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Titimetri

Minggu Kegiatan dan Materi Dosen


1 Pendahuluan Dra. Maria Inggrid,MSc
Analisa Kualitatif dan Kuantitatif (MI)
2 Pengenalan Titrimetri/Volumetri Hans Kristianto, ST MT
Titrasi Asam Basa (HK)
3 Titrasi Kompleksiometri HK
4 Gravimetri dan Titrasi Pengendapan HK
5 Titrasi redoks HK
6 Potensiometri HK
7 Spektrofotometri Ultra Violet dan Sinar HK
Tampak
Pengenalan Spektrofotometri Serapan Atom
(SSA)
UTS Evaluasi materi melalui pemberian Ujian
Tengah Semester
8 Pengenalan Analisa Instrumental yang HK
menggunakan Sinar Infra Merah dan Sinar X
9 Ekstraksi pelarut MI
10 Kromatografi : Kromatografi planar MI
11 Kromatografi kolom MI
12-13 Kromatografi gas MI
14 Kromatografi cair tekanan tinggi (HPLC) MI
UAS Evaluasi akhir dari seluruh materi
perkuliahan
Definisi
Apa itu Titimetri?
Titimetri adalah metode analisa untuk menentukan
jumlah reagen (konsentrasi diketaui) yang
dibutuhkan untuk bereaksi sempurna dengan analit

Apa itu Volumetri?


Volumetri adalah salah satu metode titimetri di
mana reagen standarnya ditentukan berdasarkan
volumenya
Definisi
Larutan Standard?
Reagen dengan konsentrasi yang diketahui yang
digunakan untuk analisa titimetri
Titrasi
Proses di mana larutan standard ditambahkan ke
dalam analit, sampai reaksi antara reagen dan
analit dikatakan selesai
Definisi
Titrasi Balik (Back titration)
Merupakan suatu proses mereaksikan kelebihan
larutan standard (yang digunakan untuk bereaksi
dengan analit) dengan larutan standard lain
Definisi
Titik ekivalen
Besaran teoritis di mana reagen dan analit tepat
habis bereaksi
Titik akhir titrasi
Suatu titik saat titrasi di mana terjadi perubahan
kondisi fisik campuran yang dianggap mewakili
kondisi ekivalennya
Kenapa titik ekivalen
tidak bisa ditentukan
dari percobaan?
Perubahan fisik apa?
Larutan Standard
Larutan Standard Primer
highly purified compound that serves as a reference
material in all volumetric and mass titrimetric methods.
Important requirements for a primary standard are
1. High purity (established methods for confirming purity
should be available)
2. Atmospheric stability
3. Absence of hydrate water so that the composition of the
solid does not change with variations in relative humidity
4. Ready availability at modest cost
5. Reasonable solubility in the titration medium
6. Reasonably large molar mass so that the relative error
associated with weighing the standard is minimized
Larutan Standard
Larutan standard sekunder
a compound whose purity has been established by
chemical analysis and that serves as the reference
material for a titrimetric method of analysis.
Larutan Standard
Larutan standard yang ideal untuk titimetri:
1. Be sufficiently stable so that it is only necessary to
determine its concentration once
2. React rapidly with the analyte so that the time
required between additions of reagent is
minimized
3. React completely with the analyte so that
satisfactory end points are realized
4. Undergo a selective reaction with the analyte that
can be described by a balanced equation
Titrasi Asam Basa
Pendahuluan
Salah satu prosedur titrasi yang paling
sederhana, dan paling sering dilakukan
Memanfaatkan indikator warna untuk
menentukan titik akhir titrasi
Perhitungan pH titrasi
pH titrasi dihitung pada:
Awal larutan sebelum ditambahkan penitran
Larutan + penitran sebelum ekivalen
Saat titik ekivalen
Setelah ekivalen
Titrasi Asam Kuat oleh Basa Kuat
Before the equivalence point, we calculate the
pH from the molar concentration of unreacted
acid.
At the equivalence point, the solution is
neutral and pH=7.00.
Beyond the equivalence point, we first
calculate pOH and then pH. Remember that
pH = pKw pOH = 14.00 pOH.
Titrasi Asam Kuat oleh Basa Kuat

