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Motivation Matters: Tools to

Encourage Students to Become


Engaged Readers and Learners

Joy L. Russell
jlrussell@eiu.edu
Department of EC/ELE/MLE
Eastern Illinois University
East Central-EIU Reading Council
February 9, 2009
Why is the topic of Motivation
Important?
• http://www.youtube.co
m/watch?v=29xGvc5
QbiU
FACTORS AFFECTING STUDENT
ACHIEVEMENT Marzano, 2001
• SCHOOL
- guaranteed and viable curriculum
- challenging goals and effective feedback
- parent and community involvement
-safe and orderly environment
-collegiality and professionalism
• TEACHER
-instructional strategies
-classroom management
-classroom curriculum design
• STUDENT
-home atmosphere
-learned intelligence and background knowledge
-motivation
Describe the Motivated Student
Motivational Descriptors
(Howse, Lange, Farran, & Boyles, 2003)
• Student is competitive with self and/or
other children.
• Student is a self-starter: independent.
• Student can interest self.
• Student prefers challenging rather than
nonchallenging tasks.
What Motivates You?
Score yourself as follows:

Intrinsic Motivation: Extrinsic Motivation:

• Reverse scores for items 9 • Reverse scores for items 1,


and 14 16, and 22

• Add the scores for these • Add the scores for these
items: items:
3+5+7+8+9+11+13+14+17+2 1+2+4+6+10+12+15+16+18+
0+23+26+27+28+30 19+21+22+24+25+29

• Higher scores indicate higher • Higher scores indicate higher


levels of intrinsic motivation. levels of intrinsic motivation
An average Intrinsic An average Extrinsic
Motivation score based on Motivation score based on
previous experiments is 45. previous experiments is 39.
Where do you score? Where do you score?
Motivation Definitions
(Messer, 1995; Stipek, 2002)

• Intrinsic Motivation: This is an internal locus


of causality. Student involved in activities by
own volition. Exists in absence of extrinsic
reward or purpose.
• Extrinsic Motivation: This is an external locus
of causality. Student involved in activities to
receive reward or please another or some
other reason other than personal preference.
“Children don’t need to be rewarded to learn…..at any age
rewards are less effective than intrinsic motivation..” Kohn, 1993

WHAT DO YOU
THINK?
Is learning a
function of the
teacher’s ability
to find the right
combination of
rewards and
punishments?
Motivation… Fact or Fantasy?
1. Some kids are just not
motivated?
2. Rewards motivate?
3. You can be motivated
one day and not the
next?
4. Competition is a great
motivator?
Yougottawanna…
5. Punishment is an
effective motivator?
PRINCIPLES FOR MAXIMIZING STUDENT
MOTIVATION FOR LEARNING

1. Operate from understanding of student needs.


2. Manage Context-Not students
Motivation for Learning
Bain& Jacobs, 1990; Brophy & Good, 1986; Wang, Haertel & Walberg, 1993)

• High levels of motivation in teachers relate to


high levels of motivation for students
• Teacher’s enthusiasm for learning and for the
subject matter is an important factor in student
motivation
• http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0s-
oGumvPz0&feature=related
• A teacher’s involvement in graduate studies may
be a source of motivation for students
Standards for Maximizing Student
Motivation
The student must believe the learning is…
• Valuable
• Involving
• Successful
• Safe
• Caring
• Enabling
What makes children want to read?
Intrinsic Motivation Extrinsic Motivation
• Involvement (the • Recognition (awards,
experience of getting prizes, etc)
lost in a book • Grades
• Curiosity (interest in • Compliance
the subject) • Competition
• Preference for
challenge (seeking to
figure something out
Motivating Students to Read
• Assign the reading at least two sessions before it will be
discussed
• Assign study questions
• Have students turn in brief notes on the day's reading that they
can use during exams
• Ask students to write a one-word journal or one-word sentence
• Ask nonthreatening questions about the reading
What makes children want to read?
Self-efficacy Social Interaction
• Belief by the student • Sharing with friends
that s/he can be and family through
successful at reading discussion, shared
so that s/he writing, etc.
approaches books
with confidence
• http://www.broward.k12.fl.us/learnresource
/Readmotivation.htm The Superintendent’s
reading Motivation project
• http://www.rif.org/parents/motivate/default.
mspx Reading is fundamental
• http://www.readingrockets.org/research/to
pic/motivation Reading motivation
research
Ideas to increase intrinsic
motivation (Rogers, Ludington, & Graham, 1997)
• Provide meaningful choices
• Provide frequent, specific, non-
judgmental feedback focused on
progress and growth
• Embed learning in activities students
find enjoyable and worthwhile
• Protect the student from
embarrassment
• Build positive self confidence through
evidence of success
• Avoid the overuse of extrinsic
motivators
• Match instructional activities to
students learning needs
• Model learning with enthusiasm
• Use cooperative learning (build
community)
• Provide celebrations for success
• http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wec6w-
r4g8U&feature=related change the world