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IMPORTANCE OF

QUALITATIVE
RESEARCH
ACROSS
DIFFERENT
FIELDS
QUALITATIVE RESEARCH IN
EDUCATION
– Ethnographer of education
 A sociologist or anthropologist
 Seeks to understand what counts as education members of a particular group

- Ethnographer of education
 An education “insider” ( a teacher)
 Concerned with the social and cultural dynamics of a school or classroom
QUALITATIVE RESEARCH IN
EDUCATION
Ethnographic studies of learning and knowledge
in education ask the question what counts as
knowledge and learning in classrooms to teachers
and students.
QUALITATIVE RESEARCH IN
TECHNICAL COMMUNICATION

– Focus groups are used to probe deeper


research results in order to describe current
practices in Technical Communication which
can take the forms of E-mail, fax messaging,
video and voice conferencing, intranet and
extranet, jargons and graphics
QUALITATIVE RESEARCH IN
PSYCHOLOGY
– The early 20th century marked Behaviorism
and the second half, Cognitive Revolution;
quantitative methods employed within a
(post) positivist, experimental paradigm
dominated the discipline (Asworth, 2003,
Howit, 2010)
QUALITATIVE RESEARCH IN
PSYCHOLOGY

– These approaches and methods were


opposed to the more subjective,
interpretative and introspective qualitative
techniques of early psychology, which
classified as “unscientific”.
QUALITATIVE RESEARCH IN
PSYCHOLOGY

– Psychology has been strongly shaped by the


behavioral and cognitive traditions, within
which psychology should seek to understand
and determine an observable, objective
psychological reality.
QUALITATIVE RESEARCH IN
ADVERTISING
– Great advertising comes along from an
understanding of consumer’s wants and
needs. In order to understand those wants
and needs, the consumer needs to be
consulted and integrated at virtually every
step of the research process.
QUALITATIVE RESEARCH IN
ADVERTISING

– THEORY – refers to organizing scheme


for the data that place them in orderly
patterns and give meaning and insight
into the lives of others
QUALITATIVE RESEARCH IN
ADVERTISING

– Through qualitative approach,


researchers begin with inductive
analysis and then, often swing back and
forth between inductive and deductive
analyses.
QUALITATIVE RESEARCH IN
ADVERTISING
– Any approach that allows the researcher to
capture the worlds of others can be valid
qualitative technique. These include observation,
participant observation, in-depth interviewing,
documents, and record analysis.
QUALITATIVE RESEARCH IN
SOCIAL WORK

4 categories of analysis of data and


narrative:
1. KNOWLEDGE – direct remembering
and reliving, with complete details of
events
QUALITATIVE RESEARCH IN
SOCIAL WORK

2. AWARENESS OF MENTAL
PROCESSES
including awareness of emotions
and of cognitive processes
QUALITATIVE RESEARCH IN
SOCIAL WORK

3. AWARENESS OF IDENTITY
including awareness of values and
the construction of personal
characteristics of each partner and of
couple as a unit
QUALITATIVE RESEARCH IN
SOCIAL WORK

4. ALIENATION
characterized by a refusal to
observe, reflect of remember
QUALITATIVE RESEARCH IN SOCIAL
WORK esp. calls for the following:

Immersions in the situations of everyday life –


typically normal ones, reflective of the everyday
life of individuals, groups, societies and
organizations
Holism – pursued through inquiry into the
particular – from the whole of the culture to the
context under study
QUALITATIVE RESEARCH IN SOCIAL
WORK esp. calls for the following:

The whole and the particular are held


tension. Small facts speak to large issues
and in particular is located in general theme.
The researcher attempts to capture data on
the perceptions of local actors “from the
inside”
QUALITATIVE RESEARCH IN SOCIAL
WORK esp. calls for the following:

The researcher is the main instrument in he


study, rather than standardized data
collection device.
Most analysis is done in words
QUALITATIVE RESEARCH IN
MARKETING

They created devices such as matching people,


animals, cars, pictorial symbols and soliciting
dreams. They accumulated case studies,
personal histories and ethnographies, and
conducted group interviews even before they
were called focus groups
QUALITATIVE RESEARCH IN
INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS

Businesses all over the world use other


methods like participant observation,
content analysis focus groups, narrative
interviews and hidden methods such as
archival research