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SELAYANG PANDANG

KAJIAN GENDER
Gender
Dalam bahasa, pengertian gender adalah
suatu gejala dimana kata-kata dengan
jenis tertentu, biasanya kata benda,
bersetujuan atau bersesuaian dengan
jenis kata lain yang terkait dengan kata
tersebut dalam sebuah kalimat melalui
penandaan gramatikal (infleksi).
Gender is not something natural, nor it is
something completely determinate and
definable. Gender is, therefore, socially
constructed and completely inescapable,
like other systems of meaning, is less like
a cage, and more like a tool: it constrains
but never completely determines what one
can do with it
Gender
Cultural programming of being feminine or masculine,
which created by society rather than nature

Not because it is
natural to do so,
because I was
taught to do so
Identitas gender berkembang melalui contoh,
pengasuhan, penguatan social dan bahasa.
Orang tua mengajarkan perilaku seks kepada
anaknya sejak usia dini dan perilaku ini
dikuatkan saat anak tersebut semakin berumur
dan memasuki dunia social yang lebih luas.
Ketika anak memperoleh bahasa, dia juga
belajar lebih awal tentang perbedaan antara he
(kata ganti dia sebagai laki-laki) dan she (kata
ganti dia sebagai perempuan) dan memahami
mana yang terkait dengan dirinya.
Studi Gender
Berkembang mulai tahun 1970an
Pertanyaan utama pada studi awal ini
adalah bagaimana dan mengapa
perempuan dianggap lebih rendah dalam
sistem patriarki sosial.
Kaum laki-laki juga memiliki gender yang
membutuhkan analisis yang jauh lebih
dalam sehingga definisi gender dibangun
bersama.
Antropologi bahasa menjadi area yang
terpengaruh secara kreatif dengan adanya fokus
gender: sehingga bukan hanya aspek gender
pada struktur bahasa-misalnya kata ganti-
namun juga berpengaruh pada penggunaan
bahasa yang berbeda pada laki-laki dan
perempuan, sehingga mempertanyakan apakah
gender pada taraf tertentu terbentuk secara
budaya melalui praktik bahasa selama siklus
kehidupan.
Jenis Kelamin dan Gender

JenisKelamin =
natural????
Gender = sosial
SEXIST (SEXISM)
as the concept of patriarchy

Women inferior to men based on biological essentialism


(biological differences) between sexes.
WOMEN MEN
Weak Size, shape, Strong
and body
chemistry
Less Intelligent, More
logical,
courageous,
leaders
The Sexist Conception in Patriarchy
Human however is unconsciously socially
programmed to justify weak assumption toward
women

Movies, TV
shows, books,
magazine and
advertisements

Forces womens self confidence to point to the


absence of their weak qualities as proof that
women are naturally submissive
The Sexist Conception in Patriarchy

Math = Logic

Women cannot Female are less


do math logical than males
The Sexist Conception in Patriarchy
Possibility
succeed in
business,
extremely
intelligent,
earn big bucks,
have strong
opinions,
have healthy
appetite, etc
The Sexist Conception of Fairy Tales
Cinderella, Snow White, etc

Female Male
Submissive Charming, Strong, Wealthy
Tolerate familial abuse
Wait to be rescued by man

Marriage as the only desirable reward


2 Identities of Women
Good Girls ( gentle, submissive, virginal, Bad Girls (violent, aggressive,
angelic) monstrous, worldly)
No sexual desire Multiple sexual partner,
Modest, unassuming, self sacrificing, jealousy,
nurturing, no needs of her own,
never angry
The Sexist Conception in Patriarchy

MEN WOMEN
More strong Strong and Powerful Less Strong
(No cry - sissies, sign of (women is weak and prone
weaknesses) to be emotional).

Taboo Fear and pain feeling Common

Taboo Expressing Sympathy Common


The Sexist Conception in Patriarchy

MEN WOMEN
Not Permitted Fail as an implication of Permitted
failure (ex : Providing
adequate economical
support)
Active Sex Passive
Permitted & Encouraged Anger and Emotion Not
(Produce aggressive behaviour Permitted
associated with manhood)
Studi Gender
Studi gender adalah bidang studi antar
disiplin yang menganalisis gejala gender.
Studi gender terkadang berkaitan dengan
kelas, ras, etnik, seksualitas dan lokasi
One is not born a woman, one becomes
one.
Maskulinitas versus femininitas
TRADITIONAL GENDER ROLES

Men
rational, strong, protective, and
decisive

Male Domination
Public Sphere
Position in economic, political,
and social power
TRADITIONAL GENDER ROLES
Women Domestic
Sphere
Emotional, irrational, weak,
nurturing, and submissive