Pemilihan
Indikator???
Titrasi Asam Kuat oleh Basa Kuat

Figure 7-4 Titration curves


for HCl with NaOH. Curve A:
50.00 mL of 0.0500 M HCl
with 0.1000 M NaOH.
Curve B: 50.00 mL of
0.000500 M HCl with
0.001000 M NaOH.
Titrasi Basa Kuat oleh Asam Kuat

Figure 7-5 Titration


curves for NaOH with
HCl. Curve A: 50.00 mL
of 0.0500 M NaOH
with 0.1000 M HCl.
Curve B: 50.00 mL of
0.00500 M NaOH with
0.0100 M HCl.
Contoh 1
Do the calculations needed to generate the
hypothetical titration curve for the titration of
50.00 mL of 0.0500 M HCl with 0.1000 M
NaOH at V NaOH added:
A. 0mL (initial point)
B. 25mL
C. 50mL
D. 55mL
Titrasi Asam (Basa) Lemah oleh Basa
(Asam) Kuat
1. At the beginning, the solution contains only a
weak acid or a weak base, and the pH is
calculated from the concentration of that solute
and its dissociation constant.
2. After various increments of titrant have been
added (in quantities up to, but not including, an
equivalent amount), the solution consists of a
series of buffers. The pH of each buffer can be
calculated from the analytical concentrations of
the conjugate base or acid and the residual
concentrations of the weak acid or base.
Titrasi Asam (Basa) Lemah oleh Basa
(Asam) Kuat
3. At the equivalence point, the solution contains
only the conjugate of the weak acid or base
being titrated (that is, a salt), and the pH is
calculated from the concentration of this
product.
4. Beyond the equivalence point, the excess of
strong acid or base titrant represses the acidic or
basic character of the reaction product to such
an extent that the pH is governed largely by the
concentration of the excess titrant.
Titrasi Asam (Basa) Lemah oleh Basa
(Asam) Kuat
Titrasi Asam (Basa) Lemah oleh Basa
(Asam) Kuat
Titrasi Asam (Basa) Lemah oleh Basa
(Asam) Kuat
Titrasi Asam (Basa) Lemah oleh Basa
(Asam) Kuat
Menentukan pH Buffer:
Titrasi Asam (Basa) Lemah oleh Basa
(Asam) Kuat

Figure 7-10 The effect


of acid strength
(dissociation constant,
Ka ) on titration
curves. Each
curverepresents the
titration of 50.00 mL
of 0.1000 M acid with
0.1000 M base.
Titrasi Asam (Basa) Lemah oleh Basa
(Asam) Kuat

Figure 7-9 Curve for the


titration of acetic acid with
sodium hydroxide. Curve A:
0.1000 M acid with 0.1000 M
base. Curve B: 0.001000 M
acid with 0.001000 M base.
Titrasi Asam (Basa) Lemah oleh Basa
(Asam) Kuat

Figure 7-11 The effect


of base strength (Kb)
on titration curves.
Each curve represents
the titration of 50.00
mL of 0.1000 M base
with 0.1000 M HCl.
Contoh 2
A 50.00-mL aliquot of 0.0500 M NaCN is
titrated with 0.1000 M HCl. The reaction is

Calculate the pH after the addition of (a) 0.00,


(b) 10.00, (c) 25.00, and(d) 26.00 mL of acid.

