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# Chapter 3: Pulse Modulation

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Outline
Sampling Process
Pulse modulation
Pulse Code Modulation
Line coding

Sampling Process

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Sampling Theorem for strictly band - limited signals
1.a signal which is limited to W f W , can be completely
n
described by g ( ) .
2W
n
2.The signal can be completely recovered from g ( )
2W
Nyquist rate 2W
Nyquist interval 1
2W
When the signal is not band - limited (under sampling)
aliasing occurs .To avoid aliasing, we may limit the
signal bandwidth or have higher sampling rate.

Sampling

Aliasing Effect

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Aliasing in time domain
High frequency signal appearing low frequency, if sampling
rate is smaller than Nyquist rate (i.e, undersampling)

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To combat the effects of aliasing in practice, we may use two corrective
measures:
1.Prior to sampling, a low-pass anti-alias filter is used to attenuate those
high-frequency components of a message signal that are not essential to
the information being conveyed by the signal.
2. The filtered signal is sampled at a rate slightly higher than the Nyquist
rate

Sampling Theorem

## Analog Sampling Pulse amplitude

signal process modulated (PAM) signal

## Sampling theorem: A band-limited signal with no spectral

components beyond , can be uniquely determined by values sampled
at uniform intervals of

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Pulse Modulation
pulse modulation
some parameter of a pulse train is varied in accordance with the message signal
Analog pulse modulation
pulse Amplitude modulation (PAM)
pulse duration (width) modulation (PDM)
Pulse position modulation (PPM)
Digital pulse modulation
Pulse code modulation (PCM)

## Pulse-amplitude modulation, acronym PAM, is a form of signal modulation

where the message information is encoded in the amplitude of a series of
signal pulses.

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Pulse Width and Pulse Position Modulation
In pulse width modulation (PWM), the width of each pulse is made
directly proportional to the amplitude of the information signal.
In pulse position modulation, constant-width pulses are used, and the
position or time of occurrence of each pulse from some reference time
is made directly proportional to the amplitude of the information
signal.

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Pulse Code Modulation
PCM is a method of converting an analog signal into a digital signal. (A/D
conversion)
The amplitude of Analog signal can take any value over a continuous range
i.e. it can take on an infinite values.
Digital signal amplitude can take on finite values

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Pulse Code Modulation
PCM consists of three steps to digitize an analog signal:
Sampling
Quantization
encoding

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Pulse Code Modulation

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Quntization

Encoding
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Quantization
Sampling results in a series of pulses of varying amplitude values ranging
between two limits: a min and a max.
The amplitude values are infinite between the two limits.
We need to map the infinite amplitude values onto a finite set of known
values.
This is achieved by dividing the distance between min and max into L
zones, each of height
= (max min)/L
The midpoint of each zone is assigned a value from 0 to L-1 (resulting in L
values)
Each sample falling in a zone is then approximated to the value of the
midpoint.

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Example
Assume we have a voltage signal with amplitutes Vmin=-20V and
Vmax=+20V.
We want to use L=8 quantization levels.
Zone width = (20 - -20)/8 = 5
The 8 zones are: -20 to -15, -15 to -10, -10 to -5, -5 to 0, 0 to +5, +5 to +10,
+10 to +15, +15 to +20
The midpoints are: -17.5, -12.5, -7.5, -2.5, 2.5, 7.5, 12.5, 17.5

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Assigning Codes to Zones
Each zone is then assigned a binary code.
The number of bits required to encode the zones, or the number
of bits per sample
nb = log2 L
Given our example, nb = 3
The 8 zone (or level) codes are therefore:
000, 001, 010, 011, 100, 101, 110, and 111
Assigning codes to zones:
000 will refer to zone -20 to -15
001 to zone -15 to -10, etc.

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Fig. Quantization & coding

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Variance of Quantization Noise
: gap between quantizing levels (of a uniform quantizer)
q: Quantization error = a random variable in the range

## If is sufficiently small it is reasonable to assume that q is uniformly

distributed over this range

,

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Signal-to-Quantization Ratio(SQNR)
Assume: the encoded symbol has n bits
the maximum number of quantizing levels is = 2
maximum peak-to-peak dynamic range of the quantizer = 2
P: power of the message signal
= max |()|: maximum absolute value of the message signal

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In dB

Hence, each extra bit in the encoder adds 6 dB to the output SNR of the quantizer

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Example
Sinusoidal message signal: () = cos(2 ).

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Uniform and Nonuniform Quantization
Nonuniform quantization uses quantization levels of variable spacing,
denser at small signal amplitudes, broader at large amplitudes

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Nonuniform Quantization
Companding = Compressing + Expanding
A practical (and equivalent) solution to nonuniform quantization:
Compress the signal first
Quantize it (using a uniform quantizer)
Transmit it
Expand it

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Delta Modulation
Transmits information only to indicate whether the analog signal that is
being encoded goes up or goes down
The Encoder Outputs are highs or lows that instruct whether to go up or
down, respectively
DM takes advantage of the fact that voice signals do not change abruptly
The analog signal is quantized by a one-bit ADC
The shape of the analog signal is transmitted as follows: a "1" indicates that
a positive excursion has occurred since the last sample, and a "0" indicates
that a negative excursion has occurred since the last sample.

