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‡ A personal computer is made up of multiple physical components of
 , upon which can be installed an operating system and
a multitude of software to perform the operator's desired functions.
Hardware is a physical device something that you're able to touch and see.
For example, the computer monitor you're viewing this text on or the
mouse you're using to navigate is considered computer hardware.
‡ | 
‡ Software is code and instructions that tell a computer and/or hardware how
to operate. This code can be viewed and executed using a computer or
other hardware device. However, without any hardware software would not
exist. An examples of software is Microsoft Windows, an operating system
that allows you to control your computer and other programs that run on it.
Another example of software is the Internet browser you're using to view
this page.
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‡ Utility software, which helps to analyze, configure, optimize and maintain
the computer.
‡ The purpose of systems software is to unburden the applications
programmer from the often complex details of the particular computer
being used, including such accessories as communications devices,
printers, device readers, displays and keyboards, and also to partition the
computer's resources such as memory and processor time in a safe and
stable manner. „xamples are- Windows XP, Linux, and Mac OS X.
‡  
‡ A programming tool or software development tool is a program or
application that software developers use to create, debug, maintain, or
otherwise support other programs and applications. The term usually refers
to relatively simple programs that can be combined together to accomplish
a task, much as one might use multiple hand tools to fix a physical object.
The tools include: compilers ,debuggers ,interpreters ,linkers ,text editors ,
An Integrated development environment (ID„ is a single application that
attempts to manage all these functions.
   

 
Application software is computer software designed to help the user perform a
particular task. Such programs are also called software applications,
applications or apps. Typical examples are word processors, spreadsheets,
media players and database applications.
Application software should be contrasted with system software
(infrastructure or middleware (computer services/ processes integrators ,
which is involved in integrating a computer's various capabilities, but
typically does not directly apply them in the performance of tasks that
benefit the user. A simple, if imperfect analogy in the world of hardware
would be the relationship of an electric light bulb (an application to an
electric power generation plant (a system . The power plant merely
generates electricity, not itself of any real use until harnessed to an
application like the electric light that performs a service that benefits the
user.
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‡ An  !  ( is an interface between hardware and user
which is responsible for the management and coordination of activities and
the sharing of the resources of a computer, that acts as a host for computing
applications run on the machine. As a host, one of the purposes of an
operating system is to handle the resource allocation and access protection
of the hardware. This relieves application programmers from having to
manage these details.
‡ Operating systems offer a number of services to application programs and
users. Applications access these services through application programming
interfaces (APIs or system calls. By invoking these interfaces, the
application can request a service from the operating system, pass
parameters, and receive the results of the operation. Users may also interact
with the operating system with some kind of software user interface like
typing commands by using command line interface (CLI or using a
graphical user interface. For hand-held and desktop computers, the user
interface is generally considered part of the operating system. On large
multi-user systems like Unix and Unix-like systems, the user interface is
generally implemented as an application program that runs outside the
operating system.
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Uob management controls the order and time in which programs are run
and is more sophisticated in the mainframe environment where
scheduling the daily work has always been routine. IBM's job control
language (UCL was developed decades ago. In a desktop environment,
batch files can be written to perform a sequence of operations that can be
scheduled to start at a given time.
2  # 
Multitasking, which is the ability to simultaneously execute multiple
programs, is available in all operating systems today. Critical in the
mainframe and server environment, applications can be prioritized to run
faster or slower depending on their purpose. In the desktop world,
multitasking is necessary for keeping several applications open at the
same time so you can bounce back and forth among them.
Π[ 
Data management keeps track of the data on disk, tape and optical storage
devices. The application program deals with data by file name and a
particular location within the file. The operating system's file system knows
where that data are physically stored (which sectors on disk and
interaction between the application and operating system is through the
programming interface. Whenever an application needs to read or write
data, it makes a call to the operating system
4 [$ 
Device management controls peripheral devices by sending them
commands in their own proprietary language. The software routine that
knows how to deal with each device is called a "driver," and the OS
requires drivers for the peripherals attached to the computer. When a new
peripheral is added, that device's driver is installed into the operating
system.
½  

