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# ANALYTIC GEOMETRY

## Cartesian or Rectangular Coordinate System

Distance between Two Points
The distance betwwen point P1 (x1, y1) and P 2(x2 ,y2) is:

d  ( x  x)  ( y  y)
2 1
2
2 1
2
STRAIGHT LINE
A STRAIGHT LINE is a line that does not change in
direction. Thu it has a uniform slope.

## GENERAL EQUATION OF A LINE

The general equation of a straight line is:
Ax + By + C = 0
To solve a line, either two points or one point and a slope must be
known,
SLOPE OF THE LINE

## The slope of the line passing through points P1 (x1,y1) and

P2(x2,y2) is :
rise y  y
Slope, m  
2 1

run x2 x1
where:
m is positive if the line is inclined upwards to the right.
m is negative if the line is inclined downwards to the right.
m is zero for horizontal lines.
STANDARD EQUATIONS OF LINES
1. Point- Slope Form
Given a point P1 (x1,y1) and slope its m:
y - y1 = m (x - x1)
2. Slope- intercept form
Given a slope m and y-intercept;
y = mx + b
3. Intercept form
Given x-intercept a and y-intercept b:
x y
 1
a b
STANDARD EQUATIONS OF LINES

## 4. Two- point form

Given two points P1 (x1,y1) and P2(x2,y2) :

y  y1 y2 y1
 m
x  x1 x 2 x 1

NOTE : All these four standard equations can be reduced ito the
point slope form.
ANGLE BETWEEN TWO LINES

## The angle between lines L1 and L2 is the angle that L1 must

be rotated in a counterclockwise direction to make it coincide
with L2.
1  arctan m
1
 2  arctan m2

   2  1
m 2 m 1
tan  
1  m..1 m2

## Lines are parallel if m1=m2

1
Lines are perpendicular if : m
2
m1
DISTANCE FROM A POINT TO A LINE

## The distance (nearest) from a point P1 (x1,y1) to a line

Ax + By + C = 0 is :

Ax1 By 1 C
d
 A2 B 2
DISTANCE FROM A POINT TO A LINE

Use of sign:
(+) if B is a positive number
(-) if B is a negative number
(+) if the point is above the line or to the right of the line for
a vertical line
(-) if the point is below the line or to the left of the line for a
vertical line
DISTANCE FROM A POINT TO A LINE

That is:
If B is positive and the point is above the line, then use
(+)(+)=(+)
If B is positive and the point is below the line, then use
(+)(-)=(-)
If B is negative and the point is above the line, then use
(-)(+)=(-)
If B is negative and the point is below the line, then use
(-)(-)=(+)
DISTANCE FROM A POINT TO A LINE

## If only the distance is required then use the absolute value.

Ax.1 By2.  C
d
A2 B2
DISTANCE BETWEEN TWO PARALLEL LINES

C2.  C1.
d
A B
2 2

## DIVISION OF LINE SEGMENT

x1.r 2 x2.r 1
x
r1 r 2

y1.r2 y2.r 1
y
rr1 2
MIDPOINT OF A LINE SEGMENT

## The midpoint Pm (xm,ym) of a line segment through from

P1 (x1,y1) and P2 (x2,y2) is :

x1 x 2
xm
2

y y
y 1 2
m 2
AREA OF POLYGON BY COORDINATES

## Let (x1,y1), (x1,y1), (x1,y1), . . . , (x1,y1), (x1,y1) be the

consective vertices of a polygon arranged in counterclockwise
sense. The area is :
CONIC SECTION

a locus (or path) of a point that moves such that the ratio of
its distance from a fixed point (called the focus) and a fixed line
(called the directix) is constant. This constant ratio is called
eccentricity, e of the conic.
was based on the fact that these are sections formed if a
plane is made to pass though a cone.
CONIC SECTION

## Circle - if the cutting plane is parallel to the base of a cone.

Parabola - if it is parallel to the element (or generator) of the
cone.
Hyperbola - if it is perpendicular to the base of the cone.
Ellipse - if it is oblique to the base or element of the cone.
GENERAL EQUATIONS OF CONICS

Ax2+Bxy+Cy2+Dx+Ey+F = 0
If B ≠ 0, the axis of the conic is oblique with the coordinate axes
(i.e. not parallel to the X or Y axes). Thus, if the axis is parallel to
either X or Y-axes, the equation becomes:
Ax2+Cy2+Dx+Ey+F = 0
From the foregoing equations:
If B2 < 4AC, the conic is an ellipse.
If B2 = 4AC, the conic is an parabola.
If B2 > 4AC, the conic is an hyperbola.
GENERAL EQUATIONS OF CONICS

## Also, a conic is a circle if A = C, an ellipse if A ≠ C but

have the same sign, a parabola if either A = 0 or C = 0, and a
hyperbola if A and C have different signs.
CIRCLE
is the locus of a point that moves such that it is always equidistant from a
fixed point which is called as the center of the circle. The constant
distance is called the radius of the circle.

## GENERAL EQUATIONS OF A CIRCLE

Ax2+Ay2+Dx+Ey+F = 0
or x2+y2+Dx+Ey+F = 0
To solve a circle, either one of the following two conditions must be
known:
1. Three points along the circle. (Solution: Use the genral form)
2. Center (h,k) and the radius r. (Solution: Use the standard form)
CIRCLE

PARABOLA

## the locus of a point that moves such that its distance

from a fixed point called the focus is always equal to its
distance from a fixed line called the directrix.

## GENERAL EQUATIONS OF PARABOLA

C=0 Ax2+Dx+Ey+F = 0 or x2+Dx+Ey+F = 0
A=0 Cy2+Dx+Ey+F = 0 or y2+Dx+Ey+F = 0
PARABOLA

## ECCENTRICITY - is the ratio of its distance from the focus

(d2) and from the directrix (d1). For a parabola, the
eccentricity is equal to 1.
e=1

## LATUS RECTUM, LR - is a chord passing through the focus

and the parallel to the directrix or penpendicular to the axis.
LR = 4a
PARABOLA

ELLIPSE

## - the locus of a point that moves such that the sum of

its distance from two fixed points called the foci is constant.
The constant sum is the length of the major axis,2a.
- the locus of the point that moves such that the ratio
of its distance from a fixed point, called the focus and a
fixed line called the directrix is constant and is less than
one.
ELLIPSE

Elements of Ellipse
ELLIPSE

ELLIPSE

HYPERBOLA

## - the locus of the point that moves such that the

difference oits distance between two fixed points called the
foci is constant.
- the locus of the point that moves such that the ratio
of its distance from a fixed point called the focus and a fixed
line called the directrix is constant and is greater than 1.
HYPERBOLA

Elements of Hyperbola
HYPERBOLA

Equations of Asymptote
POLAR COORDINATES

## We have been familiar with the important coordinate

system – the rectangular coordinate system. We shall
introduce another equally important coordinate system
called the polar coordinate system. A point in
rectangular system is denoted by (x , y). In polar
coordinates, a point is denoted by (r, θ), where r is called
the radius and the θ the polar angle. The origin in polar
coordinate system is called the pole and the x-axis is
called the polar axis.
SKETCHING OF GRAPHS

## The basic step to sketch the graph of any equation

F(x,y) = 0 is by plotting of points (x,y) which satisfy the
equation.

## THREE STEPS IN SKETCHING OF CURVES

The graph of an equation has three-step procedures.
Step 1: Find the coordinates of the points that satisfy the
equation.
Step 2: Plot the points in the coordinate plane.
Step 3: Connect the points with a smooth curve.