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University of Science and Technology of Southern Philippines

CIVIL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT

CE63: Foundation
Engineering

Instructor:
Engr. Katherine Shayne D. Yee, CE, RMP,
ME-1
GRADING SYSTEM:
• Grading system: (70% Passing isz real!!!)
• Assignments, Seatwork, Group Activities – 10%
• Quiz – 40%
• Innovative Task (Case Study and plates) – 20%
• Major Exams – 30%
TEXTBOOK REFERENCES:
• Principles of Geotechnical Engineering by Braja M. Das
• Principles of Foundation Engineering by Braja M. Das
• Soil Mechanics and Foundation by Muni Budhu
• NSCP 2015 by ASEP
• Other available textbooks such as (Murthy, Bowles, etc.)
COURSE OUTLINE
• Stress Distribution of Soil
• Compressibility of Soil
• Shear Strength of Soil
• Lateral Earth Pressure: Retaining Walls, Sheet Pile Walls, and Braced
Cuts
• Bearing Capacity of Soil
• Slope Stability
• Design of Shallow Foundation:
• Square footing, Rectangular Footing, Combined Rectangular Footing,
Trapezoidal Footing, Strap Footing
• Design of Mat Foundation
• Design of Pile Foundations
WHAT IS FOUNDATION ENGINEERING?
• It a category of engineering concerned with evaluating the ability of a
specific location to support a given structural load, and with designing
the substructure or transition member needed to support the
construction.
WHAT IS A FOUNDATION?
• The foundation of a structure is that part of the structure in direct
contact with the ground and which transmits the load of the structure
to the ground.
What are the geotechnical/foundation
structures?
• Footings
 Gravity Walls

Stone walls

Gabion wall

Reinforced concrete walls


• RETAINING STRUCTURES
Types of Foundation
• Shallow Foundations
• Spread Footings, Wall footings, and Mat Foundations
• The depth of embedment can be equal to or less than
three to four times the width of the foundation.
• Deep Foundations
• Pile and Drilled Shaft foundations
• Used when top layers of soil have poor bearing capacity
Design of Foundation of Structures requires
knowledge of :
Load that will be transmitted by the superstructure to the
foundation system;

The requirements of the building code;

The behavior and stress-related deformability of soils that will


support the foundation system;

The geological conditions of the soil under consideration.


Stress Distribution in Soil Mass
Lecture #1
Introduction/Rationale:
• Construction of a foundation causes changes in the
stress, usually a stress increase. It is necessary to
estimate the net increase of vertical stress in soil that
occurs as a result of the construction of a foundation so
that settlement can be calculated.
Stresses caused by a Point Load
• Boussinesq’s solution for normal stresses at a point caused by
the point load P:
Stresses caused by a Point Load
• The relationship of Δσz can be rewritten as:
Vertical Stress Caused by a Vertical Line Load
Vertical Stress Caused by a Horizontal Line
Load
Vertical Stress Caused by a Vertical
Strip Load (Finite Width and Infinite
Length)
Vertical Stress Caused by a Vertical Strip Load
(Finite Width and Infinite Length)
Linearly Increasing Vertical Loading on an
Infinite Strip
Vertical Stress Due to Embankment
Loading
Vertical Stress at Any Point Below a Uniformly
Loaded Circular Area
Vertical Stress Caused by a Rectangularly
Loaded Area (Corner)
Vertical Stress Caused by a Rectangularly
Loaded Area (Center)
Influence Chart for Vertical Pressure
Example no. 1
• An inclined line load with a magnitude of 10 kN/m is shown.
Determine the increase of vertical stress at a point A due to the line
load.
Example no. 2
• An embankment is shown in figure. Determine the stress increase
under the embankment at points A1 and A2.
Example no. 3
• The plan of a uniformly loaded rectangular area is shown in figure.
Determine the vertical stress increase below A’ at a depth of z = 4m.
Example no. 5
• The cross section and plan of a column footing are shown. Find
the increase in vertical stress produced by column footing at
point A.