All graphics based today, the user interface includes the windows, menus
and method of interaction between you and the computer. Prior to graphical
user interfaces (GUIs , all operation of the computer was performed by
typing in commands. Not at all extinct, command-line interfaces are alive
and well and provide an alternate way of running programs on all major
operating systems. Operating systems may support optional interfaces, both
graphical and command line. Although the overwhelming majority of
people work with the default interfaces, different "shells" offer variations of
appearance and functionality.
6 !
Operating systems provide password protection to keep unauthorized users
out of the system. Some operating systems also maintain activity logs and
accounting of the user's time for billing purposes. They also provide
backup and recovery routines for starting over in the event of a system
failure.
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|  (also   , or just  are


instructions for a computer. A computer requires programs to function,
typically executing the program's instructions in a central processor. The
program has an executable form that the computer can use directly to
execute the instructions. The same program in its human-readable source
code form, from which executable programs are derived (e.g., compiled ,
enables a programmer to study and develop its algorithms.
Computer source code is often written by professional computer
programmers. Source code is written in a programming language that
usually follows one of two main paradigms: imperative or declarative
programming. Source code may be converted into an executable file
(sometimes called an executable program or a binary by a compiler and
later executed by a central processing unit. Alternatively, computer
programs may be executed with the aid of an interpreter, or may be
embedded directly into hardware.
½  

Machine language

‡ Machine code or machine language is a system of instructions and data


executed directly by a computer's central processing unit. Machine code
may be regarded as a primitive (and cumbersome programming
language or as the lowest-level representation of a compiled and/or
assembled computer program. Programs in interpreted languages are not
represented by machine code however, although their    (which
may be seen as a processor executing the higher level program often is.
Machine code is sometimes called native code when referring to
platform-dependent parts of language features or libraries. Machine code
should not be confused with so called "byte code", which is executed by
an interpreter.
     
„very processor or processor family has its own machine code instruction
set. Instructions are patterns of bits that by physical design correspond to
different commands to the machine. The instruction set is thus specific to a
class of processors using (much the same architecture. Successor or
derivative processor designs often include all the instructions of a
predecessor and may add additional instructions. Occasionally a successor
design will discontinue or alter the meaning of some instruction code
(typically because it is needed for new purposes , affecting code
compatibility to some extent; even nearly completely compatible
processors may show slightly different behavior for some instructions but
this is seldom a problem. Systems may also differ in other details, such as
memory arrangement, operating systems, or peripheral devices; because a
program normally relies on such factors, different systems will typically
not run the same machine code, even when the same type of processor is
used.
‡ A machine code instruction set may have all instructions of the same
length, or it may have variable-length instructions. How the patterns are
organized varies strongly with the particular architecture and often also
with the type of instruction. Most instructions have one or more opcode
fields which specifies the basic instruction type (such as arithmetic, logical,
jump, etc and the actual operation (such as add or compare and other
fields that may give the type of the operand(s , the addressing mode(s , the
addressing offset(s or index, or the actual value itself (such constant
operands contained in an instruction are called  .
‡ Diagram of level of Languages
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‡  "!  are a family of low-level languages for programming


computers, microprocessors, microcontrollers, and other (usually
integrated circuits. They implement a symbolic representation of the
numeric machine codes and other constants needed to program a particular
CPU architecture. This representation is usually defined by the hardware
manufacturer, and is based on abbreviations (called mnemonics that help
the programmer remember individual instructions ,registers, etc. An
assembly language is thus specific to a certain physical or virtual computer
architecture (as opposed to most high-level languages, which are usually
portable .
‡ A utility program called an  " is used to translate assembly
language statements into the target computer's machine code. The
assembler performs a more or less isomorphic translation (a one-to-one
mapping from mnemonic statements into machine instructions and data.
This is in contrast with high-level languages, in which a single statement
generally results in many machine instructions.

