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7-1

BAB7

KAS DAN PIUTANG

Intermediate Accounting
IFRS Edition
Kieso, Weygandt, and Warfield

7-2
Tujuan Pembelajaran

1. Mengidentifikasi kas.

2. Menunjukkan cara melaporkan kas dan item terkait.

3. Mendefinisikan piutang dan mengidentifikasi jenis piutang.

4. Menjelaskan isu-isu akuntansi yang berkaitan dengan pengakuan piutang.

5. Menjelaskan isu-isu akuntansi yang berkaitan dengan penilaian piutang.

6. Menjelaskan isu-isu akuntansi terkait dengan pengakuan wesel tagih.

7. Menjelaskan isu-isu akuntansi yang berkaitan dengan penilaian wesel


tagih.

8. Memahami Informasi khusus yang berkaitan dengan piutang.

9. Menjelaskan bagaimana melaporkan dan menganalisa piutang.

7-3
Cash and Receivables

Kas Piutang Piutang Wesel Masalah Khusus

Apa itu Kas? Pengakuan Pengakuan Opsi nilai wajar


Pelaporan kas Penilaian Penilaian Penghentian
Ringkasan pos- Proses evaluasi pengakuan atas
pos terkait kas kerugian piutang
Penyajian dan
analisis

7-4
Cash

What is cash?
Sebuah asetmerupakan suatu instrumen keuangan.

Instrumen keuangan - Setiap kontrak yang menimbulkan


aset keuangan dari satu entitas dan kewajiban keuangan
atau kepentingan ekuitas entitas lain.
Illustration 7-1
Types of Assets

7-5 LO 1 Identify items considered cash.


Cash

What is cash?
Aset yang paling likuid, tergolong aset lancar

Alat pembayaran.

Dasar untuk mengukur dan sebagai laporan bagi


seluruh pos lainnya.

Examples: mata uang, dana yang tersedia pada deposito di bank,


money order, cek bersertifikat, cek kontan, cek pribadi, bank draft dan
tabungan.

7-6 LO 1 Identify items considered cash.


Cash

Reporting Cash
Cash equivalent
Investasi jangka pendek ( 3 bulan), investasi yang
sangat likuid
(a) dapat segera dikonversikan menjadi kas, dan

(b) So near their maturity that they present insignificant


risk of changes in interest rates.

Examples: Treasury bills, commercial paper, dan reksa dana pasar


uang.
7-7 LO 2 Indicate how to report cash and related items.
Cash

Restrictied cash

When material in amount:

Dipisahkan dari rekening kas

Aktiva lancar dan aktiva tidak lancar

Examples, dibatasi untuk: (1) perluasan pabrik, (2) masa jatuh tempo
dari utang jangka panjang, dan (3) saldo kompensasi.

7-8 LO 2 Indicate how to report cash and related items.


Cash

Bank Overdrafts

Ketika sebuah perusahaan menulis cek melebihi


jumlah kas yang ada di rekening bank.

Umumnya dilaporkan sebagai kewajiban lancar (utang


usaha)

Dikompensasikan ke rekening kas hanya ketika kas


yang tersedia hadir dalam account lain di bank yang
sama di mana pinjaman rekening koran (overdrafts)
terjadi.

7-9 LO 2 Indicate how to report cash and related items.


Cash

Summary of Cash-Related Items


Illustration 7-3

7-10 LO 2
Accounts Receivable

Piutang adalah klaim kepada pihak lain atas


uang, barang atau jasa

Perjanjian secara lisan Perjanjian tertulis dari


dari pembeli/pelanggan pembeli/pelanggan untuk
untuk membayar barang membayar sejumlah uang
atau jasa yang dijual pada tanggal tertentu di
masa depan
Piutang Piutang Wesel

7-11 LO 3 Define receivables and identify the different types of receivables.


Accounts Receivable

Piutang non-usaha
1. Uang Muka kepada petugas dan karyawan.
2. Uang muka kepada anak perusahaan.
3. Deposit untuk menutupi kerusakan atau kerugian potensial.
4. Deposito sebagai jaminan kinerja atau pembayaran.
5. Dividen dan piutang bunga.
6. Klaim atas:
a) Perusahaan asuransi.
b) Defendants under suit.
c) Badan pemerintah atas pengembalian pajak.
d) Jasa angkutan atas barang yang rusak atau hilang.
e) Kreditor atas pengembalian barang, barang yang rusak dan hilang.
f) Pelanggan atas barang-barang yang dikembalikan.

