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# Chapter 2 mathematical models of systems

2.1 Introduction
2.1.1 Why？
1) Easy to discuss the full possible types of the control systems—in terms of the
system’s “mathematical characteristics”.
2) The basis — analyzing or designing the control systems.
For example, we design a temperature Control system :
Disturbance
e(t)=
r(t)-c(t) uk uac Output T(t)
Input r(t) + Controller Actuator Process
actual
-
desired output (－) Control Actuating
temperature signal signal output
temperature
Feedback signalb(t) temperature
measurement

Fig. 2.1

## The key — designing the controller → how produce uk.

Chapter 2 mathematical models of systems
Different characteristic of the process — different uk:
T(t) Ⅰ Ⅰ uk 11
T2

For T1 
T1
Ⅱ uk 12
uk
Ⅰ  u k 21
uk11 uk12 
uk21 For T2 
Ⅱ  u
 k 22  

2.1.2 What is ？
Mathematical models of the control systems—— the mathematical
relationships between the system’s variables.
2.1.3 How get？
1) theoretical approaches 2) experimental approaches
3) discrimination learning
Chapter 2 mathematical models of systems
2.1.4 types
1) Differential equations
2) Transfer function
3) Block diagram、signal flow graph
4) State variables(modern control theory)
2.2 Input-output description of the physical systems — differential
equations
The input-output description—description of the mathematical
relationship between the output variable and the input variable of the
physical systems.
2.2.1 Examples
Chapter 2 mathematical models of systems
Example 2.1 : A passive circuit

## define: input → ur output → uc。

R L
we have：
i di du
ur C uc Ri  L  uc  ur i  C c
dt dt

d 2uc duc
LC 2  RC  uc  ur
dt dt

L d 2uc duc
make : RC  T 1  T 2  T1T2 2  T1  uc  ur
R dt dt
Chapter 2 mathematical models of systems
Example 2.2 : A mechanism
Define: input → F ，output → y. We have:
2
dy d y
F  ky  b m 2
dt dt
F k 
2
d y dy
m 2  b  ky  F
m dt dt
y
b m
f If we make :  T1,  T2
k b
d2y dy 1
we have : T1T2 2
 T1 y F
dt dt k
Compare with example 2.1: uc→y; ur→F ─ analogous systems
Chapter 2 mathematical models of systems
Example 2.3 : An operational amplifier (Op-amp) circuit
R2 R3 Input →ur output →uc
C 1
i2
R4
i3 uc  R3i3 
C  (i3  i2 )dt  R4 (i3  i2 )......(1)

u
ur R1 i 1 i2  i1   r ...........................................(2)
R1
- uc
+ 1
i3  (uc  R2i2 ).....................................(3)
R1 R3
du R  R  R2 R3 dur 
(2)→(3); (2)→(1); (3)→(1)： R C
4
c  uc   R (
2 3
 R4 )C  ur 
dt 1
 R2  R3 dt 
R2  R3 R2  R3
make : R4C  T ;  k; (  R4 )C  
R1 R2  R3
duc dur
we have : T  uc  k (  ur )
dt dt
Chapter 2 mathematical models of systems
Example 2.4 : A DC motor
Ra La
( J1, f 1)

ia w1
( J2, f 2)
ua M w2 ( J3, f 3) Mf
w3
i1
Input → ua， output → ω1 i2
dia
La  Raia  Ea  ua ....(1) (4)→(2)→(1) and (3)→(1):
dt
M  Cmia .........................(2) La J  La f Ra J  R f
1  (  ) 1  ( a  1)1
CeCm CeCm CeCm CeCm
Ea  Ce1.........................(3)

d1 1 L R
 ua  a M  a M
M M J  f 1.....(4) Ce CeCm CeCm
dt
Chapter 2 mathematical models of systems
J J
J  J1  22  2 32 ......equivalent moment of inertia
i1 i1 i2
f f
here : f  f1  22  2 32 ......equivalent friction coefficient
i1 i1 i2
Mf
M ..........................equivalent torque
i1i2
(can be derived from : 1  i12  i1i23 )

## Make: Te  La ............electric - magnetic time - constant

Ra
Ra J
Tm  .......mechanical - electric time - constant
CeCm
Ra f
Tf  ....... friction - electric time - constant
CeCm
Chapter 2 mathematical models of systems
The differential equation description of the DC motor is:
 
