Systems


Sheat=0 Smass=0

Irreversible Processes Reversible Processes Impossible Processes


Sgen>0 Sgen=0 Sgen<0
Sin Sout S gen S system

Closed Systems Control Volumes


Q Q k
T k S gen S system S2 S1 T m i si m e se Sgen Ssystem
k k

Adiabatic Processes (Q=0) Steady-flow Processes Ssystem 0


S gen S adiabaticsystems Q k
S gen m e se m i si

Tk
Closed Systems + Surroundings
Adiabatic Processes (Q=0)
S gen S Ssystem Ssurroundings Sgen m
e se m
i si

One inlet + One outlet


se si
Sgen m

Reversible processes
se si
CLAUSIUS INEQUALITY
Q
T
0

DEFINITION OF ENTROPY
Q
dS
T int rev

INCREASE OF ENTROPY PRINCIPLES


Sisolated 0

ENTROPY GENERATION (Sgen)


0 irreversible process
Sgen = 0 reversible process
0 impossible process

ISENTROPIC PROCESSES (S=0; Q=0)


& ISENTROPIC EFFICIENCY

ENTROPY BALANCE
Sin S out S gen S system
1ST LAW OF
THERMODYNAMICS
BASIC CONCEPTS OF (Chapter I-IV)
THERMODYNAMICS
2ND LAW OF
THERMODYNAMICS
(Chapter V-VI)

POWER AND
APPLICATIONS OF REFRIGERATION
THERMODYNAMICS CYCLES (Chapter VII)
A 0.5-m3 rigid tank contains refrigerant-134a initially
at 200 kPa and 40 percent quality. Heat is transferred
now to the refrigerant from a source at 35C until
the pressure rises to 400 kPa. Determine:
(a) the entropy change of the refrigerant,
(b) the entropy change of the heat source, and
(c) The total entropy change for this process.
A pistoncylinder device contains 5 kg of steam at 100C with a
quality of 50 percent. This steam undergoes two processes as
follows:
1-2 Heat is transferred to the steam in a reversible manner
while the temperature is held constant until the steam exists as
a saturated vapor.
2-3 The steam expands in an adiabatic, reversible process until
the pressure is 15 kPa.
(a) Sketch these processes with respect to the saturation lines
on a single T-s diagram.
(b) Determine the heat added to the steam in process 1-2 (kJ).
(c) Determine the work done by the steam in process 2-3 (kJ).
A 50-kg iron block and a 20-kg copper block, both
initially at 80C, are dropped into a large lake at
15C. Thermal equilibrium is established after a
while as a result of heat transfer between the blocks
and the lake water. Determine the total entropy
change for this process.
Air enters a nozzle steadily at 280 kPa and 77C
with a velocity of 50 m/s and exits at 85 kPa and 320
m/s. The heat losses from the nozzle to the
surrounding medium at 20C are estimated to be 3.2
kJ/kg. Determine:
(a) the exit temperature and
(b) the total entropy change for this process.
Steam enters an adiabatic turbine at 8 MPa and
500C with a mass flow rate of 3 kg/s and leaves at
30 kPa. The isentropic efficiency of the turbine is
0.90. Neglecting the kinetic energy change of the
steam, determine:
(a) the temperature at the turbine exit and
(b) the power output of the turbine.
(c) if the isentropic efficiency of the turbine is
100%, what is the power output for the turbine?
Two rigid tanks are connected by a valve. Tank A is insulated
and contains 0.2 m3 of steam at 400 kPa and 80 percent
quality. Tank B is uninsulated and contains 3 kg of steam at 200
kPa and 250C. The valve is now opened, and steam flows from
tank A to tank B until the pressure in tank A drops to 300 kPa.
During this process 600 kJ of heat is transferred from tank B to
the surroundings at 0C. Assuming the steam remaining inside
tank A to have undergone a reversible adiabatic process,
determine:
(a) the final temperature in each tank and,
(b) the entropy generated during this process.
Liquid water at 200 kPa and 20C is heated in a chamber by
mixing it with superheated steam at 200 kPa and 150C. Liquid
water enters the mixing chamber at a rate of 2.5 kg/s, and the
chamber is estimated to lose heat to the surrounding air at
25C at a rate of 1200 kJ/min. If the mixture leaves the mixing
chamber at 200 kPa and 60C, determine:
(a) the mass flow rate of the superheated steam and
(b) the rate of entropy generation during this mixing process.