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Chapter 5

Road Materials
Aggregates' test for
classification of good quality:

- Test for Strength.

- Test for Soundness.
- Test for affinity and swell.
- Test for resistance to polishing.
- Degradation test.
Test for Strength

• Rattler test is done in a hollow cylinder closed at

both ends, measures 70 cm inside diameter by 50
cm long provided with steel shelf projecting
radially inward 3.5 in mounted with its axis
horizontally on stub shaft and fastened at the

• Rotate the cylinder 500 rev at 30-33 rpm

• The sample is passed on to No. 13 sieve. Amount
of loss=(Final weight-Original weight)x100

• FHWA recommended that for a dense graded

mixture shall have 50 or less coefficient of water.

• 40 or less for open graded mixture.

Test for Soundness

• A sample of fine or coarse aggregate is dried,

then immersed in a saturated solution of
sodium or magnesium sulfate, then drained,
and oven dried.

• The application of liquid solutions is conducted

in 5 immersion and drying cycles.
• After washing and drying, samples are
examined and sieve to determine the changes in
particle size then recorded as percentage loss.

• Some road agencies do not require this test in

areas where temperature of the pavement does
not fall below freezing point.
Test for Affinity and Swell

• Hydrophilic- when aggregate has greater affinity

for water than asphalt.

• Hydrophobic- less affinity for water

• When the chemical bond between the aggregates

and water is stronger than those between
aggregates and asphalt, the aggregate is
hydrophilic. Hydrophobic when pinholes develop on
the asphalt and water penetrate the surface until it
reaches the aggregates.
• Such water interferences will destroy the aggregate and
asphalt bond in due time.

• Stripped asphalt flushes to the surface of the pavement,

then fine aggregates that are susceptible to swelling will
expand when moistened, and disrupt the pavement

• The immersion compression test (AASHTO T-165)

indirectly measure the tendency of aggregate to strip or
swell under the effects of water.
Test for Resistance to Polishing

• If the aggregate surface of the road becomes polished and

sticky, the coefficient of friction between the road surface and
the tire will be dangerously low.

• The skid resistance has a bearing relation with the polishing

of the aggregate .

• Aggregates produced from limestone are practically

susceptible to polishing.
• Limestone coarse aggregate containing larger
amount of sand that are insoluble in diluted
hydrochloric acid, are found to be resistance to

• The friction factor between the road surface and the

tire will increase substantially if silica sand is included
in the mixture.
Degradation Test
• About 2.5 kg coarse aggregate retained on No. 4 sieve are
washed thoroughly and agitated for 10 min

• Sedimentation test like sand equivalent test for soil is done

on the sample passing the 0.075 mm (no. 200) particles
generated. The durability index result ranges from 0-100
but FHWA specifications set a minimum valve of 35.

• For fine aggregate that passes the 4.75 mm (no. 4) test is

the same procedures as mentioned except that the sample
size is 1/2 kg.

• The sand equivalent test is performed after 10 min to

establish durability index of 35.
Particle Size

• Dense graded pavement

• Open graded pavement

• Sheet asphalt
Aggregate for
Portland Cement
Concrete Pavement
• Under AASHTO T-21 standard test, the
aggregate is treated with a mixture of
sodium hydrochloride solution and when it
turns dark, organic materials are said to be
present which may cause slow or non-
hardening of the concrete.

• 2. The strength of fine aggregate is measured

by the compression tests of sand-cement
• The resistance to deterioration under the action
of Sodium or Magnesium Sulfate measures the
soundness of fine aggregate.

• It consists of crushed stone, gravel, blast furnace,

slag, or approved inert materials of similar
characteristics for coarse materials.
DPWH classifications of aggregates
under item 703
• Consist of hard, durable particles of fragments of
crushed stone, crushed slug, crushed or natural

• Coarse Aggregate

• Fine Aggregate

• Base Coarse

• Surface Coarse
Mineral Filler
Dust additives classification:

• Slag • Trap Rock Dust

• Hydrated Lime • Fly Ash

• Portland Cement

• Finely powdered limestone

"Mineral filler shall consist of finely divided
mineral matter such as rock dust, slag dust,
hydrated lime, hydraulic cement, fly ash or other
suitable mineral matter. It shall be free from
organic impurities and at the time of use shall be
sufficiently dry to flow freely and shall be
essentially free from agglomerations."
• It is in liquid form when mixed or combined
with aggregates, produced by either heating,
by dissolving in solvent, or by emulsifying in

• The action of asphalt binder depends on its

type and the aggregate it is combined with.
The asphalt binder resist the abrasive force
brought about by heavy traffic.