TeTm 1  (TeT f  Tm ) 1  (T f  1)1

1 1
 ua  (TeTm M  Tm M )
Ce J
Assume the motor idle: Mf = 0, and neglect the friction: f = 0, we have:

d 2d 1
TeTm 2  Tm   ua
dt dt Ce
Chapter 2 mathematical models of systems
Example 2.5 : A DC-Motor control system
R2
R3
+ DC
ur R1 R3 mot or
- - ua M
uk w l oad
R1
t r i gger
Uf r ect i f i er -
M
t echomet er
+
Input → ur，Output → ω; neglect the friction:
R2
uk  (ur  u f )  k1(ur  u f )........................................(1)
R1
u f  .....................(2) ua  k2uk ......................(3)

d 2 d 1 1
TeTm 2
 Tm   ua  (TeTm M  Tm M )......(4)
dt dt Ce J
Chapter 2 mathematical models of systems
（2）→（1）→（3）→（4），we have：

d 2 d 1 Tm
TeTm 2  Tm  (1  k1k2 C )  k1k2 ur 
1 (Te M  M )
dt dt e Ce J
2.2.2 steps to obtain the input-output description (differential
equation) of control systems
1) Determine the output and input variables of the control systems.

## 2) Write the differential equations of each system’s components in

terms of the physical laws of the components.
* necessary assumption and neglect.
* proper approximation.
Chapter 2 mathematical models of systems
3) dispel the intermediate(across) variables to get the input-output
description which only contains the output and input variables.
4) Formalize the input-output equation to be the “standard” form:
Input variable —— on the right of the input-output equation .
Output variable —— on the left of the input-output equation.
Writing polynomial—— according to the falling-power order.
2.2.3 General form of the input-output equation of the linear
control systems—A nth-order differential equation:
Suppose: input → r ，output → y
y (n )  a1 y ( n 1)  a2 y ( n 2)      an 1 y (1)  an y
 b0r (m)  b1r ( m1)  b2r (m 2)      bm 1r (1)  bmr.........n  m
Chapter 2 mathematical models of systems
2.3 Linearization of the nonlinear components
2.3.1 what is nonlinearity？
The output is not linearly vary with the linear variation of the
system’s (or component’s) input → nonlinear systems (or
components).
2.3.2 How do the linearization？
Suppose: y = f(r)
The Taylor series expansion about the operating point r0 is:
(1) f ( 2) ( r0 ) 2 f ( 3) ( r0 )
f ( r )  f ( r0 )  f ( r0 )( r  r0 )  ( r  r0 )  ( r  r0 )3    
2! 3!
 f ( r0 )  f (1) ( r0 )( r  r0 )
make : y  f ( r )  f ( r0 ) and : r  r  r0

## wehave : y  f ' ( r0 )r ............linearizat ion equation

Chapter 2 mathematical models of systems
Examples:
Example 2.6 : Elasticity equation F ( x)  kx
suppose : k  12.65;   1.1; operating point x0  0.25
F ' ( x )  kx 1  F ' ( x0 )  12.65  1.1  0.250.1  12.11
we have : F ( x )  F ( x0 )  12.11( x  x0 )
that is : ΔF  12.11x..............linearizat ion equation

## Example 2.7 : Fluxograph equation

Q( p )  k p
Q —— Flux; p —— pressure difference
Chapter 2 mathematical models of systems
k
because : Q ' ( p ) 
2 p
k
thus : Q  p...........linearizat ion equation
2 p0

## 2.4 Transfer function

Another form of the input-output(external) description of control
systems, different from the differential equations.
2.4.1 definition
Transfer function: The ratio of the Laplace transform of the
output variable to the Laplace transform of the input variable,with
all initial condition assumed to be zero and for the linear systems,
that is:
Chapter 2 mathematical models of systems
C ( s)
G( s) 
R( s )
C(s) —— Laplace transform of the output variable
R(s) —— Laplace transform of the input variable
G(s) —— transfer function
Notes:
* Only for the linear and stationary(constant parameter) systems.
* Zero initial conditions.
* Dependent on the configuration and the coefficients of the
systems, independent on the input and output variables.
2.4.2 How to obtain the transfer function of a system
1) If the impulse response g(t) is known
The Laplace Transform Pair

H s    ht e  st dt
0
i
ht    
1

st
H s e ds
2i i

## • Example 1: decaying exponential

Transform: h (t ) = e -st
¥
0 t
H (s ) = ò e - (s +s )t
dt Im(s)
0
¥
- 1 -(s +s )t
= e
s +s 0 x
- Re(s)
Re(s ) > -s
1
= ; 17
s +s
The Laplace Transform Pair

