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Cooling And Heating

Load Calculations
- Estimation Of Solar
Why we do load calculation
• By carrying out cooling and heating load calculations one can
estimate the capacity that will be required for various air
conditioning equipment.
• With the cooling and heating load calculation one can ensure that
the designed or selected equipment can serves the intended
purpose of maintaining the required conditions in the conditioned
• Thus energy consumption and the operating cost can be optimized
with the cooling and heating load calculation
• Cooling load
Cooling load refer to load on air conditioning equipment in Summer
• Heating load
Heating load refers to load on air conditioning equipment in Winter
Heating and Cooling Load Sources

• Occupants
• Electrical Devices
• Air Infiltration
• Solar Radiation
In this lecture Solar Radiation as source of
cooling and heating load will be discussed
Heating and Cooling Load Due to Solar
It is important to understand the various aspects of solar radiation
1. A major part of building heat gain is due to solar radiation, hence
an estimate of the amount of solar radiation the building is
subjected to is essential for estimating the cooling and heating
loads on the buildings.
2. By proper design and orientation of the building, selection of
suitable materials and landscaping it is possible to harness solar
energy beneficially. This can reduce the overall cost (initial and
operating) of the air conditioning system considerably by reducing
the required capacity of the cooling and heating equipment.
Solar Radiation
• Ds= 1.39*109 m
• ms= 2*1030 kg
• Mean Distance b/w sun and earth = 1.5*1011 m
• (Energy emitted)s= 3.8*1026 Watts
• (Energy Received)s Es= 1.7*1017 Watts

• The temperature at center of sun is 4 million Kelvin

• At surface temperature is 6000 kelvin
Solar Radiation
Solar Constant

This is the flux of solar radiation on a surface normal to the sun’s rays at the
outer surface of earth’s atmosphere at the mean earth-sun distance. The
accepted value of solar constant is 1370 W/ m2
• This amount of radiation is only received at 12 o clock as surface is
perpendicular at this time at other time it will be smaller than 1370 W/ m2
Solar Radiation
• On Earth Surface:
• Solar constant = 1370 W/ m2
• Whether this amount of radiation will fall on
earth surface or not?
• Some of the solar radiation are depleted in
earth atmosphere so the total radiation
reaching the surface per unit area will be
smaller if the reflected radiation from other
surfaces is considered 0
Total solar irradiation:
The rate at which solar radiation is striking a surface per unit area of the surface is called as the
total solar irradiation on the surface.


Iiθ = Total solar irradiation of a surface, W/m2

IDN = Direct radiation from sun, W/m2

Idθ = Diffuse radiation from sky, W/m2

Irθ = Short wave radiation reflected from other surfaces, W/m2

θ = Angle of incidence, degrees

Angle of incidence

Angle of incidence depends on location, time of the day and day of the year
Solar geometry:

• The angle of incidence θ depends upon

i. Location on earth
ii. Time of the day, and
iii. Day of the year
• The above three parameters are defined in
terms of latitude, hour angle and declination,
Earth rotation and tilt
Earth rotation about its axis is responsible for day and night while its tilt is responsible
for change of seasons
Earth axis is tilted at 23.5 degree with respect to its orbiting plane
Effect of tilt
• Latitude, l: It shows the location of earth
• It is the angle between the lines joining O and P and the projection of OP on the equatorial
plane, i.e.,
latitude l, = angle ∠POA
• It varies from 00 at equator to 900 at the poles
• Thus the latitude along with the longitude indicates the position of any point on earth
Latitude and Longitude of Peshawar 34.0151° N, 71.5249° E respectively
Hour angle, h: It indicates the time of the day
It is the angle between the projection of OP on the equatorial plane i.e., the line OA
and the projection of the line joining the center of the earth to the center of the sun,
i.e., the line OB. Therefore,
hour angle, h = angle ∠AOB
The hour angle varies from 00 to 3600 in one rotation.
Since it takes 24 clock hours for one rotation, each clock hour of time is equal to 150
of hour angle.
For example, at 10 A.M. (solar time) the hour angle is 3300
• Hour angle is based on Local Solar time