7-12 LO 3 Define receivables and identify the different types of receivables.


Accounts Receivable

Non-trade Receivables Illustration 7-4


Receivables Statement
of Financial Position
Presentations

7-13 LO 3 Define receivables and identify the different types of receivables.


Accounts Receivable

Pengakuan Piutang

Trade diskon
Mengurangi harga
10 %
Tidak diakui dalam catatan Discount
akuntansi for new
Pelanggan ditagih sebesar Retail
harga jual setelah Store
dikurangi diskon Customers

7-14 LO 4 Explain accounting issues related to recognition of accounts receivable.


Accounts Receivable

Pengakuan Piutang

Cash Discounts
(Sales Discounts)
Sebagai insentif untuk
segera dibayar Payment terms
are 2/10, n/30
Gross Method vs. Net
Method

7-15 LO 4 Explain accounting issues related to recognition of accounts receivable.


Accounts Receivable

E7-5: On June 3, Bolton Company sold to Arquette Company


merchandise having a sale price of 2,000 with terms of 2/10, n/60,
f.o.b. shipping point. On June 12, the company received a check for
the balance due from Arquette Company. Prepare the journal entries
on Bolton Company books to record the sale assuming Bolton records
sales using the net method.

June 3 Accounts receivable 1,960


Sales 1,960

June 12 Cash (2,000 x 98%) 1,960


Accounts receivable 1,960

7-16 LO 4 Explain accounting issues related to recognition of accounts receivable.


Accounts Receivable

E7-5: On June 3, Bolton Company sold to Arquette Company


merchandise having a sale price of 2,000 with terms of 2/10, n/60,
f.o.b. shipping point. Prepare the journal entries on Bolton Company
books to record the sale assuming Bolton records sales using the
gross method, and Arquette did not remit payment until July 29.

June 3 Accounts receivable 1,960


Sales 1,960

June 12 Cash 2,000


Accounts receivable 1,960
Sales discounts forfeited 40

7-17 LO 4 Explain accounting issues related to recognition of accounts receivable.


Accounts Receivable

Non-Recognition of Interest Element


Sebuah perusahaan harus mengukur piutangnya dengan
nilai saat ini (present value).

In practice, perusahaan mengabaikan pendapatan


bunga yang terkait dengan piutang karena tidak material.

7-18 LO 4 Explain accounting issues related to recognition of accounts receivable.


Accounts Receivable

How are these accounts presented on the Statement of


Financial Position?

Allowance for doubtful


Account Receivable acoounts
Beg. 500 25 Beg.

End. 500 25 End.

7-19 LO 4 Explain accounting issues related to recognition of accounts receivable.


Accounts Receivable

ABC Corporation
Statement of Financial Position (partial)
Current Assets:
Merchandise inventory $ 812
Prepaid expense 40
Accounts receivable 500
Less: Allowance for doubtful accounts (25) 475
Cash 330
Total current assets 1,657

7-20 LO 4 Explain accounting issues related to recognition of accounts receivable.


Accounts Receivable

ABC Corporation
Statement of Financial Position (partial)
Current Assets:
Merchandise inventory $ 812
Prepaid expense 40
Accounts receivable, net of $25 allowance 475
Cash 330
Total current assets 1,657

7-21 LO 4 Explain accounting issues related to recognition of accounts receivable.


Accounts Receivable
Journal entry for credit sale of $100?
Accounts receivable 100
Sales 100

Allowance for
Accounts Receivable Doubtful Accounts
Beg. 500 25 Beg.

End. 500 25 End.

7-22 LO 4 Explain accounting issues related to recognition of accounts receivable.


Accounts Receivable
Journal entry for credit sale of $100?
Accounts receivable 100
Sales 100

Allowance for
Accounts Receivable Doubtful Accounts
Beg. 500 25 Beg.
Sale 100

End. 600 25 End.

7-23 LO 4 Explain accounting issues related to recognition of accounts receivable.