Womens exclusion
Leadership

Decisionmaking position
Higher wages for the same jobs

Not convince to mathematics


and engineering
Contoh-contoh penelitian gender mengungkapkan hal-hal
sebagai berikut:

Kebutuhan anak laki-laki dan anak perempuan dapat dipenuhi


dengan lebih baik apabila persyaratan pendidikan dan kemampuan
diteliti secara sistematis dari sudut pandang gender.
Tidak hanya perempuan yang menghadapi kesulitan dalam
menyeimbangkan antara keluarga dan pekerjaan, namun beberapa
laki-laki dewasa juga mengalami hal yang sama (the problematic
double burden)
Perusahaan yang mempertimbangkan penelitian terhadap gender
spesifik pelanggan dan mencerminkan perbedaan gender pada pola
pembelian mampu memasuki pasar baru
Perempuan mengerjakan pekerjaan yang sama dengan laki-laki,
namun dibayar lebih sedikit. Perempuan juga mengalami kesulitan
memasuki posisi pimpinan yang sebagian disebabkan oleh
pembagian tenaga kerja yang tidak merata di rumah (sexual division
of labor)
Pengaruh studi gender
Sigmund Freud
Jacques Lacan
Julia Kristeva
Mark Blechner
Teori Sastra
Kajian Perempuan
Kajian Maskulinitas/Laki-laki
Masculinity and feminity
Myths and Stereotypes
Gender is not the same as sex

Gender non physiological aspects of being


male or female the cultural expectations
of being masculine or feminine.

Gender identity An individuals private


experience of the self as female or male

Gender role set of behaviors socially defined as


appropriate for ones self.
Stereotype
Stereotypes are socially shared
beliefs that certain qualities can be
assigned to individuals based on
their membership in a particular
group gender, race, national
origin, social class, age, religion or
even height.
Gender Roles
Williams & Bennett, 1975
Women: Affected, affectionate,
appreciative, attractive, charming,
complaining, dependent, dreamy,
emotional, excitable, feminine, fickle
flirtatious frivolous, fussy, gentle, high-
strung, meek, mild, nagging, prudish,
rattlebrained, sensitive, sentimental,
softhearted, sophisticated, submissive,
talkative, weak, whiney.
Williams & Bennett, 1975
Men: Adventurous, aggressive, ambitious,
assertive, autocratic, boastful, course,
confident, courageous, cruel, daring,
disorderly, dominant, enterprising,
forceful, handsome, independent, jolly
logical, loud, masculine, rational, realistic,
robust, self-confident, severe, stable,
steady, stern, strong, tough, unemotional,
unexcitable.
DeLisi & Soundaranayagam, 1990
There were agreement on the following:
Female core traits:
Niceness/nurturance dimension
Male core traits:
Potency/power dimension
Differences:
Females saw themselves as capable, competent,
dependable, intelligent and responsible.
Males saw females as attractive, good-looking, sexy
and sofe.
Do stereotypes imply prejudice?
Prejudice: The negtive valuation of
persons or their activities because of thei
memebership in a particular group.

Sexism: The brand of prejudice that is


based on a persons sexual category.

Discrimination???
Feminist
In Africa men wear the finery
Kukuku Tunisia
Masai
Self-image
Stereotypes of African
Americans
Asian stereotypes
Arab women the veil
Gender Schema
Schemas are cognitive structures that derive
from the integration and organization of
particular types of knowledge. Once developed,
they influence the categorization, interpretation,
and comprehension of social events and
behaviors. Self-schemas, in particular, are those
cognitive structures that contain integrated and
organized information about the self--the unique
aspects of people's personality, abilities,
achievements, interests, and appearance
How are stereotypes maintained
1.Childrearing
practices
2.Toys and clothing
3.Media ads,
stories, movies, sit-
coms
4.Other
Selffulfilling prophecy
The concept of the self-fulfilling prophecy can be
summarized in these key principles:

- We form certain expectations of people or events


- We communicate those expectations with various
cues.
- People tend to respond to these cues by adjusting
their behavior to match them.
- The result is that the original expectation becomes
true.

This creates a circle of self-fulfilling prophecies.


Film Queer di Indonesia
Pembubaran departemen Penerangan
pada tahun 2000
Peran Media sebagai agency dalam
menyebarkan wacana sexual diversity
Keterlibatan organisasi dan komunitas
gay/lesbian/queer
Perkembangan technologi audio-visual
Sutradara muda yang lebih terbuka
mengeksplorasi tema gender/seksualitas
Arisan! (2003)
Arisan!

