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Outline

Sampling Process

Pulse modulation

Pulse Code Modulation

Line coding

Sampling Process

AGU, College of Engineering and Technology 4

AGU, College of Engineering and Technology 5

AGU, College of Engineering and Technology 6

Sampling Theorem for strictly band - limited signals

1.a signal which is limited to W f W , can be completely

n

described by g ( ) .

2W

n

2.The signal can be completely recovered from g ( )

2W

Nyquist rate 2W

Nyquist interval 1

2W

When the signal is not band - limited (under sampling)

aliasing occurs .To avoid aliasing, we may limit the

signal bandwidth or have higher sampling rate.

Sampling

Aliasing Effect

Aliasing in time domain

High frequency signal appearing low frequency, if sampling

rate is smaller than Nyquist rate (i.e, undersampling)

To combat the effects of aliasing in practice, we may use two corrective

measures:

1.Prior to sampling, a low-pass anti-alias filter is used to attenuate those

high-frequency components of a message signal that are not essential to

the information being conveyed by the signal.

2. The filtered signal is sampled at a rate slightly higher than the Nyquist

rate

Sampling Theorem

signal process modulated (PAM) signal

components beyond , can be uniquely determined by values sampled

at uniform intervals of

Pulse Modulation

pulse modulation

some parameter of a pulse train is varied in accordance with the message signal

Analog pulse modulation

pulse Amplitude modulation (PAM)

pulse duration (width) modulation (PDM)

Pulse position modulation (PPM)

Digital pulse modulation

Pulse code modulation (PCM)

where the message information is encoded in the amplitude of a series of

signal pulses.

Pulse Width and Pulse Position Modulation

In pulse width modulation (PWM), the width of each pulse is made

directly proportional to the amplitude of the information signal.

In pulse position modulation, constant-width pulses are used, and the

position or time of occurrence of each pulse from some reference time

is made directly proportional to the amplitude of the information

signal.

AGU, College of Engineering and Technology 15

AGU, College of Engineering and Technology 16

Pulse Code Modulation

PCM is a method of converting an analog signal into a digital signal. (A/D

conversion)

The amplitude of Analog signal can take any value over a continuous range

i.e. it can take on an infinite values.

Digital signal amplitude can take on finite values

Pulse Code Modulation

PCM consists of three steps to digitize an analog signal:

Sampling

Quantization

encoding

Pulse Code Modulation

Quntization

Encoding

AGU, College of Engineering and Technology 20

Quantization

Sampling results in a series of pulses of varying amplitude values ranging

between two limits: a min and a max.

The amplitude values are infinite between the two limits.

We need to map the infinite amplitude values onto a finite set of known

values.

This is achieved by dividing the distance between min and max into L

zones, each of height

= (max min)/L

The midpoint of each zone is assigned a value from 0 to L-1 (resulting in L

values)

Each sample falling in a zone is then approximated to the value of the

midpoint.

Example

Assume we have a voltage signal with amplitutes Vmin=-20V and

Vmax=+20V.

We want to use L=8 quantization levels.

Zone width = (20 - -20)/8 = 5

The 8 zones are: -20 to -15, -15 to -10, -10 to -5, -5 to 0, 0 to +5, +5 to +10,

+10 to +15, +15 to +20

The midpoints are: -17.5, -12.5, -7.5, -2.5, 2.5, 7.5, 12.5, 17.5

Assigning Codes to Zones

Each zone is then assigned a binary code.

The number of bits required to encode the zones, or the number

of bits per sample

nb = log2 L

Given our example, nb = 3

The 8 zone (or level) codes are therefore:

000, 001, 010, 011, 100, 101, 110, and 111

Assigning codes to zones:

000 will refer to zone -20 to -15

001 to zone -15 to -10, etc.

Fig. Quantization & coding

Variance of Quantization Noise

: gap between quantizing levels (of a uniform quantizer)

q: Quantization error = a random variable in the range

distributed over this range

,

Signal-to-Quantization Ratio(SQNR)

Assume: the encoded symbol has n bits

the maximum number of quantizing levels is = 2

maximum peak-to-peak dynamic range of the quantizer = 2

P: power of the message signal

= max |()|: maximum absolute value of the message signal

In dB

Hence, each extra bit in the encoder adds 6 dB to the output SNR of the quantizer

Example

Sinusoidal message signal: () = cos(2 ).

