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Contents :-
General Recommendations of the code
Classification of columns
Effective Length of columns & Minimum
Design Moments in Columns
General Recos of the code
gm for concrete 1.5, for steel 1.05
Concrete strength CUBE STRENGTH
Grades of steel Fe250 & Fe460
Primary Load combination 1.4DL+1.6LL
E of concrete Ec = 5.5fcu/ gm 10% less than IS
Ultimate stress in concrete 0.67fcu/ gm
Steel Stress-strain curve Bilinear
E of steel 200 kN/mm2
Classification of columns
SHORT both lex/h and ley/b < 15 for braced columns else SLENDER
< 10 for unbraced columns

BRACED - If lateral stability to structure as a whole is provided by walls

or bracing designed to resist all lateral forces in that plane.


Effective length &minimum eccentricity
Effective length le = lo depends on end condition
at top and bottom of column.

emin = 0.05 x dimension of column in the plane of bending 20 mm


Deflection induced moments in Slender columns

Madd = N au where au = aKh
a = (1/2000)(le/b)2
K = (Nuz N)/(Nuz Nbal) 1
Nuz = 0.45fcuAc+0.95fyAsc
Nbal = 0.25fcubd

Value of K found iteratively


Design Moments in Braced columns :-

Maximum Design Column Moment Greatest of

a) M2
b) Mi+Madd Mi = 0.4M1+0.6M2
d) eminN

Columns where le/h exceeds 20 and only Uniaxially bent Shall be

designed as biaxially bent with zero initial moment along other axis.
Braced and unbraced columns
Design Moments in UnBraced columns :-

The additional Moment may be assumed to occur at whichever

end of column has stiffer joint. This stiffer joint may be the
critical section for that column.

Deflection of all UnBraced columns in a storey

auav for all stories = au/n
Design Moments in Columns
Axial Strength of column N = 0.4fcuAc + 0.8 Ascfy

Biaxial Bending Increased uniaxial moment about one axis

Mx/h My/b Mx = Mx + 1 h/bMy

Mx/h My/b My = My + 1 b/hMx

Where 1 = 1- N/6bhfcu (Check explanatory hand book)

Minimum Pt =0.4% Max Pt = 6%

Shear in Columns

Shear strength vc = vc+0.6NVh/AcM

To avoid shear cracks, vc = vc(1+N/(Acvc)

If v > vc, Provide shear reinforcement

If v 0.8fcu or 5 N/mm
Design Construction of Interaction Curve

d1 e1
A1 f1
0.5h M 0.9x
d h N x

A2 f2

Section Stress Strain

Distribution of stress and strain on a Column-Section
Equilibrium equation from above stress block

N = 0.402fcubx + f1A1 +f2A2

M =0.402fcubx(0.5h-0.45x)+f1A1(0.5h-d1)+f2A2(0.5h-d)

f1 and f2 in terms of E and f1 = 700(x-d+h)/x

f2 = 700(x-d)/x
The solution of above equation requires trial and error method