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Group 3

ALFIYANI
DAHLENA NASUTION
DIAH NUR MAULUDIAH
INDRIYANI SETYANINGRUM
The Skin
The integument system consists of the skin (cutaneous
membrane) and its accessory organs.
The skin is composed of three layers of tissue: the
outer epidermis (made of stratified squamous
epithelium ), the middle dermis (made of fibrous
connective tissue ), and the inner subcutaneous layer
or hypodermis (made of adipose tissue and loose
connective tissue).
Accessory organs include the hair (hair root and hair
shaft) , hair follicle , pili arrector muscle, sebaceous
gland , sudoriferous gland , nails , and mammary gland.
Function
1. protection a) chemical factors in the skin:
Sebum (or oil) from the sebaceous glands is slightly
acidic, retarding bacterial colonization on the skin
surface.
Sweat from the sudoriferous glands is slightly
hypertonic and can flush off most bacteria on the
skin surface.
Melanin (skin pigment ) from melonocytes avoids
excessive ultraviolet radiation from penetrating the
skin layers .
b) physical factors in the skin:
Stratified squamous epithelium in the
epidermis layer provides a large number of
layers of cells, preventing most bacteria
invasion.
Keratinized cells in the stratum corneum layer
of the epidermis provides a physical barrier
against most invasion.
c) biological factor in the skin: White blood cells
such as macrophages destroy most invaded
bacteria and other foreign substances.
2. Excretion
waste materials such as ammonia , urea , and
excessive salt are eliminated from sweating .
3. Body temperature regulation
Sweating by the sweat glands promotes
evaporation , resulting in a loss of excessive body
heat.
Vasoconstriction by arterioles (small arteries ) in
the dermis layer provides a smaller surface area in
the blood vessels, resulting in less heat loss .
Vasodilatation by arterioles in the dermis layer
provides a larger surface area in the blood vessels ,
resulting in greater heat loss
4. Cutaneous sensation
Nerve receptors in the dermis layers detect
sensations such as heat, cold, pain, pressure,
and touch, allowing the body to be aware of
these stimuli.
5. Vitamin D synthesis
Ultraviolet radiation in the sunlight activates a
series of chemical reactions in the epidermis
layer, resulting in the synthesis of vitamin D from
the modification of cholesterol for the
absorption of calcium.
maintains homeostasis.
prevents the body from the penetration of harmful
substances.
Prevents water loss(desiccation) .
help to regulate body temperature .
contains nerve receptors for various sensations .
synthesizes chemical substances such as keratin,
melanin, and vitamin D.
excretes waste materials such as ammonia , urea , and
salts.
produces skin pigment (melanin) in the epidermis and
hair to avoid excessive penetration of UV radiation .
THE INTEGUMENTARY DISEASE
1.Congenital Skin Condition
2.Bacterial Skin Conditions
3.Viral Skin Conditions
4.Fungal Skin Conditions
Congenital Skin Condition
Bacterial Skin Conditions

Leprosy
Leprosy is a chronic, progressive bacterial infection caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium
leprae. It primarily affects the nerves of the extremities, the lining of the nose, and the upper
respiratory tract. Leprosy produces skin sores, nerve damage, and muscle weakness. If it isnt
treated, it can cause severe disfigurement and significant disability.
Viral Skin Conditions
Fungal Skin Conditions
Leprosy Desease
Definition
Leprosy is an infectious disease that causes
severe, disfiguring skin sores and nerve damage
in the arms, legs, and skin areas around the
body.
However, leprosy is actually not that contagious.
You can catch it only if you come into close and
repeated contact with nose and mouth droplets
from someone with untreated leprosy. Children
are more likely to get leprosy than adults.
Causes
Leprosy is caused by a slow-growing type of
bacteria called Mycobacterium leprae (M.
leprae). Leprosy is also known as Hansen's
disease, after the scientist who discovered M.
leprae in 1873
Symptoms
1. Growths on the skin
2. Numbness
3. Enlarged nerves
4. Nosebleeds or a stuffy nose
5. Lesions on the body
6. Skin lesions that are lighter than the person's normal skin color
7. Lesions that do not heal after several weeks to months
8. Ulcers on the soles of feet
9. Thick, stiff or dry skin
10. Severe pain
11. Muscle weakness or paralysis (especially in the hands and feet)
12. Eye problems that may lead to blindness
Type of leprosy

1. Tuberkuloid
2. Lepromatous
3. borderline
Treatment
antibiotics, such as rifampin, dapsone,
fluoroquinolones, clofazimine,
macrolides and minocycline, are used
to kill the bacteria. The diagnosis may
include more than one antibiotic. (need
time 6 month until 2 years)
Prednisone, aspirin or thalidomide may
be prescribed to control inflammation,
according to the NLM.
Preventif strategis
The prevention of new leprosy cases depends upon:
1. Wider coverage of infants in endemic regions
with the BCG vaccine
2. Secondary prevention by tracing contacts,
making an early diagnosis, and treating
infection early
3. Offering chemoprophylaxis to healthy
household contacts
4. Additional vaccination of leprosy patients
with BCG (though this may speed up the
onset of paucibacillary leprosy)
Complication
Complications of leprosy can include:
1. glaucoma
2. Disfiguration of the face
3. Erectile dysfunction and infertility in men.
4. Kidney failure
5. Muscle weakness
6. Permanent damage to the inside of the nose
7. Permanent damage to the nerves outside the
brain and spinal cord
Bibliografi
http://www.ivyroses.com/HumanBody/Skin/Skin_Disor
ders.php
http://www.lamission.edu/lifesciences/AliAnat1/Chap
%203%20-%20Integumentary%20System.pdf
https://www.healthline.com/health/leprosy#overview
1
https://www.webmd.com/skin-problems-and-
treatments/guide/leprosy-symptoms-treatments-
history#2
https://www.livescience.com/56426-leprosy-
symptoms-treatment.html
Answer this questions
1. how many layers are there on the
Integumentary ?
a. 1
b. 2
c. 3
d. 4
2. The functions of integumentary, except...
a. protection
b. Excretion
c. Body temperature regulation
d. Vitamin C synthesis
3. Herpes disease is caused by ...
a. Congenital Skin Condition
b. Bacterial Skin Conditions
c. Viral Skin Conditions
d. Fungal Skin Conditions
4. Eczema is the kind of ...
a. Congenital Skin Condition
b. Bacterial Skin Conditions
c. Viral Skin Conditions
d. Fungal Skin Conditions
5. Tinea corporis is the kind of ...
a. Congenital Skin Condition
b. Bacterial Skin Conditions
c. Viral Skin Conditions
d. Fungal Skin Conditions
6. Below are prevention of leprosy, except ?
a. Wider coverage of infants in endemic
regions with the BCG vaccine
b. Doing a facial care
c. Secondary prevention by tracing
contacts, making an early diagnosis,
and treating infection early
d. Offering chemoprophylaxis to healthy
household contacts
7. what cause of leprosy?
a. Rubella
b. Salmonella typhi
c. Mycobacterium leprae
d. Varisella
8. Below are the type of leprosy, except?
a. Tuberkuloid
b. Burn
c. Lepromatous
d. borderline
9. Below are complication of leprosy,
except ?
a. Glaucoma
b. Disfiguration of the face
c. Erectile dysfunction and infertility in
men.
d. Heart failure
10. Below are the kinds of anti-biotic is ?
a. Rifampin
b. Tramadol
c. Ringer laktat
d. Paracetamol