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Saling Bersandaran antara Organisma

Hidup dengan Persekitaran


(Interdependence Among Living Organisms
and the Environment)
©NgFL/SMK DC 1
Kandungan
(Content)
4.1 Saling Bersandaran antara Hidupan
(Interdependence Among Living Organisms)
4.2 Interaksi antara Hidupan
(Interaction Between Living Organisms)
4.3 Siratan makanan
(Food Webs)
4.4 Fotosintesis
(Photosynthesis)
4.5 Kepentingan Pemulihan dan Pemeliharaan Hidupan
(The Importance of the Conservation and Preservation of Living
Organisms)
4.6 Peranan Manusia Dalam Mengekalkan Keseimbangan Alam
(Role of Man in Maintaining the Balance in Nature)

©NgFL/SMK DC 2
Saling Bersandaran antara Hidupan
(Interdependence among Living
Organisms)

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Habitat
 Habitat ialah tempat hidup semula jadi bagi tumbuhan
dan haiwan.
(A habitat is the natural living place of plants and animals.)
 Habitat menyediakan udara, makanan, tempat
perlindungan & tempat pembiakan bagi organisma.
(A habitat provides an organism with air, food, shelter and a
place in which to breed.)

©NgFL/SMK DC 4
Spesies
(Species)
 Spesies ialah satu kumpulan
organisma dengan ciri-ciri
umum yang sama.
(A species is a group of organisms
with the same common
characteristics.)
 Boleh membiak sesama
mereka.
(Can breed together to produce
offspring.)

©NgFL/SMK DC 5
Populasi
(Population)
 Populasi ialah satu kumpulan organisma
sama spesies yang hidup bersama-sama
dan membiak dalam suatu habitat.
(A population is a group of organisms
comprising the same species that live
together and reproduce in a habitat.)
 Sebagai contoh,
a) populasi monyet di atas pokok
b) populasi gajah di padang rumput
For example,
a) A population of monkeys in a tree
b) A population of elephants on a grassland

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Komuniti
(Community)
 Komuniti terdiri daripada
beberapa jenis populasi
haiwan dan tumbuhan yang
hidup bersama dan saling
berinteraksi di dalam suatu
habitat.
(A community consists of
several species of animal and
plant population that live
together and interact with one
another in a habitat.)

©NgFL/SMK DC 7
Ekosistem
(Ecosystem)
 Ekosistem terdiri daripada beberapa komuniti yang saling
berinteraksi antara satu sama lain serta dengan persekitaran
fizikal (benda bukan hidup seperti air, udara, tanah, cahaya dan
garam mineral).
(An ecosystem consists of several communities that interact with one
another and with the physical environment (non-living things such as
water, air, soil, light and mineral salts).)
 Sebagai contoh,
a) ekosistem kolam
b) ekosistem hutan hujan tropika
For examples,
a) A pond ecosystem
b) A tropical rainforest ecosystem
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Interaksi antara Hidupan
Interaction Between Living
(Organisms)

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Mangsa-pemangsa
(Prey-predator)
 Pemangsa ialah organisma yang memburu dan memakan
organisma lain.
(A predator is an organism that kills and eats another organism.)
 Mangsa ialah organisma yang diburu dan dimakan oleh
organisma lain.
(A prey is the organism that is eaten.)

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Mangsa-pemangsa
(Prey-predator)
 Pemangsa biasanya mempunyai ciri2 fizikal khas spt kuku,
gigi taring / paruh yg tajam utk membunuh mangsa.
(A predator usually has special physical characteristics such as
sharp claws and fangs, or a beak, with which to kill its prey.)
 Mangsa biasanya mempunyai kebolehan melarikan diri
daripada pemangsa.
(A prey usually has the ability to run away from a predator.)

Sharp©NgFL/SMK
Claws DC Fangs 12
Simbiosis
(Symbiosis)
 Simbiosis bermaksud “tinggal bersama”.
(Symbiosis basically means “living together”.)
 Terdapat 3 jenis simbiosis, iaitu
i. Komensalisme
ii. Parasitisme
iii. Mutualisme
There are 3 types of symbiotic relationships, namely
i. Commensalism
ii. Parasitism
iii. Mutualism

