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How is the pupil size controlled in BRIGHT

light?
STIMULUS: bright light
Detected by photoreceptors in the retina
Sends nerve impulses along optic nerve
Along sensory neurone
To CNS
Information is processes
Impulses are sent along parasympathetic motor
neurones
EFFECTORS: circular muscles of iris are stimulated
Circular muscles contract
Radial muscles relax
Constrict pupils
How is the impulse propagated along
a myelinated axon?
Neurone is stimulated, causing voltage-dependent Na+ channels to
open
Na+ ions diffuse into axon
Depolarisation of membrane increases (to +40mv)
Action potential is generated at Node of Ranvier
Local circuit is produced
Second action potential is generated by the first
If potential difference threshold is reached, more Na+ channels open
Voltage-dependent Na+ channels close
Voltage-dependent K+ channels open
K+ ions move out of axon, repolarising membrane
Hyperpolarisation of membrane occurs
Voltage-dependent K+ channels close
K+ ions diffuse back into axon, recreating resting potential
What is the REFRACTORY PERIOD?
A time delay between one action potential
and the next
Lasts until all voltage-dependent K+ and Na+
channels close, returning to normal resting
potential state
Ensures the impulses are UNIDIRECTIONAL:
travel in just one direction
How are impulses passed along a
MYELINATED neurone?
Depolarisation occurs at Node of Ranvier
Local electric current occurs between nodes
Potential difference is reduced at the next
node, initiating another action potential
Impulses jump from one node to the next by
SALTATORY CONDUCTION
How do Synapses transmit an impulse?
An action potential arrives at the presynaptic membrane
Membrane depolarises, causing:
Calcium ion channels to open; calcium ions enter neurone
Increased calcium ion concentration causes synaptic vesicles
(containing neurotransmitter) to fuse with presynaptic
membrane
Neurotransmitter released into synaptic cleft by EXOCYTOSIS
Neurotransmitter binds with receptor proteins on postsynaptic
membrane, causing:
Cation channels to open; Na+ ions flow through channels
Postsynaptic membrane depolarises, initiating an action
potential
When released, the neurotransmitter is either:
Taken up across the presynaptic membrane
Or it can diffuse away and be broken down
List some differences between Rods and
Cones
Rods Cones
Numbers in 20:1
Retina
Where in Retina All over Retina but ONLY fovea
not fovea
Light-sensitive Rhodopsin Iodepsin
pigment
Vision Only black & Colour vision
white vision ONLY in bright
Both dim & light
bright light
Sensitivity Intensity Wavelength
How does light reaching a rod cell result in
an action potential in the optic nerve to
the brain?
Light energy breaks rhodopsin opsin + retinal
Opsin binds to the membrane of the outer segment
Causes Na+ channels to close
Influx of Na+ ions into rod cell decreases while inner segment
continuously actively pumps out Na+ ions.
So inside of cell is more negative that outside
Causing membrane to be hyperpolarised (-90 mv)
Less inhibitory neurotransmitter is released
In bipolar cell:
Cation channels open
Membrane becomes depolarised
Generates an action potential in neurone of optic
nervebrain
Explain what each lobe of the brain
does.
FRONTAL LOBE: PARIETAL LOBE
Decision making Orientation
Reasoning Movement
Planning Sensation
Forming association: Calculation
infoideas Some types of recognition
Includes primary motor Memory
cortex:
Movement

Stores info TEMPORAL LOBE:
OCCIPTAL LOBE: (visual Processes auditory
cortex) processes
Hearing, sound, speech
Processes info from eyes
Vision, colour, perspective
Define Habituation.
Type of learning
Reduced response to an unimportant stimulus
after repeated exposure over time

Define homeostasis
The maintenance of a stable internal environment
How is habituation achieved?
With repeated stimulation, calcium ion channels become less
responsive:

Less calcium ions cross presynaptic membrane into presynaptic


neurone

Fewer synaptic vesicles fuse with presynaptic membrane

Less neurotransmitter is released into synaptic cleft

Less sodium ion channels on postsynaptic membrane open

Less sodium ions flow into postsynaptic membrane

Less/ no action potential is triggered


Explain negative feedback.
Receptors are used to detect deviations from
the norm
And are connected to a control mechanism
turns on/ off effectors
To bring condition back to the norm
Explain how temperature is controlled in
the body when it rises above norm.
Temperature rises above norm
Detected by:
Receptors in blood
Thermoreceptors in skin
Sends nerve impulses
Heat loss centre is activated (in hypothalamus)
Hypothalamus sends nerve impulses effectors
turn on/off
HEAT LOSS PROCESSES
Temperature falls back to Norm = 37.5C
Name processes in which the body does
to lose or gain heat
HEAT GAIN PROCESSES HEAT LOSS PROCESSES
Vasoconstriction; stimulates Vasodilation; inhibits the
the arterioles in skin to contraction of arterioles in skin
constrict
Hair erector muscles contract Hair erector muscles relax
Sweat glands are inhibited Sweat glands are stimulated to
secrete sweat
Liver secretes Liverdecreases metabolic
hormonesincreases rate
metabolic rate