## Example 2: Damped sinusoid

h (t ) = e -st cos(wt )
t
= e -st (eiwt + e -iwt )
1 0
2
= (e + e -(s +iw )t )
1 -(s -iw )t
2
1æ ö
H (s ) = ç ÷; Re(s ) > -s
1 1
+
2 è s + s - iw s + s + iw ø

Im(s)

x 

- Re(s)
x -
18
Laplace Transform Pairs

h(t) H(s)

## (like lim s0 e-st )

1 1
unit step s
0 t
1
e -st s +s
1æ 1 1 ö
ç + ÷
e -st
cos(wt ) 2 è s + s - iw s + s + iw ø

1æ ö
e-st sin (wt )
1 1
ç - ÷
2i è s + s - iw s + s + iw ø

e - sT
delayed step
0 T t s

1 - e - sT
unit pulse 19
0 T t s
Laplace Transform Properties (1)

## L{ ah(t ) + bg(t ) } = aH ( s) + bG( s) Linearity

L{ h( t + T ) } = e sT H ( s) Time-shift (T £ 0)

## L{ d( t ) } =1 Dirac delta function transform

(“sifting” property)
ìt ü
Lí ò h( t ¢) g( t - t ¢) dt ¢ý = H ( s) G( s) Convolution
î0 þ
ìt ü
Lí ò h( t ¢) d ( t - t ¢) dt ¢ý = H ( s) Impulse response
î0 þ
t

ò ( )
h t - t ¢ e iwt ¢
dt ¢ = H ( )
iw e iwt
Frequency response
0
20
Laplace Transform Properties (2)

h(t) H(s)

## convolution of input x(t) product of input spectrum X(s) with

with impulse response h(t) frequency response H(s)
(H(s) in this role is called the transfer
function)
ìt ü
Lí ò h( t ¢) x ( t - t ¢) dt ¢ý = H ( s) X ( s) = Y ( s)
î0 þ
Power or Energy ¥ i¥

ò h(t ) dt = ( )
1
ò
2 2
H s ds
0
2pi -i¥
¥

ò H (iw ) dw
1 “Parseval’s Theorem”
=
2

2p -21
¥
Closed loop control (simple example, H(s)=1)

## W(s) + residual E(s)

disturbance

-
Y(s)
correction
gC(s) where g = loop gain

Our goal will be to suppress X(s) (residual) by high-gain feedback so that Y(s)~W(s)

E ( s) = W ( s) - gC ( s) E ( s)

## solving for E(s),

W ( s)
E ( s) =
Note: for consistency “around the
loop,” the units of the gain g must be
1+ gC ( s) the inverse of the units of C(s).

## What is a good choice for C(s)?... 22

The integrator, one choice for C(s)

## A system whose impulse response is the unit step

ì0 t < 0
c(t ) = í « C (s ) =
1
0 t î1 t ³ 0 s
acts as an integrator to the input signal:

x(t) y(t)
c(t)

t t
y (t ) = ò c(t - t ¢)x (t ¢)dt ¢ = ò x (t ¢)dt¢
0 0

c(t-t’)
x(t’)

t t’
0

## that is, C(s) integrates the past history23of inputs, x(t)

Control Loop Arithmetic

W(s) + output
input
A(s) Y(s)
-
B(s)

Y ( s) = A(s)W ( s ) - A( s) B ( s) Y ( s)

A ( s )W ( s )
Solving for Y(s), Y ( s) =
1+ A( s ) B ( s )

Instability if any of the roots of the polynomial 1+A(s)B(s) are located in the right-
half of the s-plane

24
The Integrator (2)
In Laplace terminology:
Y(s) X (s )
Y (s ) =
X(s)
C(s)
s
An integrator has high gain at low frequencies, low gain at high frequencies.

## Write the input/output transfer function for an integrator in closed loop:

The closed loop transfer function with the integrator in the feedback loop is:

W(s) + X(s)
W(s) X(s)
-
Y(s) º HCL(s)
gC(s)

1 W ( s) sW ( s)
C ( s) = Þ X ( s) = = = HCL ( s) W ( s)
s 1+ g s s + g
closed loop transfer function
25
output (e.g. residual wavefront to science camera)
input disturbance (e.g. atmospheric wavefront)
Chapter 2 mathematical models of systems
We have: G( s)  Lg (t )
Because:
C ( s)
G( s)  , if r(t )   (t )  R( s)  1
R( s )
Then: G( s)  C( s)  Lg(t )
 2t 5 3 2( s  5)
Example 2.8 : g (t )  5  3e  G( s)   
s s  2 s ( s  2)
2) If the output response c(t) and the input r(t) are known