Ka for HCN is known to be 6.2x10-10


Titrasi Asam/Basa Diprotik
Asam/ basa diprotik?
Bagaimana profil pH saat asam/basa diprotik
dititrasi?
Titrasi Asam/Basa Diprotik
Contoh titrasi basa diprotik dengan HCl
Titrasi Asam/Basa Diprotik
Titrasi Asam/Basa Diprotik

Kenapa hanya
dihitung
berdasarkan Kb1?
Titrasi Asam/Basa Diprotik
Titrasi Asam/Basa Diprotik
Titrasi Asam/Basa Diprotik
Titrasi Asam/Basa Diprotik
Titrasi Asam/Basa Diprotik

Figure 8-1 Titration of 20.00 mL


of 0.1000 M H2A with 0.1000 M
NaOH. For H2A, Ka1 = 1.00 103
and Ka2 = 1.00 107. The
method of pH calculation is
shown for several points and
regions on the titration curve.
Titrasi Asam/Basa Diprotik
Penentuan titik akhir titrasi dengan
menggunakan autotitrator
Titrasi Asam/Basa Diprotik
Kurva titrasi pH
vs vol
pentitrant

Perhatikan
keberadaan
titik belok pada
titik ekivalen
titrasi

Hubungan titik
belok dengan
turunan?
Titrasi Asam/Basa Diprotik

()

()
Titrasi Asam/Basa Diprotik
Titik Akhir Titrasi dengan Gran Plot
Gran plot merupakan teknik lain untuk
menentukan titik akhir dari titrasi
The beauty of a Gran plot is that it enables us
to use data taken before the end point to find
the end point.
This method can decrease the tedium of
making many measurements after dispensing
tiny volumes of titrant in the end point region.
Titik Akhir Titrasi dengan Gran Plot
Titik Akhir Titrasi dengan Gran Plot
Titik Akhir Titrasi dengan Gran Plot
Bentuk lain persamaan Gran Plot
The slope of the Gran plot
enables us to find Ka. Although
we derived the Gran function for
a monoprotic acid, the same plot
(Vb10-pH versus Vb) applies to
polyprotic acids
The Gran function, Vb10-pH , does
not actually go to 0, because is
10-pH never 0.
The curve must be extrapolated
to find Ve.
The reason the function does not
reach 0 is that we have used the
approximation that every mole
OH- of generates 1 mol of A-,
which is not true as Vb
approaches Ve.
Only the linear portion of the
Gran plot is used.
Contoh

Dari data di atas, tentukan Veq dengan metode:


Turunan pertama
Turunan Kedua
Gran plot
Indikator asam basa
Indikator
Indikator
Perubahan warna indikator bergantung dari
rasio asam dan basa konjugasi indikator
Hin memberikan warna asam saat:

Dan basa saat:


Indikator
Contoh: Tymol Biru
Indikator
Untuk menentukan range pH indikator dari
nilai Ka nya, kedua ruas dapat di negatif log
kan:
Indikator
Indikator
Indikator
Error Titrasi
Penggunaan indikator asam basa yang salah
Terlalu banyak menuangkan indikator ke
dalam campuran (konsentrasi indikator terlalu
besar) biasanya hanya beberapa tetes
Penanganan bahan yang salah:
Larutan basa (misal NaOH) dapat bereaksi dengan
CO2 di udara
Larutan basa perlu disimpan di dalam botol HDPE,
bukan gelas (bereaksi dengan kaca, misal buret)
Aplikasi Titrasi Asam Basa
Analisa Nitrogen dengan Kjedahl
In the Kjeldahl method, the sample is
decomposed in hot, concentrated sulfuric acid
to convert the bound nitrogen to ammonium
ion. The resulting solution is then cooled,
diluted, and made basic. The liberated
ammonia is distilled, collected in an acidic
solution, and determined by a neutralization
titration
Analisa Kandungan Sulfur
Sulfur in organic and biological materials is
conveniently determined by burning the
sample in a stream of oxygen.

The sulfuric acid is then titrated with standard


base.
Contoh
A 0.7121-g sample of a wheat flour was
analyzed by the Kjeldahl method. The
ammonia formed by addition of concentrated
base after digestion with HSO was distilled
into 25.00 mL of 0.04977 M HCl. The excess
HCl was then backtitrated with 3.97 mL of
0.04012 M NaOH. Calculate the percent
protein in the flour, if the protein ratio is
known to be 5.7 times of nitrogen.
Summary
PR
PR
PR
PR
Baca juga mengenai teori kesetimbangan
asam basa mono dan diprotik dari textbook!
Bacaan tambahan