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ANALYTIC GEOMETRY

Cartesian or Rectangular Coordinate System


Distance between Two Points
The distance betwwen point P1 (x1, y1) and P 2(x2 ,y2) is:

d  ( x  x)  ( y  y)
2 1
2
2 1
2
STRAIGHT LINE
A STRAIGHT LINE is a line that does not change in
direction. Thu it has a uniform slope.

GENERAL EQUATION OF A LINE


The general equation of a straight line is:
Ax + By + C = 0
To solve a line, either two points or one point and a slope must be
known,
SLOPE OF THE LINE

The slope of the line passing through points P1 (x1,y1) and


P2(x2,y2) is :
rise y  y
Slope, m  
2 1

run x2 x1
where:
m is positive if the line is inclined upwards to the right.
m is negative if the line is inclined downwards to the right.
m is zero for horizontal lines.
STANDARD EQUATIONS OF LINES
1. Point- Slope Form
Given a point P1 (x1,y1) and slope its m:
y - y1 = m (x - x1)
2. Slope- intercept form
Given a slope m and y-intercept;
y = mx + b
3. Intercept form
Given x-intercept a and y-intercept b:
x y
 1
a b
STANDARD EQUATIONS OF LINES

4. Two- point form


Given two points P1 (x1,y1) and P2(x2,y2) :

y  y1 y2 y1
 m
x  x1 x 2 x 1

NOTE : All these four standard equations can be reduced ito the
point slope form.
ANGLE BETWEEN TWO LINES

The angle between lines L1 and L2 is the angle that L1 must


be rotated in a counterclockwise direction to make it coincide
with L2.
1  arctan m
1
 2  arctan m2

   2  1
m 2 m 1
tan  
1  m..1 m2

Lines are parallel if m1=m2


1
Lines are perpendicular if : m
2
m1
DISTANCE FROM A POINT TO A LINE

The distance (nearest) from a point P1 (x1,y1) to a line


Ax + By + C = 0 is :

Ax1 By 1 C
d
 A2 B 2
DISTANCE FROM A POINT TO A LINE

Use of sign:
(+) if B is a positive number
(-) if B is a negative number
(+) if the point is above the line or to the right of the line for
a vertical line
(-) if the point is below the line or to the left of the line for a
vertical line
DISTANCE FROM A POINT TO A LINE

That is:
If B is positive and the point is above the line, then use
(+)(+)=(+)
If B is positive and the point is below the line, then use
(+)(-)=(-)
If B is negative and the point is above the line, then use
(-)(+)=(-)
If B is negative and the point is below the line, then use
(-)(-)=(+)
DISTANCE FROM A POINT TO A LINE

If only the distance is required then use the absolute value.

Ax.1 By2.  C
d
A2 B2
DISTANCE BETWEEN TWO PARALLEL LINES

C2.  C1.
d
A B
2 2

DIVISION OF LINE SEGMENT


x1.r 2 x2.r 1
x
r1 r 2

y1.r2 y2.r 1
y
rr1 2
MIDPOINT OF A LINE SEGMENT

The midpoint Pm (xm,ym) of a line segment through from


P1 (x1,y1) and P2 (x2,y2) is :

x1 x 2
xm
2

y y
y 1 2
m 2
AREA OF POLYGON BY COORDINATES

Let (x1,y1), (x1,y1), (x1,y1), . . . , (x1,y1), (x1,y1) be the


consective vertices of a polygon arranged in counterclockwise
sense. The area is :
CONIC SECTION

a locus (or path) of a point that moves such that the ratio of
its distance from a fixed point (called the focus) and a fixed line
(called the directix) is constant. This constant ratio is called
eccentricity, e of the conic.
was based on the fact that these are sections formed if a
plane is made to pass though a cone.
CONIC SECTION

Circle - if the cutting plane is parallel to the base of a cone.


Parabola - if it is parallel to the element (or generator) of the
cone.
Hyperbola - if it is perpendicular to the base of the cone.
Ellipse - if it is oblique to the base or element of the cone.
GENERAL EQUATIONS OF CONICS

Ax2+Bxy+Cy2+Dx+Ey+F = 0
If B ≠ 0, the axis of the conic is oblique with the coordinate axes
(i.e. not parallel to the X or Y axes). Thus, if the axis is parallel to
either X or Y-axes, the equation becomes:
Ax2+Cy2+Dx+Ey+F = 0
From the foregoing equations:
If B2 < 4AC, the conic is an ellipse.
If B2 = 4AC, the conic is an parabola.
If B2 > 4AC, the conic is an hyperbola.
GENERAL EQUATIONS OF CONICS

Also, a conic is a circle if A = C, an ellipse if A ≠ C but


have the same sign, a parabola if either A = 0 or C = 0, and a
hyperbola if A and C have different signs.
CIRCLE
is the locus of a point that moves such that it is always equidistant from a
fixed point which is called as the center of the circle. The constant
distance is called the radius of the circle.

GENERAL EQUATIONS OF A CIRCLE


Ax2+Ay2+Dx+Ey+F = 0
or x2+y2+Dx+Ey+F = 0
To solve a circle, either one of the following two conditions must be
known:
1. Three points along the circle. (Solution: Use the genral form)
2. Center (h,k) and the radius r. (Solution: Use the standard form)
CIRCLE

STANDARD EQUATIONS OF A CIRCLE


PARABOLA

the locus of a point that moves such that its distance


from a fixed point called the focus is always equal to its
distance from a fixed line called the directrix.

GENERAL EQUATIONS OF PARABOLA


C=0 Ax2+Dx+Ey+F = 0 or x2+Dx+Ey+F = 0
A=0 Cy2+Dx+Ey+F = 0 or y2+Dx+Ey+F = 0
PARABOLA

ECCENTRICITY - is the ratio of its distance from the focus


(d2) and from the directrix (d1). For a parabola, the
eccentricity is equal to 1.
e=1

LATUS RECTUM, LR - is a chord passing through the focus


and the parallel to the directrix or penpendicular to the axis.
LR = 4a
PARABOLA

Standard Equations of Parabola


ELLIPSE

- the locus of a point that moves such that the sum of


its distance from two fixed points called the foci is constant.
The constant sum is the length of the major axis,2a.
- the locus of the point that moves such that the ratio
of its distance from a fixed point, called the focus and a
fixed line called the directrix is constant and is less than
one.
ELLIPSE

Elements of Ellipse
ELLIPSE

General Equation (A ≠ C but have the same sign)


ELLIPSE

Standard equations of Ellipse


HYPERBOLA

- the locus of the point that moves such that the


difference oits distance between two fixed points called the
foci is constant.
- the locus of the point that moves such that the ratio
of its distance from a fixed point called the focus and a fixed
line called the directrix is constant and is greater than 1.
HYPERBOLA

Elements of Hyperbola
HYPERBOLA

Equations of Asymptote
POLAR COORDINATES

We have been familiar with the important coordinate


system – the rectangular coordinate system. We shall
introduce another equally important coordinate system
called the polar coordinate system. A point in
rectangular system is denoted by (x , y). In polar
coordinates, a point is denoted by (r, θ), where r is called
the radius and the θ the polar angle. The origin in polar
coordinate system is called the pole and the x-axis is
called the polar axis.
SKETCHING OF GRAPHS

The basic step to sketch the graph of any equation


F(x,y) = 0 is by plotting of points (x,y) which satisfy the
equation.

THREE STEPS IN SKETCHING OF CURVES


The graph of an equation has three-step procedures.
Step 1: Find the coordinates of the points that satisfy the
equation.
Step 2: Plot the points in the coordinate plane.
Step 3: Connect the points with a smooth curve.