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a) Komensalisme
(Commensalism)
 Dalam komensalisme, 1 spesies
mendapat faedah drpd organisma lain
manakala organisma yg satu lagi tidak
mengalami sebarang kerugian dlm
hubungan ini.
(In commensalism, one species benefits
from the interaction, as the other is
unaffected.)
Paku-pakis tanduk
 Spesies yg tdk mengalami kerugian itu rusa mendapat
ialah perumah. cahaya.
(The unaffected species is the host.) Pokok yg ditumpang
tidak mengalami
sebarang kerugian.
©NgFL/SMK DC 14
a) Komensalisme
(Commensalism)

Ikan remora
menumpang pada
badan ikan yu
Ikan badut tinggal di
anemon laut utk
mengelakkan diri drpd
pemangsa
©NgFL/SMK DC 15
b) Parasitisme
(Parasitism)
 Paraitisme ialah interaksi atr 2
organisma.
(Parasitism is another type of
interaction between two organisms.)
 Hanya 1 organisma mendapat
faedah.
(Only one organism benefits.)
 Satu organisma lagi mengalami
kerugian.
(The other organism suffers some
disadvantages.)

©NgFL/SMK DC 16
b) Parasitisme
(Parasitism)
 Parasit ialah organisma yg
hidup pada / dalam organisma
lain.
(A parasite is an organism that
lives on or inside the other
organism.)
 Perumah ilaah organisma yg
dijadikan sebagai tempat
tinggal parasit.
(The host is the organism on or in
which the parasite lives.)

©NgFL/SMK DC 17
2 Kumpulan Parasit
(2 Groups of Parasites)
 Parasit yang hidup pada perumah.
(Parasites that live outside the host organism)
 Sebagai contoh,
i. nyamuk
ii. Kutu rambut
iii. Kutu haiwan yang menghisap darah perumah
For example,
i. Mosquitoes
ii. Lice
iii. Flea suck blood from their host

©NgFL/SMK DC 18
2 Kumpulan Parasit
(2 Groups of Parasites)
 Parasit yang hidup di dalam
perumah.
(Parasites that live inside the host
organism.)
 Sebagai contoh,
Cacing pita dalam usus manusia dan
haiwan.
For example,
Tapeworms / hookworms inside the
intestines of humans and animals.

©NgFL/SMK DC 19
c) Mutualisme
(Mutualism)
 Dalam mutualisme, kedua-dua pihak spesies mendapat faedah.
(In mutualism, the interaction is beneficial to both species.)
 Mutualisme bermaksud “kerjasama”.
(Mutualism is a form of cooperation.)
 Mereka mendapat faedah makanan dan tempat tinggal drpd satu
sama lain.
(They get nutrition and shelter from each other.)
• Burung makan serpihan makanan.
(The bird eats the fragments of food left
between the crocodile teeth.)
• Maka, gigi buaya bersih.
(So the crocodile gets its teeth cleaned)
©NgFL/SMK DC 20
c) Mutualisme
(Mutualism)

• Haiwan m’dpt makanan drpd


tumbuhan & membantu tumbuhan
mengagihkan biji benih & debunga
utk pembiakan.
(Animals obtain food from plants and
help plants to distribute their seed and
pollens for reproduction.)
• Kulat menyediakan karbon
dioksida & habitat utk alga.
(The fungi provide carbon dioxide
and a habitat for the algae.)
• Alga menyediakan makanan utk
kulat.
(The algae provide food for fungi.)
• Mereka bersama membentuk
liken.
(Together they form©NgFL/SMK
lichens) DC 21
Persaingan
(Competition )
 Persaingan berlaku apabila organisma bersaing utk
mendpt keperluan hidup yg sama.
(Competition occurs when organism compete for the same basic
resources.)
 Haiwan bersaing utk mendpt air, makanan, tempat tinggal
& pasangan utk membiak.
(Animals compete to get water, food, living space and mates for
reproduction.)

Food ©NgFL/SMK DC
Living space Mate for reproduction 22
Persaingan
(Competition )
 Tumbuhan bersaing utk mendpt air, cahaya matahari,
mineral dan ruang utk hidup.
(Plants compete to get water, sunlight, minerals and living
space.)