Accounts Receivable
Collected of $333 on account?
Cash 333
Accounts receivable 333

Allowance for
Accounts Receivable Doubtful Accounts
Beg. 500 25 Beg.
Sale 100

End. 600 25 End.

7-24 LO 4 Explain accounting issues related to recognition of accounts receivable.


Accounts Receivable
Collected of $333 on account?
Cash 333
Accounts receivable 333

Allowance for
Accounts Receivable Doubtful Accounts
Beg. 500 25 Beg.
Sale 100 333 Coll.

End. 267 25 End.

7-25 LO 4 Explain accounting issues related to recognition of accounts receivable.


Accounts Receivable
Adjustment of $15 for estimated Bad-Debts?
Bad debt expense 15
Allowance for Doubtful Accounts 15

Allowance for
Accounts Receivable Doubtful Accounts
Beg. 500 25 Beg.
Sale 100 333 Coll.

End. 267 25 End.

7-26 LO 4 Explain accounting issues related to recognition of accounts receivable.


Accounts Receivable
Adjustment of $15 for estimated Bad-Debts?
Bad debt expense 15
Allowance for Doubtful Accounts 15

Allowance for
Accounts Receivable Doubtful Accounts
Beg. 500 25 Beg.
Sale 100 333 Coll. 15 Est.

End. 267 40 End.

7-27 LO 4 Explain accounting issues related to recognition of accounts receivable.


Accounts Receivable
Write-off of uncollectible accounts for $10?
Allowance for Doubtful accounts 10
Accounts receivable 10

Allowance for
Accounts Receivable Doubtful Accounts
Beg. 500 25 Beg.
Sale 100 333 Coll. 15 Est.

End. 267 40 End.

7-28 LO 4 Explain accounting issues related to recognition of accounts receivable.


Accounts Receivable
Write-off of uncollectible accounts for $10?
Allowance for Doubtful accounts 10
Accounts receivable 10

Allowance for
Accounts Receivable Doubtful Accounts
Beg. 500 25 Beg.
Sale 100 333 Coll. 15 Est.
10 W/O W/O 10

End. 257 30 End.

7-29 LO 4 Explain accounting issues related to recognition of accounts receivable.


Accounts Receivable

ABC Corporation
Statement of Financial Position (partial)
Current Assets:
Merchandise inventory $ 812
Prepaid expense 40
Accounts receivable, net of $30 allowance 227
Cash 330
Total current assets 1,409

7-30 LO 4 Explain accounting issues related to recognition of accounts receivable.


Accounts Receivable

Penilaian Piutang
Klasifikasi

Net realizable value

Piutang tak tertagih

Penjualan kredit meningkatkan piutang tak tertagih

7-31 LO 5 Explain accounting issues related to valuation of accounts receivable.


Valuation of Accounts Receivable

Piutang tak tertagih


Piutang tak tertagih adalah hilangnya potensi pendapatan,
Penurunan aset piutang and
penurunan terkait dengan pendapatan dan ekuitas.

7-32 LO 5 Explain accounting issues related to valuation of accounts receivable.


Valuation of Accounts Receivable

Metode Akuntansi Piutang Tak Tertagih

Penghapusan Langsung Penyisihan


Secara teoritis tidak Menggunakan estimasi:
diinginkan: Persentase dari penjualan
Tidak cocok Persentasi dari piutang
Piutang tidak dinyatakan Dianjurkan oleh IFRS
pada nilai realisasi kas
Tidak dapat diterima untuk
pelaporan keuangan

7-33 LO 5 Explain accounting issues related to valuation of accounts receivable.


Uncollectible Accounts Receivable
Illustration 7-7

Emphasis on
the Income
Statement

Emphasis on
the Statement
of Financial
Position

7-34 LO 5 Explain accounting issues related to valuation of accounts receivable.


Uncollectible Accounts Receivable

Pendekatan Percentage-of-Sales

Persentase berdasarkan pengalaman masa lalu..

Biaya piutang tak tertagih berhubungan dengan akun


penjualan.

Saldo yang ada pada rekening penyisihan tidak


dianggap.

7-35 LO 5 Explain accounting issues related to valuation of accounts receivable.