‡ Many sophisticated assemblers offer additional mechanisms to facilitate


program development, control the assembly process, and aid debugging. In
particular, most modern assemblers include a macro facility (described
below , and are called   " .
%$
‡ A %$   is a programming language with
strong abstraction from the details of the computer. In comparison to low-
level programming languages, it may use natural language elements, be
easier to use, or be more portable across platforms. Such languages hide the
details of CPU operations such as memory access models and management
of scope.
‡ This greater abstraction and hiding of details is generally intended to make
the language user-friendly, as it includes concepts from the problem
domain instead of those of the machine used. A high-level language
isolates the execution semantics of a computer architecture from the
specification of the program, making the process of developing a program
simpler and more understandable with respect to a low-level language. The
amount of abstraction provided defines how "high-level" a programming
language is.
o

The term "high-level language" does not imply that the language is superior
to low-level programming languages - in fact, in terms of the depth of
knowledge of how computers work required to productively program in a
given language, the inverse may be true. Rather, "high-level language"
refers to the higher level of abstraction from machine language. Rather than
dealing with registers, memory addresses and call stacks, high-level
languages deal with usability, threads, locks, objects, variables, arrays and
complex arithmetic or boolean expressions. In addition, they have no
opcodes that can directly compile the language into machine code, unlike
low-level assembly language. Other features such as string handling
routines, object-oriented language features and file input/output may also
be present.
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‡ A  $ is a computer program that can copy itself and infect a
computer. The term "virus" is also commonly but erroneously used to refer
to other types of malware, adware, and spyware programs that do not have
the reproductive ability. A true virus can only spread from one computer to
another (in some form of executable code when its host is taken to the
target computer; for instance because a user sent it over a network or the
Internet, or carried it on a removable medium such as a floppy disk, CD,
DVD, or USB drive. Viruses can increase their chances of spreading to
other computers by infecting files on a network file system or a file system
that is accessed by another computer.
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This type of virus is a permanent which dwells in the RAM memory. From
there it can overcome and interrupt all of the operations executed by the
system: corrupting files and programs that are opened, closed, copied,
renamed etc.
„xamples include: Randex, CMU, Meve, and MrKlunky.
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The main purpose of this virus is to replicate and take action when it is
executed. When a specific condition is met, the virus will go into action
and infect files in the directory or folder that it is in and in directories that
are specified in the AUTO„X„C.BAT file PATH. This batch file is always
located in the root directory of the hard disk and carries out certain
operations when the computer is booted.
Π$ &  Virus of this kind is characterized by the fact that it
deletes the information contained in the files that it infects, rendering them
partially or totally useless once they have been infected. The only way to
clean a file infected by an overwrite virus is to delete the file completely,
thus losing the original content.„xamples of this virus include: Way,
Trj.Reboot, Trivial.88.D.
4  & This type of virus affects the boot sector of a floppy or hard
disk. This is a crucial part of a disk, in which information on the disk itself
is stored together with a program that makes it possible to boot (start the
computer from the disk.The best way of avoiding boot viruses is to ensure
that floppy disks are write-protected and never start your computer with an
unknown floppy disk in the disk drive.
„xamples of boot viruses include: Polyboot.B, Anti„X„.
½ o & % file allocation table or FAT is the part of a disk used to
connect information and is a vital part of the normal functioning of the
computer. This type of virus attack can be especially dangerous, by
preventing access to certain sections of the disk where important files are
stored. Damage caused can result in information losses from individual
files or even entire directories.
6 ' A worm is a program very similar to a virus; it has the ability to
self-replicate, and can lead to negative effects on your system and most
importantly they are detected and eliminated by antiviruses.
„xamples of worms include: PSWBugbear.B, Lovgate.F, Trile.C, Sobig.D,
Mapson.
7 (  (   Another unsavory breed of malicious code are
Trojans or Trojan horses, which unlike viruses do not reproduce by
infecting other files, nor do they self-replicate like worms.
$
‡ $ (or %$  is used to prevent, detect, and remove
malware, including computer viruses, worms, and trojan horses. Such
programs may also prevent and remove adware, spyware, and other forms
of malware.
‡ A variety of strategies are typically employed. Signature-based detection
involves searching for known malicious patterns in executable code.
However, it is possible for a user to be infected with new malware in which
no signature exists yet. To counter such so-called zero-day threats,
heuristics can be used. One type of heuristic approach, generic signatures,
can identify new viruses or variants of existing viruses by looking for
known malicious code (or slight variations of such code in files. Some
antivirus software can also predict what a file will do if opened/run by
emulating it in a sandbox and analyzing what it does to see if it performs
any malicious actions. If it does, this could mean the file is malicious.
 
