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Fluid Dynamics




Fluid Dynamics

Fluids are subject to 2 conservation laws:

Conservation of mass and conservation of energy.

Fluid dynamics is the study of the behavior of

moving fluids. When fluids are moving, we have to
address the flow velocity in addition to density
and pressure.
Steady flow is a special case in which density,
pressure, and velocity do not vary with time at a
fixed position, although they may vary from
position to position. The water isnt the same
water at every given point, but every given point
has a definite flow velocity.
There are 2 conservation laws that describe flowing fluids:
conservation of mass and conservation of energy.
Conservation of Mass:

Conservation of Energy:
The mass of a fluid element with density , area A,
and length L is the density times the volume, AL.
The fluid element crosses the area of the flow tube
in time interval t with speed v: L = vt. Therefore,
the mass of the fluid element is times the area
times the length:
m = At.
The equation applies at both ends of the flow tube,
and the masses are the same even though the
density, area, and speed may vary. The time is also
the same because it takes the same amount of
time for that mass m to enter as for that mass m to
In steady flow, the masses entering and leaving the flow
tube in time t are the same, so 1A1v1 t = 2A2v2 t.
Canceling the time element, 1A1v1 = 2A2v2.
Equivalently, the quantity Av (in kilograms per second)
is constant along the flow tube (not perpendicular to the
flow), which means that mass is conserved in a steady
flow. This equation is called the continuity equation.
For liquids, the density () is a constant because the
molecules in liquid are close together, which makes
them difficult to compress. This property is also
approximately true for gasses at subsonic speedsat
speeds that are much slower than the speed of sound.
If we cancel the because its a constant, we are left
with the volume flow rate Av along the flow tube with
units in cubic meters per second.
Bernoullis Theorem

Bernoullis theorem expresses the

conservation of energy in a flowing fluid.
Were going to restrict our study to
incompressible fluids, meaning fluids for
which the density is constant.
A flow tube rises in height an amount y from one
end to the other. There's a pressure p1 at one end,
an area A1, fluids entering the tube with velocity v1,
and a fluid x1 entering the tube. We want to know
how much work is done on that fluid element as it
movesinto the flow tube and out of the flow tube.
The Bernoulli theorem states that in places where
pressure is high in a flowing fluid, other places on
the same stream tube where pressure is lower will
have to have a higher velocity.
Bernoullis theorem is only true as you move along a
flow tube, and it leads us to assume that the
presence of high pressure occurs with low speed,
and vice versa.
Questions to Consider

The Greek philosopher Heraclitus famously said,

You cannot
step twice into the same river. Comment on the
validity of
Heraclitus statement for steady and turbulent flows.
Like the human life everything around is constantly
changing, if you step in a river you are creating
a little change you are changing the course the
ater goes of course if you repeated again it
wont have the same effect cause its a totally
different case
Why does blood pressure go down, instead of up, at the site of
obstruction in a blood vessel? Explain using the principles behind
both the continuity equation and Bernoullis equation.
=Blood travels from the heart through the major arteries down to
feet or up to the head. Ignoring branching of the arteries, we will
consider the major arteries as columns of moving fluid. Bernoulli's
equation states that:

where p is the pressure of a fluid traveling velocity v in a tube at

vertical position y and the subscripts 1 and 2 indicate different
positions in the tube.