Dunia gay yang happy, independent dan


kosmopolitan
Coming out membutuhkan prestasi
Strategi Dont Ask Dont Tell
Coming out as coming home
Lelaki tulen VS Effeminate guy
Detik Terakhir (2005)
Detik Terakhir

Lesbianism sebagai efek dari keluarga


broken home
Lesbian desire sebagai bagian dari male
gaze
Lesbianism = feminism?
Heteronormativity memprioritaskan
male gender (Sedgwick, 1985)
Panggil Aku Puspa (2004)
Panggil Aku Puspa

Karakterisasi yang lebih manusiawi


Proses transformasi waria dari masa
anak-anak ke dewasa
Identifikasi naluri kewanitaan sejak masa
anak-anak (Oetomo, 2000; Boellstorff,
2005)
Keinginan untuk merasakan pengalaman
reproduktif perempuan
Desexualization
Realita Cinta dan Rock n Roll (2006)
Realita Cinta dan Rock n Roll
Transexualisme tidak hanya wacana bagi
komunitas waria
Transwoman sebagai bagian dari keluarga
Feminitas yang berlebihan
Female Homoeroticism
Male Homoeroticism
Film Dokumenter
Deskripsi 4 film
Film Arisan! Detik Terakhir Panggil Aku Realita Cinta
Puspa dan Rock n Roll
Sutradara Nia Dinata Nanang Firman Triyadi Upi
Istiabudi

Alternative Komunitas Diskotik, Bar Salon Kecantikan Komunitas


Space Arisan, caf, Salsa
gym, apartment

Keluarga Orangtua Broken family, Keluarga Transsexual, anak


inkonvensional tunggal, anak Anak tunggal tradisional tungal
tunggal

Keluarga dan Coming out Meningalkan Pindah ke Membentuk


Homoseksualitas adalah coming keluarga Jakarta, keluarga baru
home Membentuk
keluarga baru
Queer selalu berkaitan dengan persoalan
keluarga dan masyarakat
The centrality of hetero-normative family
Negosiasi antara heterosexual compulsory dan
non-normative sexual orientation
Representasi gay, waria/transexual lebih
progresif dan optimistik daripada lesbian
Lesbianisme sbg the second class, the other
Dekonstruksi terhadap konsep keluarga ideal
Same-Sex Intimacy in the New
Orders Film
Same-sex relationships are typically portrayed in
unsympathetic ways in Indonesian films of the
long New Order period (1966-1998).
Male homosexual couple is depicted as part of
abnormality or as a sexual perversion such as in
Bay Isbahi Tinggal Bersama (1977), in Syamsul
Hadis Remaja Lampu Merah (1979), in Chaerul
Umams Titian Serambut Dibelah Tujuh (1982)
and in Wahyu Sihombings Istana Kecantikan
(1988).
Female Same-Sex Relationship
The similar homophobic depiction can be seen in
in Slamet Riyadis Gadis Metropolis I (1992),
Bobby Sandys Gadis Metropolis II (Metropolitan
Girls II, 1994) and also in Acok Rahmans
Pergaulan Metropolis (1994).
In all these films, female same-sex relationships
seems to be depicted as a pathological problem
These films focused on the female erotic body
and female same-sex intimacy becomes a
commodity for the voyeuristic male gaze
Tentang Dia (About Her): Queering
Traditional Pattern?
The film narrative explores the intimate
relationship between the two girls that can
be classified as sentimental female
friendship.
Rudi, who fled from her home as a child,
seems very happy to have found a
younger sister and strives to protect
Gadis.
While for Gadis, who has become lonely
and isolated, gains much enjoyment from
Female Homoeroticism
Their intimacy takes on homoerotic
overtones since even though there is no
overt sexual interaction, the combination
of physical and emotional contact implies
a strong degree of same-sex interaction.
The homoerotic aspect is strengthened by
the films advertising poster, which
portrays the two female characters in an
intimate manner
Tentang Dias advertising film poster
The rivalry here is a rivalry between
heterosexuality and homosexuality
The two girls are portrayed along
stereotypical butch-femme lines. Even
the two girls names reflect this dichotomy.
Gadis, is a sensitive girl. Rudi is a
masculine and confident who seems to
challenge the boundary between
femininity and masculinity.
Lesbianism and Heteronormativity
The lesbian element is suddenly negated
when Gadis seeks assurance that their
relationship is nothing more than a
friendship
The passionate emotional attachment
between persons of the same-sex is
dangerous. Rudis confession that her
protective attitude to Gadis is merely a
kind of sisterhood functions as the films
assertion of heteronormativity.
Normative sexual orientation
The lesbian competitor who must be defeated.
Finally, Randu wins the competition when Rudi is
killed by a passing car as she stoops to pick up a
photo depicting her together with Gadis
Richard Dyer (1977: 34) argues that the central
stereotypical lesbian film involves the struggles
of the main female character to decide between
her female close friend and her male love
interest.
The film suggests that a heterosexual
relationship is the normal and the ultimate
sexual relationship. Ultimately, the heterosexual
love story defeats (the possibility of)
homosexual desire
This may indicate that the representation of
lesbianism is still at an earlier stage of
development, but it also reflects the bias of a
hetero-patriarchal culture which burdens lesbian
subjectivity.
The discourse of sexual alternative is likely to
remain an area of contestation
TRANSGENDER sebagai istilah yang khusus