 
!
‡ | ! is a branch of computer technology known as
information security as applied to computers and networks. The objective
of computer security includes protection of information and property from
theft, corruption, or natural disaster, while allowing the information and
property to remain accessible and productive to its intended users. The
terms computer system security, means the collective processes and
mechanisms by which sensitive and valuable information and services are
protected from publication, tampering or collapse by unauthorized
activities or untrustworthy individuals and unplanned events respectively.
‡ Computer security is frequently associated with three core areas, which can
be conveniently summarized by the acronym "CIA":
‡ |! -- „nsuring that information is not accessed by
unauthorized persons
‡
! -- „nsuring that information is not altered by unauthorized
persons in a way that is not detectable by authorized users
‡  -- „nsuring that users are the persons they claim to be

‡ A strong security protocol addresses all three of these areas. Take, for
example, Netscape's SSL (Secure Sockets Layer protocol. It has enabled
an explosion in ecommerce which is really about trust (or more precisely,
about the lack of trust . SSL overcomes the lack of trust between
transacting parties by ensuring confidentiality through encryption, integrity
through checksums, and authentication via server certificates
‡ Computer security is not restricted to these three broad concepts.
Additional ideas that are often considered part of the taxonomy of
computer security include:
‡   -- „nsuring that users access only those resources and
services that they are entitled to access and that qualified users are not
denied access to services that they legitimately expect to receive
‡  -- „nsuring that the originators of messages cannot deny
that they in fact sent the messages
‡ $"! -- „nsuring that a system is operational and functional at a
given moment, usually provided through redundancy; loss of availability is
often referred to as "denial-of-service³
‡ $! -- „nsuring that individuals maintain the right to control what
information is collected about them, how it is used, who has used it, who
maintains it, and what purpose it is used for
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multiplication. In the case of decimal multiplication, we need to remember
Œ x 9 = 27, 7 x 8 = ½6, and so on. In binary multiplication, we only need to
remember the following,

‡ 0x0=0
0x!=0
!x0=0
!x!=!

‡ „xample
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‡ To check our answer, we first multiply our divisor !! by our quotient !!.
Then we add its' product to the remainder !0, and compare it to our
dividend of !0!!.
‡ !!
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!0!! <-- sum of product and remainder

‡ The sum is equal to our initial dividend, therefore our solution is correct.
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‡ The  numeral system, or  for short, is the base-8 number system,
and uses the digits 0 to 7. Numerals can be made from binary numerals by
grouping consecutive binary digits into groups of three (starting from the
right . For example, the binary representation for decimal 74 is !00!0!0,
which can be grouped into (00 ! 00! 0!0 ² so the octal representation is
!!2.
‡ [   $  Method of successive division by 8
‡ To convert integer decimals to octal, divide the original number by the
largest possible power of 8 and successively divide the remainders by
successively smaller powers of 8 until the power is !. The octal
representation is formed by the quotients, written in the order generated by
the algorithm.
‡ For example, to convert !2½!0 to octal:
‡ !2½ / 8^2 = !
!2½ í ((8^2 ! = 6!
‡ 6! / 8^! =
‡ 6! í ((8^! 7 = ½
‡ Thus: !2½!0 = !7½8
[$ 
‡ „xample: Convert 7648 to decimal:
‡ 7648 = 7 x 8 6 x 8¹ 4 x 8° = 448 48 4 = ½00!0
‡ For double-digit octal numbers this method amounts to multiplying the
lead digit by 8 and adding the second digit to get the total.
‡ „xample: 6½8 = 6x8 ½ = ½Œ!0
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‡ In mathematics and computer science, hexadecimal (also base !6, or hex is