Skeletal muscles contract: Skeletal muscles relax; no


shivering, increased respiration shivering
How does the cardiac muscle control the
regular beating of the heart?
Electrical impulses from the SAN
Spread across atria walls contraction
Impulses pass to ventricles via AVN
Delay: ensures atria have finished contracting and
ventricles are filled with blood before they contract
Impulses pass down the purkyne fibres to the
heart apex
Impulses spread through the ventricle walls,
causing contraction from the apex upwards
Blood is squeezed into arteries
Explain how the nervous system
increases heart rate.
An increase in heart rate is caused by:
an increase in carbon-dioxide
a decrease in oxygen
a decrease in blood PH
an increase in temperature
detected by chemoreceptor (in medulla, carotid artery,
aorta)
an increase in blood pressure
detected by pressure receptors in aorta wall and carotid
artery
sends nerve impulses cardiovascular control centre in
medulla
sends nerve impulses SAN
to increase heart rate (by sympathetic nerve)
Compare slow-twitch and fast-twitch
muscle fibres.
Slow-twitch Fast-twitch
Colour Dark red/ brown Pale white
Myoglobin More Less
Mitochondria More Less
Capillaries More Less
Kerb cycle enzyme High Low
content
Glycogen content Low High
Resistance to fatigue High Low
Type of respiration Aerobic Anaerobic
involved in
Creatine phosphate Low High
Sarcoplasmic Little Extensive
reticulum
Explain muscle contraction using the
SLIDING FILAMENT THEORY.
nerve impulse arrives at neuromuscular junction
depolarises the sarcolemma
calcium ions released out of sarcoplasmic reticulum and diffuse through
sarcoplasm
calcium ions bind to troponin, causing troponin to move exposing myosin-
binding site on actin filament
myosin head binds to myosin binding site = myosin-actin cross-bridges
activates enzyme ATPase, which is released from myosin head
provides energy to move the myosin head: causes myosin head to change
shape, causing it to nod forward, pulling actin towards the centre of
sarcomere
ATP molecule provides energy to break the actin-myosin cross-bridges, by
binding to myosin head, causing it to detach
ATPase on myosin head causes ATP hydrolysis: ATP ADP + Pi
causing a change in shape of myosin head, returning it to its upright
position
enabling cycle to repeat
Explain the process of OXIDATIVE
PHOSPHORYLATION.
Reduced coenzymes carry hydrogen ions and enzyme to Electron
Transport Chain on inner mitochondrial membrane.
Electrons get passed along electron carriers, in a series of Redox
reactions.
Protons/ H+ ions move across inner mitochondrial membrane into
intermembrane space, increasing its proton concentration.
Hydrogen ions diffuse down the electrochemical gradient back into
the mitochondrial matrix using ATPsynthase on a stalked particle
(CHEMIOSMOSIS).
The hydrogen ion diffusion allows the synthesis of ATP (ADP + Pi).
Electrons and hydrogen ions recombine with the oxygen to create
water.

(OXYGEN is called the FINAL ELECTRON ACCEPTOR.)


Explain how the nervous system
decreases heart rate.
Blood pressure
Detected by pressure receptors in the aorta
wall, carotid artery
Send nerve impulses to the cardiovascular
control centre in medulla
If pressure is too high: cardiovascular control
centre sends inhibitory nerve impulses (via
parasympathetic nerve) to the SAN
To decrease heart rate.
DEFINITIONS

The volume of air we breathe in and out


TIDAL VOLUME at each breath

VITAL CAPACITY The maximum volume of air we can


inhale and exhale
VENTILATION The volume of air taken into the lungs in
RATE one minute
= tidal volume x breathing rate
AEROBIC Ability to take in, transport and use
CAPACITY oxygen
CARDIAC OUTPUT Volume of blood pumped by the heart in
one minute
= stroke volume x heart rate
During exercise, how is breathing rate
and depth controlled?
During exercise, there is an increase in carbon-dioxide
in blood
Carbon-dioxide dissolved in blood plasma, forming
carbonic acid
Carbonic acid dissociateshydrogen ions and
hydrogen carbonate ions
PH falls
Detected by chemoreceptor
Sends nerve impulses to ventilation centre in medulla
Sends frequent nerve impulses to:
Intercostals muscles
Diaphragm
Increasing breathing rate and depth