Uniform and Nonuniform Quantization

Nonuniform quantization uses quantization levels of variable spacing,

denser at small signal amplitudes, broader at large amplitudes

Nonuniform Quantization

Companding = Compressing + Expanding

A practical (and equivalent) solution to nonuniform quantization:

Compress the signal first

Quantize it (using a uniform quantizer)

Transmit it

Expand it

Delta Modulation

Transmits information only to indicate whether the analog signal that is

being encoded goes up or goes down

The Encoder Outputs are highs or lows that instruct whether to go up or

down, respectively

DM takes advantage of the fact that voice signals do not change abruptly

The analog signal is quantized by a one-bit ADC

The shape of the analog signal is transmitted as follows: a "1" indicates that

a positive excursion has occurred since the last sample, and a "0" indicates

that a negative excursion has occurred since the last sample.

AGU, College of Engineering and Technology 32

Line Coding

The bits of PCM, DPCM etc need to be converted into some electrical

signals.

Line coding encodes the bit stream for transmission through a line, or a

cable.

Line coding was used former to the wide spread application of channel

coding and modulation techniques.

Nowadays, it is used for communications between the CPU and

peripherals, and for short-distance baseband communications, such as the

Ethernet.

a. Onoff signaling,

symbol 1 is represented by transmitting a pulse of constant amplitude for the duration of

the symbol, and

symbol 0 is represented by switching off the pulse

b. Nonreturn-to-zero (NRZ) signaling,

symbols 1 and 0 are represented by pulses of equal positive and negative amplitudes

c. Return-to-zero (RZ) signaling,

symbol 1 is represented by a positive rectangular pulse of half-symbol width,

and symbol 0 is represented by transmitting no pulse

d. Bipolar return-to-zero (BRZ) signaling,

uses three amplitude levels

positive and negative pulses of equal amplitude are used alternately for symbol 1,

and no pulse is always used for symbol 0.

A useful property of BRZ signaling is

that the power spectrum of the transmitted signal has no dc component and relatively

insignificant low-frequency components for the case when symbols 1 and 0 occur with

equal probability.

e. Manchester Signaling

symbol 1 is represented by a positive pulse followed by a negative pulse, with both

pulses being of equal amplitude and half-symbol width.

For symbol 0, the polarities of these two pulses are reversed.

The Manchester code suppresses the dc component and

has relatively insignificant low-frequency components, regardless of the

signal statistics.

Differential Signaling, in which the information is encoded in terms of signal

transitions

differential encoding requires the use of a reference bit

A transition is used to designate symbol 0 in the incoming binary data stream

No transition is used to designate symbol 1

Unipolar nonreturn-to-zero(NRZ)

Polar NRZ

Unipolar RZ

AMI (alternate mark inversion)

Differential Signaling

The following are some of the desirable properties of a line code:

Self-synchronization.

There is enough timing information built into the code so that bit

synchronizers can be designed to extract the timing or clock signal. A long

series of binary 1s and 0s should not cause a problem in time recovery.

Low probability of bit error.

Receivers can be designed that will recover the binary data with a low

probability of bit error when the input data signal is corrupted by noise or ISI

A spectrum that is suitable for the channel.

For example, if the channel is AC coupled, the PSD of the line code signal should be

negligible at frequencies near zero. In addition,

the signal bandwidth needs to be sufficiently small compared to the channel

bandwidth, so that ISI will not be a problem

Transmission bandwidth. This should be as small as possible.

Error detection capability. It should be possible to implement this feature

easily by the addition of channel encoders and decoders, or the feature

should be incorporated into the line code.

Transparency. The data protocol and line code are designed so that every

possible sequence of data is faithfully and transparently received.

Power Spectra for Binary Line Codes

A digital signal (or line code) can be represented by

where F(f) is the Fourier transform of the pulse shape f(t) and R(k) is the

autocorrelation of the data.

AGU, College of Engineering and Technology 40

PSD of Line codes

This autocorrelation is given by

where

and + are the (voltage) levels of the data pulses at the nth and (n + k)th symbol

positions, respectively, and

is the probability of having the ith + product

the spectrum of the digital signal depends on two things:

the pulse shape used and

statistical properties of the data.

Example: PSD of Unipolar NRZ Signaling

For unipolar signaling, the possible levels for the as are +A

and 0 V.

Assume that these values are equally likely to occur and that the data are

independent.

Now, evaluate R(k) For k = 0, the possible products of are

= 2 and 0 0 = 0, and consequently, I = 2.

1

For random data, the probability of having 2 is and the probability of

2

having 0 is 1/2 , so that

Example cont

1

and 0 , 0 0. They all occur with a probability of Thus, for 0,

4

Hence,

with = , we find that the PSD for the unipolar NRZ line code is

Example cont

But,

Thus

Example cont

the waste of power due to the DC level and the

fact that the spectrum is not approaching zero

near DC. Consequently, DC-coupled circuits are

needed.

The advantages of unipolar signaling are that

it is easy to generate

requires the use of only one power supply

Exercise

Derive and plot the PSD of

Polar NRZ

Unipolar RZ

Bipolar RZ

Manchester

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