• If it is an open type road pavement, heavy

binder is needed requiring more asphalts,
while if aggregates in the pavement contain
fine particles, less viscous asphalt is required.
Cutback or Liquid Asphalt

• Liquid asphalt- a petroleum product consisting of

asphalt cement with liquid distillate(diesel,
kerosene, or gasoline). Less viscous asphalt contains
diluents as little as 15%

• Use of cutback- a.) Usable fuel b.) An air pollutant

• Classification of Cutback or Liquid Asphalt- a.) Slow

curing (SC) road soil b.) Medium curing (MC)
cutback asphalt c.) Rapid curing (RC) cutback
Emulsified Asphalt

• Emulsified asphalt

• Emulsified asphalt

• Cationic Emulsion

• Rejuvenating Agent
Oxidized Asphalt
and Road Tar
The DPWH Specifications classify Bituminous
Tack under Item 302 which provides that:

• Bituminous material shall be either Rapid

Curing Cutback or Emulsified asphalt

• Tack coat shall be applied only to dry surfaces

or slightly moist. No tack coat shall be applied
when the weather is either foggy or rainy

• Immediately prior to the application of tack

coat, the road surface is lightly sprayed with
water, but not to be saturated
• The rate of application of either the rapid
curing, cutback or emulsified asphalt is within
the range of 0.2-0.7 L/m^2. Any excess should
be blotted by sand or removed

• Tack coat shall be sprayed only as far in

advance on the surface course as will permit it
to dry in a tacky condition
Bitumen- Rubber
• Very little improvement gained as far as
coefficient of friction on newly laid pavement
but expect higher advantages after six
months. "An appraisal of the real economic
value of the addition of rubber to asphalt
must wait on further observation of the
behavior of experimental pavements under
the influence of age, weather and traffic." -
Bureau of Public Roads

• Powdered rubber foams added to bitumen has

improved the stability of some but not all.
Problems Associated with
Bituminous Binders
• The thicker the asphalt film, the lesser process of

• Too dry mixtures easily cracks and breaks

• Higher asphalt content and lower percentage of

voids cause pavement instability

• Improper construction procedure can age asphalt

• Storing the mixed materials cause substantial
reduction of asphalt penetration

• Climatic conditions

• Different brand or source has variability in behavior

• An asphalt meeting a specified penetration

requirement at 77°F but with high viscosity
temperature ratio will become hard and brittle at
lower temperature
Bituminous Pavement
the mixture of rock material particles with asphalt has
created many names to with:

• Asphalt macadam • Asphalt sheet

• Asphalt concrete • Road mix

• Mastic • Armor coat

• National paving • Oil mat etc.

• Plant mix
Qualities of Road Asphalt

• The surface must be free from cracks or

raveling due to shrinkage and fatigue

• It must withstand weather condition,

including the effect of surface water, heat,
cold and oxidation.

• It must be resistant to internal moisture

• It must posses a tight porous impermeable

• It must be smooth riding and skid free

Satisfactory asphalt pavement
construction procedure:

• Viscous asphalt binder is heated to a

fluid condition and mixed with heated
aggregates, then laid and compacted
while still hot

• Mixing liquid or emulsion asphalt with

aggregates at normal temperature, then
laid and compacted
• Spread and compact the clean crushed
stones, sprayed with heated or
emulsified asphalt binder over it and
cover the sprayed pavement with fine
aggregates. This procedure is the
"penetration method"
Asphalt Concrete Pavement

- a dense graded road surface made of hot

mineral aggregates, mixed with hot asphalt and
laid at high temperature of about 275°F-

-highest type of dense bituminous pavement

-the thickness ranges 2-6 in

Bituminous Pavement Failure
-caused by excessive load

-heavy loads creates deflection on the road surface wherein

repetitious application will roughen and crack the road pavement
that results to failure

-deflection on the road surface may be the effect of elastic

deformation of the base and subsoil or from the combination of
elastic and plastic deformation
Macadam Asphalt Mat

- has a large amount of voids in the lower part of the

aggregate layers. The base or surface is composed of
two or three layers of progressively smaller, clean,
sharp angular stones bonded by asphalt, wherein each
layer is compacted by rolling then sprayed with asphalt.
Surface Treatment
Surface treatment is subdivided as follows:

• Dust palliative
• Prime coat or Track coat
• Armor coat
• Seal Coat and Retread
• Sheet Asphalt
• Cold Laid Asphalt
• Slurry Seal
• Asphalt Overlay
Aggregate for Bituminous Concrete

• Fine Aggregates

• Open Graded Asphalt Concrete Friction Coarse

• Lightweight Aggregate

• Aggregates for Bituminous Plant-Mix Surfacing

• Aggregates for Hot-Mix Bituminous Pavement

• Bed Course Materials

DPWH Standard Specifications on
Prime Coat, Tack Coat and Seal Coat

Item 301 Bituminous Prime Coat Materials

1. The liquid bituminous material sprayed by a pressure distributor with no
less than 100 L capacity mounted on pneumatic tires of width and load
produced on the road surface not to exceed 1000 kg/cm width of the tire.