Uncollectible Accounts Receivable

Percentage-of-Sales Approach

Illustration: Gonzalez Company estimates from past experience


that about 1% of credit sales become uncollectible. If net credit
sales are $800,000 in 2011, it records bad debt expense as follows.

Bad Debt Expense 8,000


Allowance for Doubtful Accounts 8,000

Illustration 7-8

7-36 LO 5
Uncollectible Accounts Receivable

Pendekatan Percentage-of-Receivables
Piutang dilaporkan sebesar nilai kas yang dapat
terealisasi.

Companies may apply this method using


Composite rate, or

Aging schedule.

7-37 LO 5 Explain accounting issues related to valuation of accounts receivable.


Uncollectible Accounts Receivable

Illustration 7-9
Accounts Receivable
Aging Schedule

What entry
would Wilson
make assuming
that no balance
existed in the
allowance
account?

Bad Debt Expense 37,650


Allowance for Doubtful Accounts 37,650

7-38 LO 5 Explain accounting issues related to valuation of accounts receivable.


Uncollectible Accounts Receivable

Illustration 7-9
Accounts Receivable
Aging Schedule

What entry
would Wilson
make assuming
the allowance
account had a
credit balance
of $800 before
adjustment?

Bad Debt Expense ($37,650 $800) 36,850


Allowance for Doubtful Accounts 36,850

7-39 LO 5 Explain accounting issues related to valuation of accounts receivable.


Recovery of Uncollectible Accounts

Illustration: Assume that the financial vice president of Brown


Furniture authorizes a write-off of the $1,000 balance owed by
Randall Co. on March 1, 2012. The entry to record the write-off is:

Bad Debt Expense 1,000


Accounts Receivable 1,000

Assume that on July 1, Randall Co. pays the $1,000 amount that
Brown had written off on March 1. These are the entries:

Accounts Receivable 1,000


Allowance for Doubtful Accounts 1,000
Cash 1,000
Accounts Receivable 1,000
7-40 LO 5
Accounts Receivable

Proses Evaluasi Penurunan


Perusahaan menilai penurunan terhadap piutang di setiap periode pelaporan.
Peristiwa yang memungkinkan terjadinya penurunan antara lain:

1. Masalah keuangan yang signifikan dari pelanggan.

2. Kegagalan pembayaran.

3. Negosiasi ulang persyaratan piutang karena kesulitan keuangan


pelanggan.

4. Penurunan estimasi arus kas masa depan dari kelompok piutang sejak
pengakuan awal, meskipun penurunannya belum dapat diidentifikasi
dengan aset dalam kelompok perusahaan tersebut.

7-41 LO 5 Explain accounting issues related to valuation of accounts receivable.


Accounts Receivable

Illustration: Hector Company has the following receivables classified into


individually significant and all other receivables.

Hector determines that Yaans receivable is impaired by $15,000, and


Blanchards receivable is totally impaired. Both Randons and Fernandos
receivables are not considered impaired. Hector also determines that a
composite rate of 2% is appropriate to measure impairment on all other
receivables.
7-42 LO 5
Accounts Receivable

The total impairment is computed as follows.


Illustration 7-10

7-43 LO 5 Explain accounting issues related to valuation of accounts receivable.


Notes Receivable

Didukung oleh promissory note


Instrumen yang dapat dinegosiasikan.

Ditandatangani oleh pembuat (maker).

Diklasifikasikan menjadi:

Interest bearing notes

Zero interest bearing notes

7-44 LO 6 Explain accounting issues related to recognition of notes receivable.


Zero-Interest-Bearing Note

Illustration: Jeremiah Company receives a three-year, $10,000


zero-interest-bearing note. The market rate of interest for a
note of similar risk is 9 percent. How does Jeremiah record the
receipt of the note?

i = 9%
$10,000 Principal

$0 $0 $0 Interest

0 1 3 3 4
n=3

7-45 LO 6 Explain accounting issues related to recognition of notes receivable.


Zero-Interest-Bearing Note

PV of Principal

$10,000 x .77218 = $7,721.80


Principal Factor Present Value

7-46 LO 6 Explain accounting issues related to recognition of notes receivable.


Zero-Interest-Bearing Note
Illustration 7-14

7-47 LO 6 Explain accounting issues related to recognition of notes receivable.


