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RADIOGRAPHY : NON DESTRUCTIVE

TESTING

FOR

SOUNDNESS ASSESMENT/STRUCTURAL
INTEGRITY
Radiographic Testing (RT), or industrial radiography, is a nondestructive testing (NDT)
method of inspecting materials for hidden flaws by using the ability of short wavelength
electromagnetic radiation (high energy photons) to penetrate various materials.
Either an X-ray machine or a radioactive source, such as an X-ray computed tomography
machine (Ir-192, Co-60, or in rarer cases Cs-137) can be used as a source of photons.
Neutron radiographic testing (NR) is a variant of radiographic testing which uses neutrons
instead of photons to penetrate materials.

PRINCIPLE OF RADIOGRAPHY
The intensity of a beam of X rays or gamma rays suffers a loss of intensity while passing
through a material.
This phenomenon is due to the absorption or scattering of the X or gamma rays by the
object being exposed. The amount of radiation lost depends on the quality of radiation, the
density of the material and the thickness traversed.
The beam of radiation, which emerges from the material, is usually used to expose a
radiation sensitive film so that different intensities of radiation are revealed as different
densities on the film.
Fig : Principle of Radiography
Radiation is directed through a part and onto film or
other media. The resulting shadowgraph shows the
High Electrical Potential
internal features and soundness of the part.
Material thickness and density changes are indicated Electrons
+ -
as lighter or darker areas on the film.
The darker areas in the radiograph below represent
X-ray Generator or
Radioactive Source
internal voids in the component. Creates Radiation

Radiation
Penetrate
the Sample

Exposure Recording Device


Properties of X-Rays & Gamma Rays

They have no effect on the human senses.


They have adverse effect on the body tissues and blood.
They penetrate matter.
They move in straight line.
They are the part of electromagnetic spectrum.
They travel at the speed of light.
They obey inverse square law.
They ionize gases.
They may be scattered.
They make certain material fluorescence.
They may be refracted, diffracted and polarized.
ADVANTAGES Field Application of Radiography
Gives a permanent record Detection of reinforcement location, voids,
Detects internal flaws cracks, the quality of grouted post-tensioned
Detects volumetric flaws readily. tendons and the failure of cables.
Can be used on most materials. INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHY is able to observe
Can check for correct assembly. The presence of cavities inside the concrete
Gives direct images The presence of grout inside the pre-stressing
Real time image is possible. ducts and also its defects.
The localization of tendons.
DISADVANTAGES
The localization of the reinforcement and the
Radiation health
diameter of the rebars.
Can be sensitive to defect orientation and could
The discontinuities of the ducts.
miss planar flaws.
The broken wired or cables in some cases.
Has limited ability to detect fine cracks.
Access is required to both sides of the object.
Limited thickness of material can be penetrated.
Skilled radiographic interpretation is required.
Required high capital cost and high running cost.
Relatively slow process.
RADIOGRAPHIC IMAGES