• LStT is the local standard time, LSM is the local standard time meridien and
LON is the local longitude
• A civil day is exactly equal to 24 hours, whereas a solar day is approximately
equal to 24 hours. This variation is called as Equation of Time (EOT)
• (EOT) is available as average values for different months of the year and can
be calculated through the following equation
• Declination, d: It shows the day of the year
• The declination is the angle between the line joining the center of the
earth and sun and its projection on the equatorial plane, the angle
between line OO’ and line OB;
declination, d = angle∠ O'OB

• For northern hemisphere, the declination varies from about +23.5 on June
21 (summer solstice) to -23.5 on December 21 (December 21st).

• The declination can be calculated approximately using

the following equation
• Capital N days of year with value = 1 at Jan ist
Derived solar angles:
Derived solar angles:
Solar angles solar angles need to be linked with the angles sun makes with
the surfaces to find solar radiation these angles are known as derived angle
• Derived angles of surfaces is then linked with the angle of incidence for
the estimation of solar radiation
• Altitude angle, β:
It is the angle between the sun’s rays and the projection of sun’s rays onto a horizontal plane

The altitude angle is related with the solar angel through the following equation

At sun rise and sun fall β=00

so we can find sun rising time and falling time
Zenith angle, ψ:

It is the angle between sun’s rays and the surface normal to the horizontal plane at the
position of the observer

Once you find the altitude angle you can find the zenith angle
Solar azimuth angle, γ:
The solar azimuth angle is the angle in the horizontal plane to the horizontal
projection of the sun’s rays. It is measured from north to the horizontal
projection of the sun’s rays.
The solar azimuth angle is given by
Linking the derived angle with angle of
Incident angle of sun’s rays, θ:
The incident angle of sun’s rays θ, is the angle between sun’s rays and the
normal to the surface under consideration.
For horizontal surfaces:
For horizontal surfaces the angle of incidence Θhor is equal to the zenith angle,
ψ, i.e.,
For vertical surfaces:
Wall solar azimuth angle, α:
This is the angle between normal to the wall and the projection of sun’s rays
on to a horizontal plane.
Surface azimuth angle, ξ:
This is the angle between the normal to the wall and south. Thus when the
wall is facing south, then the surface azimuth angle is zero and when it faces
west, then the surface azimuth angle is 90o and so on.
• The angle is taken as +ve if the normal to the surface is to the west of
south and –ve if it is to the east of south.
For an arbitrarily oriented surfaces:
For any surface that is tilted at an angle Σ from
the horizontal as shown, the incident angle θ is
given by:
Calculation of direct, diffuse and
reflected radiations:

Direct Radiation from sun (IDN):

A , is the apparent solar irradiation which is taken as 1230 W/m2 for the
months of December and January and 1080 W/m2 for mid-summer.
B , Constant is called as atmospheric extinction coefficient, which takes a
value of 0.14 in winter and 0.21 in summer
Diffuse radiation from sky, Id:

According to the ASHRAE model, the diffuse radiation from a cloudless sky is given

The value of C can be taken as 0.135 for mid-summer and as 0.058

for winter.
The factor Fws is called as view factor or configuration factor and is equal to
the fraction of the diffuse radiation that is incident on the surface.
For diffuse radiation, Fws is a function of the orientation of the surface only. It
can be easily shown that this is equal to:
Reflected, short-wave (solar) radiation, Ir :
The amount of solar radiation reflected from the ground onto a surface is
given by:

Where ρg is the reflectivity of the ground or a horizontal surface from where

the solar radiation is reflected on to a given surface.
Fws is view factor from ground to the surface. Fws in terms of the tilt angle is
given by
• Latitude and Longitude of Peshawar 34.0151°
N, 71.5249° E respectively