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Introduction: Eye-

Movements and Eye-


Tracking
Irina A. Sekerina (Higher School of Economics and CUNY)
Workshop on Reading in Cyrillic 21 September, 2015

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A. Introduction: History, Terminology,
Background
B. Eye-Tracking Applications
Roadmap C. Techniques and Equipment
D. Eye-Tracking in Psycholinguistics:
Reading
E. Models of Reading

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A. A1. Some recent history
Introduction: A2. Scanpaths and visual attention
History, A3. The eye
Terminology, A4. Types of eye movements
Background

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Alfred LukyanovichYarbus (1965)*:
demonstrated sequential, but variable, viewing
1914-1986 patterns over particular image regions
A1: Some
[Recent] Noton and Stark (1971)**:
showed that participants tend to fixate
History identifiable regions of interest, containing
informative details;
coined term scanpath describing eye
movement patterns
* , A. . (1965). . .
Yarbus, A. L. (1967). Eye Movements and Vision. New York: Plenum Press.
** Noton, D., & Stark, L. (1971). Scanpaths in eye movements during pattern perception.
Science, 171(3968), 308-311.
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[Unexpected]
(by Ilya Repin,
1884)

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Yarbus early scanpath
recording:
1: examine at will
2: estimate wealth
A2: Scanpaths 3: estimate ages
and Visual 4: guess previous
Attention activity
5: remember clothing
6: remember position
7: time since last visit

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A2:
Scanpaths of
a portrait

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The eyethe worlds
worst camera
suffers from
A3: The Eye numerous optical
imperfections...
...endowed with
several
compensatory
mechanisms

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The retina is a light
sensitive structure inside
of the eye responsible
for transforming light
into signals, which are
later converted into an
3: Human image by the visual
visual field cortex in the brain.
The fovea is a section of
the retina that contains
a high density of both
kinds of light receptor
cells found in the eye,
i.e. Cone and Rod cells.

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Eye movements are mainly used to
reposition the fovea
Five main classes of eye movements:
A4: Types Saccadic (saccades and fixations)
Smooth pursuit
of eye Vergence
movements Vestibular
Physiological nystagmus
Other types of movements are non-
positional (adaptation, accommodation)

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Rapid eye movements between fixations
used to reposition fovea
Voluntary and reflexive
A4: Saccades Range in duration from 10 ms 100 ms
Effectively blind during transition
Deemed ballistic (pre-programmed) and
stereotyped (reproducible)

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Possibly the most
important type of eye
movement for
A4: Fixations attentional
applications
90% viewing time is
devoted to fixations Duchowski, A. T. (2007).
Eye-Tracking Methodology.
duration: 150 ms 600 ms 2nd Ed. 360 p.
ISBN: 978-1-84628-808-7

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B1. Ergonomics and Human Factors
B2. Marketing and Advertising
B. B3. Websites
Applications B4. Psychology, Psychophysics,
Neuroscience

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Wide variety of eye tracking applications
exist, each class increasingly relying on
advanced graphical techniques:
Advertising
B. Human Factors
Applications Displays
HCI & Collaborative Systems
Virtual Reality
Psychology, Psychophysics,
Neuroscience

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Applications range from usability studies
to testing effectiveness of cockpit
displays
Examples:
B2: evaluation of tool icon groupings
Ergonomics comparison of gaze-based and mouse interaction
organization of click-down menus
and Human testing electronic layout of pilots visual flight rules
Factors testing simulators for training effectiveness

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Applications range from assessing ad
B3: effectiveness (copy testing) in various
media (print, images, video, etc.) to
Marketing disclosure research (visibility of fine print)
and
Examples:
Advertising eye movements over print media (e.g., magazines)
eye movements over TV ads, web pages, etc.

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B3:
Marketing
and
Advertising

Scanpaths over printed magazine ads

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Most people view websites
in a F shaped flow.
First they scan the page at
the top, from left to right.
B3: Websites Then the eyes go back to
the left and down the
page.
They again scan to the
right and back along the
same pattern.

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Applications range from basic research in
B4: vision science to investigation of visual
exploration in aesthetics (e.g., perception
Psychology, of art).
Psycho- Examples:
physics, and psychophysics: spatial acuity, contrast, sensitivity
perception: reading, natural scenery, ...
Neuroscience neuroscience: cognitive load, with fMRI an ERP
psycholinguistics

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B4:
Perception of
Art
(Rembrandts
Anatomy
Lesson) (a) Aesthetic group (b) Semantic group
(Duchowski, 2007) small but visible differences in scanpaths
similar sets of fixated image features

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C1. Electro-oculography
C.
C2. Scleral contact lens/search coil
Techniques
C3. Video-based combined pupil and
and corneal reflection
Equipment

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Two broad applications of eye movement
monitoring/recording techniques:
measuring position of eye relative to the
C. head
Techniques measuring orientation of eye in space, or
the point of regard (POR)used to
and identify fixated elements in a visual scene
Equipment The most widely used apparatus for
measuring the POR is the video-based
corneal reflection eye-tracker

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First method for objective eye movement
measurements using corneal reflection
reported in 1901
Techniques using contact lenses to improve
C1: accuracy developed in 1950s (invasive)
Techniques Remote (non-invasive) trackers rely on visible
features of the eye (e.g., pupil)
Fast image processing techniques have
facilitated real-time video-based systems

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most widely used
method some 30 years
ago (still used today)
similar to electro-
mechanical motion-
capture
C1: Electro- measures eye
culography movements relative to
Relies on measurement of head position
skins potential differences, not generally suitable
using electrodes placed for POR measurement
around the eye (unless head is also
tracked)