Third Sex
Transgender

Transexualism

Transvestism
Transgender sebagai istilah
Umum
ThirdSex
Ambiguous

Transexualism

Transvestism
A transgendered person is someone
whose gender identity or expression differs
from conventional expectations of
masculinity or femininity. Transgender or
trans-identified is often used as a catchall
term for gender variant people.
These terms are bendable and blendable

Transsexual (often a physiological designation)


Someone who self-identifies as transsexual generally
adheres to the M/F dichotomy and transitions from one to
the other, sometimes with the aid of sex-reassignment
surgeries.
Intersexual (often a biological designation)
Generally, someone born with ambiguous biological
markers of sex. This person may be transgendered,
transsexual or adhere to conventional gender roles and
identities.
Cross-Dressing (often a socio-cultural designation)
Generally fall under the transgendered heading, someone who
performs a gender that does not match their societal designed gender
role. Theres an emphasis on the performative here.

Drag King/Drag Queen (primarily a cultural designation)


Generally, someone who performs an exaggerated version of gender
opposite to that which they were assigned by society in a dramatic
show type context. Again, playing with the aspect of gender that is a
performance, and thus calling into question its biological reality.
Traditional Binary Gender Model
Biological Sex: Male Female
Hormones, genitalia
secondary sex
characteristics

Gender Expression Masculine Feminine


Dress, posture,
roles, identity

Sexual Orientation Attracted Attracted


to Women to Men
Revolutionary Gender Model
Many configurations are possible

Biological Sex: Male Intersexed Female


Hormones, genitalia
secondary sex
characteristics

Gender Expression Masculine Androgynous Feminine


Dress, posture,
roles, identity

Sexual Orientation
Attracted to: women men both neither other
Revolutionary Gender Model

Many
Biological configurations
Sex: Male
are possible
Intersexed Female
Hormones, genitalia
secondary sex
characteristics

Gender Identity Man Bi-gendered Woman


I am a:

Gender Expression Masculine Androgynous Feminine


Dress, posture,
roles, identity

Sexual Orientation
Attracted to: women men both other
Variasi Ekspresi Gender dan
Desire
Many words to identify gender-variance, including:
MTF, FTM, transman, transwoman, bi-gendered, gender-
blender, phallic woman, passing man, she-male, femme queen,
non-op, boi, two-spirit, new man, new woman, etc.
Terms:
Transgender vs. Transexual
FTM, Transman
MTF, Transwoman
Pre-op, post-op, non-op
Intersex
Transition

(Samuel Lurie-www.tgtrain.org)
Identitas Gender
Identitas gender bisa berubah, tergantung
pada konteks, budaya, geografis, dan posisi
seseorang dalam perjalanan hidupnya
Kajian medis/istilah medis seperti pre-post
opt seringkali BIAS, mengandaikan bahwa
post-opt sebagai tujuan akhir Trans
people.
Genital hanya sebagian dari menjadi
manusia
Fluiditas Gender
Tidak satu pun dari kategori transgressive
gender di atas memiliki orientasi seksual
dan preferred sexual partner yang sama
Identitas gender sebagai suatu
Continuum/rangkaian dan matrix (ex: Bissu
memiliki 5 identitas gender, kosmologi
Navajo memiliki 49 dll.)
Struktur kekuasaan dan heteronormativitas
mencoba untuk menghilangkan keragaman
gender
Ideologi seks dan gender tidak dapat
Gender Equality dan Social
Justice
Bagaimana struktur kekuasaan dan teori
kritis berperan dalam menentukan nasib
dan masa depan Trans people?
Biological Sex, Identitas gender dan
Orientasi Seksual adalah cair dan bisa
berubah
Anti-gay lebih sering menjadikan identitas
gender sebagai target daripada identitas
seksual
Sebagai istilah Homophobia lebih dikenal
Waria

Waria: wanita-pria yang merupakan istilah eufemistik


dari banci dan bencong.
Tom Boellstorff (2007: 57): istilah waria pertama kali
dikenal dalam sebuah pertunjukan di Batavia Bantji
Batavia tahun 1830 dan menjadi lebih sering
dipergunakan pada abad ke-19, waria disebut
sebagai Indigenous homosexual subjectivity.
BISSU&PUANG MATOA SAIDI