a positional numeral system with a radix, or base, of !6. It uses sixteen
distinct symbols, most often the symbols 0±9 to represent values zero to
nine, and A, B, C, D, „, F (or alternatively a through f to represent values
ten to fifteen. For example, the hexadecimal number 2AFΠis equal, in
decimal, to (2 × !6Œ (!0 × !62 (!½ × !6 Œ, or !0,99½.
‡ „ach hexadecimal digit represents four binary digits (bits (also called a
"nibble" , and the primary use of hexadecimal notation is as a human-
friendly representation of binary coded values in computing and digital
electronics. For example, byte values can range from 0 to 2½½ (decimal but
may be more conveniently represented as two hexadecimal digits in the
range 00 through FF. Hexadecimal is also commonly used to represent
computer memory addresses.
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‡ To convert from Hex to Decimal, multiply the value in each position by its
hex weight and add each value. Using the value from the previous example,
$AFB2, we would expect to obtain the decimal value 44978.
Ë÷+0123Ë/+0.23Ë(+0+23Ë.+0,2
Ë+,Ñ,*023Ë+½.½023Ë+++023Ë.+2
Ñ,*0,31‰Ñ,3+D03. ÑÑ*D‰
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‡ To convert decimal to hex is slightly more difficult. The typical method to
convert from decimal to hex is repeated division by !6. While we may also
use repeated subtraction by the weighted position value, it is more difficult
for large decimal numbers.
‡  [$  ! !
‡ For this method, divide the decimal number by !6, and write the remainder
on the side as the least significant digit. This process is continued by
dividing the quotient by !6 and writing the remainder until the quotient is
0. When performing the division, the remainders which will represent the
hex equivalent of the decimal number are written beginning at the least
significant digit (right and each new digit is written to the next more
significant digit (the left of the previous digit. Consider the number 44978.
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‡ In mathematics, computing, and related subjects, an  is an


effective method for solving a problem using a finite sequence of
instructions. Algorithms are used for calculation, data processing, and
many other fields. „ach algorithm is a list of well-defined instructions for
completing a task. Starting from an initial state, the instructions describe a
computation that proceeds through a well-defined series of successive
states, eventually terminating in a final ending state. The transition from
one state to the next is not necessarily deterministic; some algorithms,
known as randomized algorithms, incorporate randomness.
‡ A flowchart is a graphical representation of an algorithm. These flowcharts
play a vital role in the programming of a problem and are quite helpful in
understanding the logic of complicated and lengthy problems. Once the
flowchart is drawn, it becomes easy to write the program in any high level
language. Often we see how flowcharts are helpful in explaining the
program to others. Hence, it is correct to say that a flowchart is a must for
the better documentation of a complex program. Flowcharts are usually
drawn using some standard symbols; (explain in next slide
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‡ A "  is an integrated collection of logically-related records or files


consolidated into a common pool that provides data for one or more
multiple uses.
‡ A ["   !  ([  is a set of computer programs
that controls the creation, maintenance, and the use of the database with
computer as a platform or of an organization and its end users. It allows
organizations to place control of organization-wide database development
in the hands of database administrators (DBAs and other specialists. A
DBMS is a system software package that helps the use of integrated
collection of data records and files known as databases. It allows different
user application programs to easily access the same database. [  may
use any of a variety of database models, such as the network model or
relational model. In large systems, a DBMS allows users and other
software to store and retrieve data in a structured way. Instead of having to
write computer programs to extract information, user can ask simple
questions in a query language. Thus, many DBMS packages provide
Fourth-generation programming language (4GLs and other application
development features.
‡ It helps to specify the logical organization for a database and access and
use the information within a database. It provides facilities for controlling
data access, enforcing data integrity, managing concurrency controlled,
restoring database. „xample of database of „mployee

