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INEQUALITY , CRIME AND

VICTIMIZATION
INTRODUCTION TO CRIME AND SOCIETY
PREPARED BY MR. SUFYAN
INTRODUCTION
Crime is a crucial problem for society for many years.
Therefore it has become a necessity for criminologists to find the
causes for criminal behaviour and understand why some people
resorting to crime.
Some criminologist link physiological factors such as gender and race
with crime and criminal behaviours.
RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN GENDER AND
CRIMINAL BEHAVIOUR
Men committed more crimes than women do.
According to a study carried out by the office of National Statistics of
America, it was reported 80% of criminal acts were perpetrated by
males.
This has been a general consensus all around the world.
In Malaysia, statistics in 2012 shows that there were 68 443 prisoners
in Malaysian prisons.
61 451 were male prisoners while 6992 were female prisoners.
This shows that are more male criminals than female criminals.
WHY THERE ARE MORE MALE CRIMINALS
THAN FEMALE?
a) Biological differences.
Estrogen in women protects physical health and mental well being. It moves women
toward developing harmonious relationships, staying connected, and toward a
preference for avoiding conflict.
While testosterone in men is a fast-acting, aggressive hormone and driver of sex. Men
have 10 to 100 times more testosterone than women, enabling men to engage in
interpersonal conflict and competition.
b) Sex role theory.
The sex role theory argues that boys and girls are socialised differently, therefore
resulting in boys becoming more delinquent.
c) Masculinity.
men commit crime as a means of constructing their masculinity.
RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN RACE AND CRIMINAL
BEHAVIOURS.
According to Cesare Lembroso there is a strong link between race and
crime by saying many of the characteristics found in savages and coloured
races are also found in delinquents.
In America for example, statistics have shown higher rates of arrest and
imprisonment for people of the African American origin.
In Malaysia, according to a report from Utusan newspaper in 2005, there
were 316 Indian prisoners in Penjara Simpang Renggam, Johor.
This amount is made up of 45% from the total amount (702) of prisoners in
the said prison.
Indians are more prone to commit crime because of unemployment and
poverty.
Source: http://210.187.28.204/Journal/BI/riseofcrime.pdf
RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN AGE AND CRIME
Age crime curve (Official Statistics) show
relationship between age and crime.
Criminal activity is measured from the age of ten
and there is a sharp increase in offending until
the age of 24; this is considered to be the peak
offending age.
Criminal activity then declines after this age.
AGE AND CRIME

Hirschi (1969)
What stops people from committing crime are the
strong social bonds that join us together
We have too much to lose if we commit crime
Older people are less likely to commit crimes, as they
have more social bonds than younger people and so
have more to lose if they are broken.
AGE AND CRIME
A Cohen
Status frustration
Young men who fail at school feel like they need a way to gain status
and so turn to crime to feel validation and climb the social ladder in
the streets, as they see this as their only option to gain status
Allows them to 'hit back' at the society who failed them.
AGE AND CRIME
Crime is because of independence.
ACC shows crime is highest in adolescents
Smith suggest crime goes down as independence rises
Because individuals can no longer rely on their parents or
other sources of authority to take responsibility of their
crimes, and so they realise the consequences of committing
crimes are higher, meaning the stop committing crimes.
RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SOCIAL CLASS AND
CRIMINAL BEHAVIOUR.
When studying social class and criminal behaviour, the social class can
be categorised into 3 types
A. White collar workers = higher social class.
B. Blue collar works = manual labour / lower social class.
C. unemployment = Individual who do not work/ cannot find work.
The reason for all three classes to commit crime is money. However
their justification might be different
Usually an opportunist
White collar Taking advantage of their circumstances for
class personal gain
e.g: Fraud, embezzlement, breach of trust

Commit violent crime


Believe have nothing to lose if they failed and
Blue collar class will gain everything they succeed
e.g: theft, burglary, assault , vandalism and etc.

Unemployment Also commit violent crimes


classs But as worse as blue collar class
VICTIMIZATION AND GENDER
Gender and Victimization Males are more likely than females to be
the victims of violent crime. Men are almost twice as likely as women
to experience robbery.
Women are six times more likely than men to be victims of rape,
domestic violence, and sexual assault.
From the facts above, we can deduce that women is more likely to be
victims in sexual related crime.
While men are more prone to be a victim when it involves violent
crime.
VICTIMIZATION AND RACE
In America, African Americans are more likely than whites to be
victims of violent crime because of income inequality.
Racial and minority group members are often forced to live in
deteriorated urban areas beset by alcohol and drug abuse, poverty,
racial discrimination, and violence.
Their lifestyle places them in the most at-risk population group.
VICTIMIZATION AND SOCIAL CLASS
The poorest Americans are also the most likely victims of violent and
property crime.
People who live in a poor neighbourhood is more likely to be a victim
of crime.
Wealthy people spends a lot of money for security and safety. Not
likely to be a victim of crime.
THEORIES OF VICTIMIZATION
There are 4 theories:
A. Victim Precipitation Theory
B. Lifestyle Theory
C. Deviance Place Theory
D. Routine Activities Theory
VICTIM PRECIPITATION THEORY
victims act provocatively, use threats or righting words, or

ACTIVE even attack first.

PRECIPITATION

occurs when the victim exhibits some personal characteristic

PASSIVE that unknowingly either threatens or encourages the


attacker.
related to power - if the target group can establish
PRECIPITATION themselves economically or gain political power in the
community, their vulnerability will diminish
LIFESTYLE THEORY
Crime is not a random occurrence, but rather a function of the
victim's lifestyle. People who belong to groups that have extremely
risky life
Example: homeless, runaways, drug users - are at high risk for
victimization; the more time they are exposed to street life, the
greater their risk of becoming crime victims.
DEVIANCE PLACE THEORY
Deviant Place Theory The greater their exposure to dangerous places,
the more likely people will become victims of crime and violence.
Deviant places are poor, densely populated, highly transient
neighbourhoods in which commercial and residential property exist
side by side.
THE ROUTINE ACTIVITY THEORY
Our daily and routine activities, also known as our lifestyle, can sometimes put us
in a vulnerable position.
The routine activity theory is a theory of crime based on behavioural patterns of
individuals and the situational factors surrounding the crime, such as when it
occurred and with whom.

Essentially, routine activities theory states that a crime will occur when three
conditions are met:
A. The presence of a potential and motivated offender who is willing and seeking
to commit a crime.
B. The presence of vulnerable and suitable targets, either person or property.
C. An absence of capable and willing guardians to protect, supervise or ward off a
potential offender.