2. The tank must have heating devices able to heat complete charge of
bituminous liquid up to 180°C

3. The flame should not touch the casing of the tank directly containing the
bituminous liquid
4. The tank has a fixed thermometer to measure the liquid
temperature continuously, and a calibrated dipstick to indicate its

5. The spraying bar must have nozzles from which the liquid is
sprayed in fan-shaped

6. The pump is furnished with an indicator showing the liquid

flow rate

7. The distribution is furnished with a Tachometer indicating its

forward speed visible from the drivers seat

8. The distributor shall be designed where the deviation from the

prescribed rate of the application does not exceed 10% equipped
with a device for hand spraying of the bituminous liquid
Application of Bituminous
• The surface shall be cleaned

• The surface slightly sprayed with water but not saturated

• Application of the bituminous material ranges 1-2 L/sq. m

• Prime coat should be left undisturbed within 24 hours

• Prime coat should not exceed the specified amount

• Area not accessible by the distributor is sprayed
manually using hand spraying device

• The surface of the road and the trees adjacent

shall be protected
Item- 302 Bituminous Tack Coats

- Standard specification is the same as of the prime coat


• It is applied either by RC Cutback or Emulsified Asphalt within

the range 0.2- 0.7 L/sq. m

• Tack coat is sprayed in advance on the surface to permit it to dry

into a tacky condition
Item-303 Bituminous Seal Coat

• Approximate amount on Table 5-14

• Bituminous material is the Asphalt Cement penetration grade 120-

150 RC or MC Cutback asphalt

• Cover aggregates for type 2 Seal Coat consist of sand or fine

screening or other organic matter

• Aggregate for type 3 is crushed stone, crushed slag, or crushed

• Aggregate shall have mass percentage of
wear not exceeding 40 when tested by

• Crushed slag should be uniformed in density

(not less than 950 kg/sq. m as determined by
AASHTO T-96) and quality
Construction Requirements

• Seal coating should not be undertaken on foggy or

rainy days.

• No work should be continued at night unless

provided with sufficient lighting.

• Seal coating should not be started until bituminous

surface is thoroughly compacted.
• Seal coating should not be placed on
newly constructed or reconditioned road
surface in less than 10 days after laid and
opened to traffic.

• Road surface should be cleaned.

Application of Bituminous Materials

• Bituminous material shall be applied using

pressure distributor.

• Pressure distributor specifications do not differ

from Item- 301 Bituminous Prime Coats.

• Application should not exceed the specified

• A trip of manila paper approximately 1m wide should be
used at the beginning and removed after.

• Any skipped areas should be corrected immediately by

hand application.
Spreading Cover Aggregates

• Cover aggregates should be spread evenly at

the rate of 0.004-0.007 cu. m/sq. m immediately
after asphalt application.

• It is done through aggregate spreader.

• Tires of the aggregate truck must not come in

contact with the newly applied asphalt.

• After spreading the cover, the surface is broom

Construction Requirements

• The contractor or supplier shall furnish the engineer certified

certificate in duplicate of the asphalt materials delivered to the site.

• The contractor shall provide weighing equipment on the site.

• A mechanical spreader is used for spreading the aggregate

Application of Bituminous
• It is done only in dry and favorable weather condition.

• Asphalt material is applied to the surface at least 24 hours after it

has been prime coated.

• Asphalt material should be applied on dry surface whenever

cutback or asphalt cement is used.

• The recommended application temperature for asphalt cement is

within the range that produces a viscosity of 10-60 sec saybolt
Spreading the Aggregates

• Dry aggregate is uniformly and evenly distributed

immediately after applying asphalt mineral.

• Truck delivering aggregate shall move backward in

spreading aggregate.

• No portion of the sprayed surface shall remain

uncovered for more than 2 minutes.
• Asphalt material exposed during rolling operation should
be covered with additional aggregate.

• Traffic should be prohibited from passing at speed

exceeding 40 km/h before the asphalt material is
completely set.
• a.) Hand or power operated brooms
b.) Shovel
c.) Rakes
d.) Self powered bituminous material distributor or
power operated spray pumps, broom dragging
equipment and self powered rollers.
• Sufficient number of stiff-fiber steel bristle push
• Roller that is self-propelled steel wheel, vibratory or
pneumatic type.
Base Preparation

• Before spreading the aggregate, the base shall be

properly cleaned.

• Prime coat or tack coat is applied.

• Building paper is laid over the previous


• The distributor should not be cleaned into ditches,

borrow pits or shoulder along the right of way.
Item- 306 Bituminous Surface Course

• Equipment include: bituminous distributor and heating

equipment, scarifier, mixer, spreader, and finishing
compacting equipment.

• Road roller that is self propelled steel wheel and a

pneumatic tire rollers.

• All tires of pneumatic roller is equally inflated.

Base Preparation

 Case I- New Aggregate

 Case II- Salvaged

Geoplastic Fabrics
Functions of Geoplastic Fabrics

• Filter

• Drainage

• Separator

• Reinforcement

• Armor
Differences in Properties Includes

• Specific Gravity
• Strength
• Future Stain
• Modulus of Elasticity
• Creep Resistance
• Resistance to ulta-violet light and biological effect
 Construction Methods
 Monofilament Fabrics
 Multifilament Fabrics
 Ribbon Filament Fabrics
 Knitted Geoplastic Fibers (KGF)
 Non-woven Geoplastics
Manner of arrangement of fibers
or strand:

• Needle punching through the fabrics

• Heat bonding or melt bonding

• Resin bonding wherein the fabric is impregnated

with a resin which cements the fibers together

• Combination bonding is the combination of two or

more of the processes described to produce a
particular characteristics