Zero-Interest-Bearing Note

Journal Entries for Zero-Interest-Bearing note

Present value of Principal $7,721.80

Date Account Title Debit Credit


Jan. yr. 1 Notes receivable 7,721.80
Cash 7,721.80

Dec. yr. 1 Notes receivable 694.96


Interest revenue 694.96
($7,721.80 x 9%)

7-48 LO 6 Explain accounting issues related to recognition of notes receivable.


Interest-Bearing Note
Illustration: Morgan Corp. makes a loan to Marie Co. and
receives in exchange a three-year, $10,000 note bearing interest
at 10 percent annually. The market rate of interest for a note of
similar risk is 12 percent. How does Morgan record the receipt of
the note?

i = 12%
$10,000 Principal

$1,000 $1,000 $1,000 Interest

0 1 2 3 4
n=3

7-49 LO 6 Explain accounting issues related to recognition of notes receivable.


Interest-Bearing Note

PV of Interest

$1,000 x 2.40183 = $2,402


Interest Received Factor Present Value

7-50 LO 6 Explain accounting issues related to recognition of notes receivable.


Interest-Bearing Note

PV of Principal

$10,000 x .71178 = $7,118


Principal Factor Present Value

7-51 LO 6 Explain accounting issues related to recognition of notes receivable.


Interest-Bearing Note

Illustration: How does Morgan record the receipt of the note?


Illustration 7-13

Notes Receivable 9,520


Cash 9,520

7-52 LO 6 Explain accounting issues related to recognition of notes receivable.


Interest-Bearing Note
Illustration 7-14

7-53 LO 6 Explain accounting issues related to recognition of notes receivable.


Interest-Bearing Note

Journal Entries for Interest-Bearing Note

Date Account Title Debit Credit


Beg. yr. 1 Notes receivable 9,520
Cash 9,520

End. yr. 1 Cash 1,000


Notes receivable 142
Interest revenue 1,142
($9,520 x 12%)

7-54 LO 6 Explain accounting issues related to recognition of notes receivable.


Notes Receivable

Umumnya berasal dari:

Pelanggan yang perlu untuk memperpanjang jangka


waktu pembayaran atas piutang yang beredar.

Beresiko tinggi atau pelanggan baru.

Pinjaman untuk karyawan dan anak perusahaan.

Penjualan properti, pabrik dan peralatan.

Mayoritas berasal dari transaksi peminjaman

7-55 LO 6 Explain accounting issues related to recognition of notes receivable.


Pengakuan Piutang Wesel

Jangka Pendek Jangka Panjang


Dicatat Dicatat
Nilai Nominal, Nilai sekarang
Dari kas yang
Dikurangi diperkirakan akan
penyisihan tertagih

Suku Bunga Dijual pada:


Ditetapkan = Pasar Nilai Nominal
Ditetapkan > Pasar Premium
Ditetapkan < Pasar Discount

7-56 LO 6 Explain accounting issues related to recognition of notes receivable.


Notes Receivable

Penilaian Piutang Wesel


Jangka Pendek dicatat dan dilaporkan pada nilai
realisasi bersihnya, yaitu pada jumlah nominalnya dikurangi
semua penyisihan yang diperlukan.

Jangka Panjang tes penurunan nilai sering dilakukan


secara penilaian individu. Rugi penurunan nilai diukur
sebagai selisih antara nilai tercatat piutang dan nilai
sekarang dari estimasi arus kas masa depan yang
didiskontokan pada tingkat bunga efektif awal.

7-57 LO 7 Explain accounting issues related to valuation of notes receivable.


Notes Receivable

Illustration: Tesco Inc. has a note receivable with a carrying amount


of $200,000. The debtor, Morganese Company, has indicated that it is
experiencing financial difficulty. Tesco decides that Morganeses note
receivable is therefore impaired. Tesco computes the present value of
the future cash flows discounted at its original effective-interest rate to
be $175,000. The computation of the loss on impairment is as follows.

7-58 LO 7 Explain accounting issues related to valuation of notes receivable.


Notes Receivable

The computation of the loss on impairment is as follows.

The entry to record the impairment loss is as follows.

Bad Debt Expense 25,000


Allowance for Doubtful Accounts 25,000

7-59 LO 7 Explain accounting issues related to valuation of notes receivable.


