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Group members :

• NURUL FARIHIN MOHD RADZI


• NURULATIKAH AHMAD
•FHATIN AMIRA MUSA
•WIJAYANTI AKHMAD
• SYAFIQAH SHAARI
Scientific classification
Plantae
Kingdom:

Angiosperms
(unranked):

Monocots
(unranked):

Commelinids
(unranked):

Poales
Order:

Bromeliaceae
Family:

Bromelioideae
Subfamily:

Ananas
Genus:

A. comosus
Species:

Binomial name
Ananas comosus
 Pineapple plants grow to a height of two to three
feet.
 Leaves:- shaped like sword. Bluish green in color.
 The plants have underground roots. Also have
small roots that grow above the ground. Usually
thrive well in warm climates.
 Need well-drained soil for developing well
 Too much water is harmful to them.
 Who want to develop pineapple plants,
must first plough the land deeply and
break it up well.
 Foliage: The long-pointed leaves are 20 - 72 in.
in length, usually needle tipped and generally
bearing sharp, upcurved spines on the margins.
 May be all green or variously striped with red,
yellow or ivory down the middle or near the
margins.
 As the stem continues to grow,
it acquires at its apex a compact tuft of stiff,
short leaves called the crown or top.
 Occasionally a plant may bear 2 or more
heads instead of the normal one.
 Pineapples are rosette-forming, herbaceous
monocots, 2-4 ft tall and 3-4 ft wide.
 Stems are short (12"), and inconspicuous in
the center of the rosette of long (20-72"),
linear leaves.
 The leaves have spines at tips and margins.
 Leaves are spirally arranged on stems and
have axillary buds at their base
that can produce lateral shoots called
suckers
( used as planting stock for propagating
the next crop ).
 At blooming time, the stem elongates and
enlarges near the apex and puts forth an
inflorescence of small purple or red flowers.
The flowers are pollinated by humming-birds,
and these flowers usually develop small, hard
seeds. Seeds are generally not found in
commercially grown pineapple
 Individual flowers are small (½ -1"), purple-red, subtended by a single
yellow, green or red bract, borne laterally on the rachis of a spike of 100-
200 individuals.
 The apex of inflorescence is vegetative, becoming the "crown" on the
fruit.
 Bromeliads are unusual plants in that flowering can be induced by
chemicals; in nature, the gaseous hormone ethylene initiates flowering.
 Chemicals are applied when plants achieve a certain size, about 6-12
months after planting or cutting back to suckers in ratoon crops (approx
the 30-leaf stage).
 Ethephon, naphthalene acetic acid (NAA), calcium carbide, and BOH (ß-
hydroxyethyl hydrazine) are used commercially, with ethephon being the
most widely used chemical.
 Pollinated by hummingbirds
 Self-sterile – cannot produce seeds if self-
pollinated
 Cross-pollinated – produces few small brown
seeds beneath the peel of the fruit
 Cross pollination needs the plant providing
pollen is genetically differ from the receiver
 Seedy pineapples would be undesirable, so
growers prefer to not cross-pollinated
 An example of parthenocarpy
 Leafy crown at the top of the fruit can root
and produce another plant even without
seed.

Pineapple’s seed
• A multiple fruit is formed from a cluster of
tiny flowers grouped closely together rather
than from a single flower as in aggregate
fruits. A fruit is produced from each flower,
and these fruits, at maturity, remain together
in a single mass.
• The pineapple is one of the best examples of
a multiple fruit. The numerous (100 to 200)
flowers are attached to a fleshy elongated
axis, which is leafy at the top. The flowers are
fused with each other, and all ripen together.
Each of the units visible on the surface of the
maturing fruit represents an individual flower.
Pineapple

Flowers

Receptacle &
ovaries develop
into fruit
Inflorescence
 Pineapple
 results in a Multiple
Fruit
(primarily ovary
tissue fused
together)
Receptacle & Individual Berry-like Fruits
ovaries develop
into fruit
Characteristics Of
Ananas comosus
 Herbs perennial , erect , simple
 Leaves in a dense rosette
 leaf sheath scarcely enlarged
 leaf blade spinose serrate at margin
 Inflorescence erect, scapose
 strobiliform, apex with a tuft of sterile
 leafy bracts
 Flowers bisexual .
 Petals each bearing 2 funnelform , slender scales
 Ovaries inferior, coalescing and with bracts and rachis
forming a compound
 fleshy fruit (syncarp)
Physical Description
 Leaves sword-shaped , margin
coarsely and laxly spinose serrate
 Scape short
 many flowered; floral bracts
inconspicuous, margin serrulate or
entire
 Flowers numerous
 Sepals free , slightly asymmetric ,
apex obtuse
 Petals violet or reddish, free but
connivent and tubelike
 Stamens included.
 Syncarp globose , ovoid , or
elongate , 15 cm or longer at
maturity, becoming fleshy and
fragrant.
 Seeds absent or very rare
Cross section of pineapple
Leaves sword shape
Petal

Pith
Syncarp
Flower of Ananas
Comosus