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possibly most
precise
C2: Scleral search coil embedded similar to electro-
in contact lens and magnetic position/
Contact Lens/ electromagnetic field orientation trackers
Search Coil frames used in motion-
capture

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C2: Scleral Example of scleral highly accurate, but limited
Contact suction ring insertion: measurement range (~5)
most intrusive measures eye movements
Lens/Search method relative to head position
Coil insertion of lens not generally suitable for POR
requires care measurement (unless head is
wearing of lens also tracked)
causes discomfort

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C3: Video- H
Based
Combined most suitable for
Pupil/ Corneal Head-mounted video- (graphical) interactive
based eye tracker systems, e.g., VR
Reflection Monocular and
binocular systems

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SMI
ISCAN
C3: Existing TOBII
Eye-Trackers

Remote system ASL head-mounted ISCAN child head-


mounted
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C3: Existing
Eye-Trackers
2013 next to a
students poster

1997 Kindergarten-
Path article
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A light source is used to
cause reflection patterns
on the cornea and pupil
of the test person.
C3: POR A camera will then be
used to capture an
Method image of the eye.
The direction of the
gaze is then calculated
using the angles and
distances.

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C3: How it
Works

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D1. Visual World Eye-Tracking Paradigm
D. Eye- D2. Dual-Purkinjie Eye-Tracking in
Tracking in Reading
Psycho- D3. Examples of Eye Movements in
linguistics: Reading (Tobii)
Reading D4. Eye-Movement Parameters in
Reading

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Cooper (1974)* and Tanenhaus et al. (1995)**
The Mind-Eye hypothesis
Relationship between eye fixations and the meaning
of concurrently spoken sentence
D1: The Using this relationship as a research tool in cognitive
psychology and psycholinguistics
Visual World Applications:
Eye-Tracking Speech perception and memory
Paradigm Language processing

*Cooper, R. (1974). The control of eye fixation by the


meaning of spoken language. Cognitive Psychology, 6, 84-107.
**Tanenhaus, M. K., Spivey-Knowlton, M. J., Eberhard, K. M., & Sedivy, J. C.
(1995). Integration of visual and linguistic information in spoken language
comprehension. Science, 268(5217), 1632-34.
, . . (2008). :
. , 6,
98120. 33
DPI trackers measure
rotational and
translational eye
movements
D2: Dual- 1st and 4th reflections
move together through
Purkinjie same distance upon eye
Eye-Trackers translation, but separate
upon eye rotation
Dual-Purkinje image
for Reading (DPI) eye tracker highly precise
so-called generation-V used to be expensive
trackers measure the 1st and difficult to set up
and 4th Purkinje images

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Purkinje images appear
as small white dots in
close proximity to the
(dark) pupil
D2: Pupil and tracker calibration is
achieved by measuring
Purkinje user gazing at properly
Images positioned grid points
(usually 5 or 9)
tracker interpolates POR
on perpendicular screen Pupil and Purkinje images
in front of user as seen by eye trackers
camera

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A gaze replay, recorded at 300Hz using
D3: Tobii the Tobii TX300 eye tracker, of a
Examples of participant in a reading study:
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VBTZNydUh0w
Eye
Eye-tracking with Tobii (4-year-old child)
Movements
in Reading http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VFIZDZwdf-0

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1. Studying eye movements per se to
D4. Eye- learn about reading
Movement 2. Using eye movements in reading as a
Parameters means to infer cognitive processes
(e.g., language processing)

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1. Saccade latency: 150-175 ms;
2. Perceptual span: ~4 symbols to the left,
~15 symbols to the right;
D4. Eye- 3. Skipping words: 2-3-letter words are
Movement skipped 75%, 8-letter words are never
Parameters skipped;
4. Regressions: 10-letter spaces happen
because of problems in understanding
text

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1. Word frequency
D4. Eye 2. Word familiarity
Movements 3. Age of acquisition
and Word 4. Number of meanings
Recognition 5. Morphology
in Reading 6. Predictability
7. Plausibility

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E1. Types of Models of Reading
E. Models of E2. E-Z Model
Reading
E3. SWIFT

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Models of reading behavior try to explain
how the eye movement control system
E. Models of makes two fundamental decisions
Reading involved in reading:
When the eyes should move
Where the gaze should land

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1. Oculomotor control models
E1. Types of
Models of 2. Cognitive control models
1. E-Z Reader
Reading 2. SWIFT

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E-Z Reader
model
http://raynerlab.ucsd.edu/
E1: E-Z Keith_Rayner.html
Rayner, K. (1978). Eye movements in
Reader reading and information processing.
Psychological Bulletin, 85, 618-660.

Model Rayner, K. (1998). Eye movements in


reading and information processing:
20 years of research. Psychological
Bulletin, 124, 372-422

Keith Rayner (UCSD)


1943-2015
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1. 50 ms: visual uptake phase
2. 75-100 ms: L1 phase of lexical access
E2. E-Z 3. Saccade planning
Reader 4. L2 phase of lexical access
Accounts for frequency, predictability,
spillover effects, covert attention,
importance of parafoveal preview

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Reinhold Kliegl (University of Potsdam,
Germany): SWIFT Model
E3: SWIFT http://www.psych.uni-potsdam.de/people/kliegl/

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Reinhold 11:30am-12:30pm
Kliegls Distributed Processing During Fixation
Lecture 1 Durations in Reading

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