Special Issued

Terdapat 3 (tiga) isu khusus terkait


akuntansi dan pelaporan piutang, yaitu:

1. Fair Value Option;

2. Derecognition of receivables;

3. Presentation and analysis.

7-60
Special Issued

Fair Value Option


Perusahaan memiliki pilihan untuk mencatat nilai wajar dalam
rekening mereka untuk sebagian besar aset dan kewajiban, termasuk
piutang. [6]

The IASB percaya bahwa pengukuran nilai wajar untuk instrumen


keuangan memberikan informasi yang lebih relevan dan mudah
dipahami daripada biaya historis karena mencerminkan arus nilai
setara kas dari instrumen keuangan.

[6] International Accounting Standard 39, Financial Instruments: Recognition and Measurement
(London, U.K.: International Accounting Standards Committee Foundation, 2003), paras. IN16 and 9.

7-61 LO 8 Understand special topics related to receivables.


Special Issued

Pengukuran Nilai Wajar


Piutang dicatat berdasarkan nilai wajar.

Keuntungan atau kerugian yang belum direalisasi


dilaporkan sebagai bagian dari laba bersih.

Jika perusahaan memilih nilai wajar untuk piutangnya, maka


pilihan tersebut harus terus digunakan sampai perusahaan
tidak memiliki piutang.

7-62 LO 8 Understand special topics related to receivables.


Special Issues Related To Receivables

Illustration (Recording Fair Value Option): Assume that Escobar


Company has notes receivable that have a fair value of $810,000
and a carrying amount of $620,000. Escobar decides on December
31, 2011, to use the fair value option for these receivables. This is
the first valuation of these recently acquired receivables. At
December 31, 2011, Escobar makes an adjusting entry to record
the increase in value of Notes Receivable and to record the
unrealized holding gain, as follows.

Notes Receivable 190,000


Unrealized Holding Gain or LossIncome 190,000

7-63 LO 8 Understand special topics related to receivables.


Special Issued

Derecognition of receivables
Perusahaan dapat mengalihkan (misalnya, menjual) piutang
kepada perusahaan lain untuk memperoleh kas.
Alasan-alasannya:
Kompetisi.
Menjual piutang karena kekurangan kas.
Penagihan yang memakan waktu dan biaya yang mahal.

Transfer dilakukan dengan:


1. Pinjaman yang dijaminkan
2. Penjualan piutang

7-64 LO 8 Understand special topics related to receivables.


Penjualan Piutang
Factor merupakan perusahaan keuangan atau bank yang membeli
piutang dari perusahaan untuk mendapatkan fee.
Illustration 7-19

7-65 LO 8 Understand special topics related to receivables.


Sales of Receivables

Illustration: Crest Textiles, Inc. factors 500,000 of accounts


receivable with Commercial Factors, Inc., on a non-guarantee (or
without recourse) basis. Commercial Factors assesses a finance
charge of 3 percent of the amount of accounts receivable and retains
an amount equal to 5 percent of the accounts receivable (for probable
adjustments). Crest Textiles and Commercial Factors make the
following journal entries for the receivables transferred without
recourse.
Illustration 7-20

7-66 LO 8 Understand special topics related to receivables.


Penjualan Piutang

Assume Crest Textiles sold the receivables on a with guarantee basis.

Illustration 7-21

7-67 LO 8 Understand special topics related to receivables.


Presentation and Analysis

Presentation:

1. Mengidentifikasi dalam laporan posisi keuangan atau dalam


catatan setiap jenis utama piutang.
2. Melaporkan piutang jangka pendek di aset lancar.
3. Melaporkan nilai bruto piutang dan penyisihan piutang tak
tertagih.
4. Melaporkan beban piutang tak tertagih dan beban imbalan jasa
sebagai beban penjualan.
5. Melaporkan pendapatan bunga pada bagian lain-lain non
operasional.
7-68 LO 9 Describe how to report and analyze receivables.
Presentation and Analysis

Analysis of Receivables
Illustration 7-24

This Ratio used to:


Menilai likuiditas piutang.

Mengukur jumlah rata-rata perusahaan mengumpulkan


piutang selama periode berjalan

7-69 LO 9 Describe how to report and analyze receivables.

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