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Line Coding
The bits of PCM, DPCM etc need to be converted into some electrical
signals.
Line coding encodes the bit stream for transmission through a line, or a
cable.
Line coding was used former to the wide spread application of channel
coding and modulation techniques.
Nowadays, it is used for communications between the CPU and
peripherals, and for short-distance baseband communications, such as the
Ethernet.

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a. Onoff signaling,
symbol 1 is represented by transmitting a pulse of constant amplitude for the duration of
the symbol, and
symbol 0 is represented by switching off the pulse
b. Nonreturn-to-zero (NRZ) signaling,
symbols 1 and 0 are represented by pulses of equal positive and negative amplitudes
c. Return-to-zero (RZ) signaling,
symbol 1 is represented by a positive rectangular pulse of half-symbol width,
and symbol 0 is represented by transmitting no pulse
d. Bipolar return-to-zero (BRZ) signaling,
uses three amplitude levels
positive and negative pulses of equal amplitude are used alternately for symbol 1,
and no pulse is always used for symbol 0.

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A useful property of BRZ signaling is
that the power spectrum of the transmitted signal has no dc component and relatively
insignificant low-frequency components for the case when symbols 1 and 0 occur with
equal probability.

e. Manchester Signaling
symbol 1 is represented by a positive pulse followed by a negative pulse, with both
pulses being of equal amplitude and half-symbol width.
For symbol 0, the polarities of these two pulses are reversed.
The Manchester code suppresses the dc component and
has relatively insignificant low-frequency components, regardless of the
signal statistics.

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Differential Signaling, in which the information is encoded in terms of signal
transitions
differential encoding requires the use of a reference bit
A transition is used to designate symbol 0 in the incoming binary data stream
No transition is used to designate symbol 1

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Unipolar nonreturn-to-zero(NRZ)

Polar NRZ

Unipolar RZ

## Bipolar RZ ,pseudo ternary, or

AMI (alternate mark inversion)

## Manchester (Split phase)

Differential Signaling

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The following are some of the desirable properties of a line code:
Self-synchronization.
There is enough timing information built into the code so that bit
synchronizers can be designed to extract the timing or clock signal. A long
series of binary 1s and 0s should not cause a problem in time recovery.
Low probability of bit error.
Receivers can be designed that will recover the binary data with a low
probability of bit error when the input data signal is corrupted by noise or ISI
A spectrum that is suitable for the channel.
For example, if the channel is AC coupled, the PSD of the line code signal should be
negligible at frequencies near zero. In addition,
the signal bandwidth needs to be sufficiently small compared to the channel
bandwidth, so that ISI will not be a problem

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Transmission bandwidth. This should be as small as possible.
Error detection capability. It should be possible to implement this feature
easily by the addition of channel encoders and decoders, or the feature
should be incorporated into the line code.
Transparency. The data protocol and line code are designed so that every
possible sequence of data is faithfully and transparently received.

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Power Spectra for Binary Line Codes
A digital signal (or line code) can be represented by

## the general expression for the PSD of a digital signal is

where F(f) is the Fourier transform of the pulse shape f(t) and R(k) is the
autocorrelation of the data.
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PSD of Line codes
This autocorrelation is given by

where
and + are the (voltage) levels of the data pulses at the nth and (n + k)th symbol
positions, respectively, and
is the probability of having the ith + product
the spectrum of the digital signal depends on two things:
the pulse shape used and
statistical properties of the data.

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Example: PSD of Unipolar NRZ Signaling
For unipolar signaling, the possible levels for the as are +A
and 0 V.
Assume that these values are equally likely to occur and that the data are
independent.
Now, evaluate R(k) For k = 0, the possible products of are
= 2 and 0 0 = 0, and consequently, I = 2.
1
For random data, the probability of having 2 is and the probability of
2
having 0 is 1/2 , so that

Example cont

## For 0, there are = 4 possibilities for the product values: , 0,

1
and 0 , 0 0. They all occur with a probability of Thus, for 0,
4

Hence,

## For rectangular NRZ pulse shapes, the Fourier transform pair is

with = , we find that the PSD for the unipolar NRZ line code is

Example cont

But,

Thus

Example cont

## The disadvantage of unipolar NRZ is

the waste of power due to the DC level and the
fact that the spectrum is not approaching zero
near DC. Consequently, DC-coupled circuits are
needed.
The advantages of unipolar signaling are that
it is easy to generate
requires the use of only one power supply

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Exercise
Derive and plot the PSD of
Polar NRZ
Unipolar RZ
Bipolar RZ
Manchester