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‡  * " !  contains facilities to help users to
develop transactions-intensive applications. It usually requires that user
perform a detailed series of tasks to process a transaction. It facilities easy-
to-use data entry screens, programming languages, and interfaces.
‡ [   " !  helps users to manage the overall
database environment by providing facilities for backup and recovery,
security management, query optimization, concurrency control, and change
management.
[    "
‡ +! "! Querying is the process of requesting attribute information
from various perspectives and combinations of factors. „xample: "How
many 2-door cars in Texas are green?" A database query language and
report writer allow users to interactively interrogate the database, analyze
its data and update it according to the users privileges on data.
‡ #   %Copies of attributes need to be made regularly in
case primary disks or other equipment fails. A periodic copy of attributes
may also be created for a distant organization that cannot readily access the
original. DBMS usually provide utilities to facilitate the process of
extracting and disseminating attribute sets. When data is replicated between
database servers, so that the information remains consistent throughout the
database system and users cannot tell or even know which server in the
DBMS they are using, the system is said to exhibit replication
transparency.
‡ ! -Often it is desirable to limit who can see or change which
attributes or groups of attributes. This may be managed directly by
individual, or by the assignment of individuals and privileges to groups, or
(in the most elaborate models through the assignment of individuals and
groups to roles which are then granted entitlements.
‡ | There are common computations requested on attributes
such as counting, summing, averaging, sorting, grouping, cross-
referencing, etc. Rather than have each computer application implement
these from scratch, they can rely on the DBMS to supply such calculations.

8
‡ |    - Often one wants to know who accessed what
attributes, what was changed, and when it was changed. Logging services
allow this by keeping a record of access occurrences and changes.
‡  , % If there are frequently occurring usage
patterns or requests, some DBMS can adjust themselves to improve the
speed of those interactions. In some cases the DBMS will merely
provide tools to monitor performance, allowing a human expert to
make the necessary adjustments after reviewing the statistics collected.
‡   [" 
‡ Databases function in many applications, spanning virtually the entire
range of computer software. Databases have become the preferred
method of storage for large multi-user applications, where coordination
between many users is needed. „ven individual users find them
convenient, and many electronic mail programs and personal organizers
are based on standard database technology. Software database drivers
are available for most database platforms so that application software
can use a common API to retrieve the information stored in a database.
Commonly used database APIs include UDBC and ODBC.
#   2  

Q!R is a general term primarily used for digitally stored  such as
computer programs and other kinds of information read and written by
computers
a Computer software b Hardware c Operating System d None

Q2 An operating system (OS is an interface between ««.and user


a Software b hardware c Computer Program d Application software

QŒ«« are a family of low-level languages for programming computers,


microprocessors, microcontrollers, and other (usually integrated circuits
a Assembly languages b Machine language c High level language
d C-language
Q4 This type of virus is a permanent which dwells in the RAM memory
a FAT Virus b Boot Virus c Resident Virus d File Virus
Q½ The«««««, is the base-8 number system, and uses the digits 0 to 7
a Binary Number system b  numeral system c Hexadecimal Number
System d None
Q6 An effective method for solving a problem using a finite sequence of
instructions
a Number System b Computer Hardware c Operating System d

Q7 A «««is a graphical representation of an algorithm
a DBMS b OS c flowchart d None
Q8A ««is an integrated collection of logically-related records or files
consolidated into a common pool that provides data for one or more
multiple uses.
a Database b OS c Computer Program d Software
+- PSWBugbear is an example of
a Software b File Virus c WORM d FAT virus

Q!0 ««.is a system of instructions and data executed directly by a


computer's central processing unit.
a Assembly Language b machine language c Program d Virus
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