Lc(t )
We have:
G( s) 
Lr (t )
Chapter 2 mathematical models of systems
1
Example 2.9: r (t )  1(t )  R(s)  ........Unit step function
s
1 1 3
c(t )  1  e3t  C ( s )   
s s  3 s( s  3)
.........Unit step response
Then: C ( s ) 3 s( s  3) 3
G( s)   
R( s ) 1s s3

## 3) If the input-output differential equation is known

•Assume: zero initial conditions;
•Make: Laplace transform of the differential equation;
•Deduce: G(s)=C(s)/R(s).
Chapter 2 mathematical models of systems
Example 2.10:   
2 c ( t )  3 c ( t )  4c ( t )  5 r ( t )  6r ( t )

2 s 2C ( s )  3sC ( s )  4C ( s )  5sR ( s )  6 R( s )

C(s) 5s  6
G(s)   2
R(s) 2 s  3s  4
4) For a circuit
* Transform a circuit into a operator circuit.
* Deduce the C(s)/R(s) in terms of the circuits theory.
Chapter 2 mathematical models of systems
Example 2.11: For a electric circuit:
R1 R2 R1 R2

## ur C1 C2 uc ur ( s) 1/ C1s 1/ C2s uc( s)

1 1 1
// ( R2  )
sC1 sC2 sC2
U c ( s)  U r ( s) 
1 1 1
R1  // ( R2  ) R2 
sC1 sC2 sC2
1
 2
U r ( s)
T1T2 s  (T1  T2  T12 ) s  1
U ( s) 1
G( s)  c 
U r ( s ) T1T2 s 2  (T1  T2  T12 ) s  1
here : T1  R1C1; T2  R2C2; T12  R1C2
Chapter 2 mathematical models of systems
Example 2.12: For a op-amp circuit
R2 C R2 1/ Cs

ur R1 ur R1
- uc - uc
+ +
R1 R1

1
R2 
G( s) 
U c ( s)
 sC   R2Cs  1
U r ( s) R1 R1Cs
1
 k (1  )..................PI-Controller
s
R
here : k  2 ;   R2C...... Integral t ime constant
R1
Chapter 2 mathematical models of systems
5) For a control system
• Write the differential equations of the control system, and Assume
zero initial conditions;
• Make Laplace transformation, transform the differential equations
into the relevant algebraic equations;
• Deduce: G(s)=C(s)/R(s).
Example 2.13 the DC-Motor control system in Example 2.5
R2
R3
+ DC
ur R1 R3 mot or
- - ua M
uk w l oad
R1
t r i gger
Uf r ect i f i er -
M
t echomet er
+
Chapter 2 mathematical models of systems
In Example 2.5, we have written down the differential
equations Ras:
uk  2 (ur  u f )  k1(ur  u f )..................................(1)
R1
u f  ....................(2) ua  k2uk ...................(3)

d 2
d 1 Tm
TeTm 2
 Tm    ua  (Te M  M )......(4)
dt dt Ce J
Make Laplace transformation, we have:
U k ( s )  k1[U r ( s )  U f ( s )]........ ...........................................(1)
U f ( s )  ( s )...............(2) U a ( s )  k2U k ( s )..............(3)
2 1 TeTm s  Tm
(TeTm s  Tm s  1)( s )  U a ( s)  M ( s )......(4)
Ce J
Chapter 2 mathematical models of systems

(2)→(1)→(3)→(4), we have:
1 1 TeTm s  Tm
[TeTm s  Tm s  (1  k1k2 )]( s )  k1k2 U r ( s ) 
2
M ( s)
Ce Ce J
k1k2 1
( s ) Ce
G( s)  
U r ( s ) T T s 2  T s  (1  k k  1 )
e m m 1 2
Ce
La
here : Te  ...........electric  magnetic time - constant
Ra
Ra J
Tm  ......mechanical  electric time - constant
CeCm
Chapter 2 mathematical models of systems
2.5 Transfer function of the typical elements of linear systems
A linear system can be regarded as the composing of several
typical elements, which are:
2.5.1 Proportioning element
Relationship between the input and output variables:
c(t )  kr(t )
C ( s)
Transfer function: G( s)  k
R( s )
Block diagram representation and unit step response:
R( s) C( s) Examples:
k
r( t ) C( t )
k amplifier, gear train,
1
tachometer…
t t
Chapter 2 mathematical models of systems
2.5.2 Integrating element
Relationship between the input and output variables:
t
1
c(t )   r (t )dt..........TI : integral time constant
TI
0 C ( s) 1
Transfer function: G( s)  
R( s ) TI s
Block diagram representation and unit step response:
R( s) 1 C( s)
Examples:
r( t ) TI s C( t )
1 Integrating circuit, integrating
1
motor, integrating wheel…
t t
TI
Chapter 2 mathematical models of systems
2.5.3 Differentiating element
Relationship between the input and output variables:
dr (t )
c(t )  TD
dt
C ( s)
Transfer function: G( s)   TD s
R( s )
Block diagram representation and unit step response:

R( s) C( s) Examples:
TDs
r( t ) C( t ) differentiating amplifier, differential
1 TD valve, differential condenser…

t t
Chapter 2 mathematical models of systems
2.5.4 Inertial element
Relationship between the input and output variables:
dc(t )
T  c(t )  kr(t )
dt
C ( s) k
Transfer function: G( s)  
R( s) Ts  1
Block diagram representation and unit step response:
R( s) k C( s)
Examples:
r( t ) Ts  1 C( t )
k inertia wheel, inertial load (such as
1 temperature system)…
t t
T
Chapter 2 mathematical models of systems
2.5.5 Oscillating element
Relationship between the input and output variables:
2
d c(t ) dc(t )
T 2
2
 2T  c(t )  kr(t ) 0  1
dt dt
C ( s) k
Transfer function: G( s)   2 2 0  1
R( s) T s  2Ts  1
Block diagram representation and unit step response:

R( s) 1 C( s) Examples:
r( t ) T 2 s 2  2Ts  1 C( t )
oscillator, oscillating table,
1 k oscillating circuit…

t t
Chapter 2 mathematical models of systems
2.5.6 Delay element

## Relationship between the input and output variables:

c(t )  kr(t   )

 kes
C ( s)
Transfer function: G( s) 
R( s )
Block diagram representation and unit step response:

R( s) C( s) Examples:
ke s gap effect of gear mechanism,
r( t ) C( t )
k threshold voltage of transistors…
1
t
t 
Chapter 2 mathematical models of systems
2.6 block diagram models (dynamic)
Portray the control systems by the block diagram models
more intuitively than the transfer function or differential
equation models.
2.6.1 Block diagram representation of the control systems
Si gnal X( s) Component G( s)
( var i abl e) ( devi ce)

X3( s)

## Adder ( compar i son) X1( s) + E( s)

E( s) =x1( s) +x3( s) - x2( s)
+
-
X2( s)
Examples:
Chapter 2 mathematical models of systems
Example 2.14 For the DC motor in Example 2.4
In Example 2.4, we have written down the differential equations as:
dia
La  Raia  Ea  ua ....(1) M  Cmia .........................( 2)
dt
d
Ea  Ce .........................(3) M  M  J  f  .....( 4)
dt
Make Laplace transformation, we have:
U a ( s )  Ea ( s )
La sI a ( s )  Ra I a ( s )  Ea ( s )  U a ( s )  I a ( s )  .............(5)
La s  Ra
M ( s )  Cm I a ( s )......................................................................................(6)
Ea ( s )  Ce( s ).......................................................................................(7)
1
M ( s )  M ( s )  J s( s )  f ( s )  ( s )  [ M ( s )  M ( s )]......(8)
Js  f
Chapter 2 mathematical models of systems
Draw block diagram in terms of the equations (5)～(8):
M (s )
Ua( s) 1 I a( s) M( s) - 1 (s )
Cm
- La s  Ra Js  f

Ea( s)
Ce
M (s )
Consider the Motor as a whole: 1
(TeTm s  Tm )
J
TeTm s 2  (Tm  TeT f ) s  T f  1
1
Ua( s) Ce - (s )
TeTm s 2  (Tm  TeT f ) s  T f  1
Chapter 2 mathematical models of systems
Example 2.15 The water level control system in Fig 1.8:

1
Ce s k3 k4
k2 e
k1 TeTm s 2  Tm s  1 T1s  1 T2 s  1
s
Desi r ed Act ual
wat er l evel wat er l evel
I nput hi e ua   Q Wat er Out put h
ampl i f i er Mot or Gear i ng Val ve cont ai ner
-
Feedback si gnal hf
Fl oat
Tm
(Te s  1)
 J
2
M ( s) 
TeTm s  Tm s  1