©NgFL/SMK DC 23
Rumusan
(Summary)
Jenis interaksi Spesies 1 Spesies 2
(Type of interaction) (Species 1) (Species 2)
Persaingan (-) (-)
(Competition)
Pemangsa-mangsa (+) (-)
(Predator-prey)
Parasitisme (+) (-)
(Parasitism)
Komensalisme (+) (0)
(Commensalism)
Mutualisme (+) (+)
(Mutualism) ©NgFL/SMK DC 24
Kawalan Biologi
(Biological Control)
 Kawalan biologi ialah cara yg menggunakan pemangsa
sebagai musuh semula jadi utk mengawal bilangan perosak
(mangsa) dlm suatu kawasan.
(Biological control is a method in which a predator, the natural
enemy to a certain pest, is used to control the population of the
pest in an area.)
Afid adalah perosak kdp petani
sebab merosakkan tanamannya.
(The aphid is a pest to the gardeners,
damaging his plants.)
Kumbang kura-kura membantu
petani dgn memakan afid
(The ladybirds helps the gardener by
ridding him of these pests)
©NgFL/SMK DC 25
Kawalan Biologi
(Biological Control)
 Kawalan biologi mempunyai banyak kelebihan berbanding dgn
penggunaan racun perosak.
(Biological control has many advantages as compared with using
pesticides.)
 Kelebihannya ialah:
a) tidak mencemarkan alam sekitar.
b) tidak membunuh organisma lain selain perosak.
c) murah dan selamat digunakan.
The advantages are:
a) It does not pollute the environment.
b) It does not kill other organism except the pests.
c) It is cheap and safe to use.
©NgFL/SMK DC 26
Kawalan Biologi
(Biological Control)

Burung hantu ialah Penyengat Ichneumon Memelihara ikan gapi


pemangsa yg makan bertelur dlm badan ulat di kolam utk memakan
tikus (mangsa) di karung. Larva menetas jentik-jentik nyamuk.
ladang kelapa sawit. dan memakan ulat karung.
(Owls is a natural (When the eggs hatch, (Rearing guppies in a
predator of rats in Oil the ichneumon larvae pond to eat mosquito
Palm) feed on the body of the larvae.)
host.)
©NgFL/SMK DC 27
Siratan Makanan
(Food Webs)

©NgFL/SMK DC 28
Cahaya matahari (Sunlight)
• Tenaga diserap oleh
tumbuhan hijau
(Energy absorbed by green
Pengeluar (Producer) plants)
• Tumbuhan hijau membuat
makanan sendiri dgn
menjalankan fotosintesis.
Konsumer (Consumer)
(Green plants that produce
• Haiwan yg makan
food through photosynthesis)
tumbuhan / haiwan lain
(Animals that eat plants
/ other animals)
Natrium, Kalium & lain-lain
(Sodium, Potassium &
others) Pengurai (Decomposer)
• Bakteria & kulat mengurai
Mineral (Mineral) organisma mati
• Diserap oleh akar (Bacteria and fungi that
tumbuhan decompose dead organisms)
(Absorbed by plant roots)
©NgFL/SMK DC 29
Rantai Makanan
(Food Chain)
 Rantai makanan ialah suatu aliran tenaga dlm bentuk
makanan yg disalurkan drpd tumbuhan kpd haiwan.
(A food chain is an energy flow showing how energy in food is
passed from plants (produces) to animals (consumers).)

©NgFL/SMK DC 30
Rantai Makanan
(Food Chain)
 Siratan makanan terdiri drpd gabungan beberapa rantai
makanan.
(A food web consists of several food chains that are interlinked to
one another.)

©NgFL/SMK DC 31
Piramid nombor
(Pyramid of Numbers)
 Piramid nombor
menunjukkan bilangan
organisma dlm setiap
peringkat rantai makanan.
(A pyramid of numbers shows
the number of organisms at
each stage of the food chain.)

©NgFL/SMK DC 32
Piramid nombor
(Pyramid of Numbers)
 Dari tapak piramid ke
puncaknya:
a) bilangan organisma semakin
berkurang.
b) saiz organisma semakin besar.
c) semakin banyak tenaga hilang.
From the base of the pyramid to its
peak:
a) The number of organisms
decreases.
b) The size of the organisms
increases.
c) More energy is lost.
©NgFL/SMK DC 33
Fotosintesis
(Photosynthesis)

©NgFL/SMK DC 34
 Fotosintesis ialah proses yg berlaku pd tumbuhan hijau utk
membuat makanan drpd air & karbon dioksida dgn kehadiran
klorofil & cahaya matahari.
(Photosynthesis is a process that occurs in green plants, in which food
is made from water and carbon dioxide in the presence of
chlorophyll and sunlight.)
©NgFL/SMK DC 35
Persamaan Fotosintesis
(Photosynthesis Equation)

klorofil
Karbon Glokosa oksigen
Air
dioksida (makanan)
Cahaya
matahari

chlorophyII
Carbon Glucose oxygen
Water
dioxide (food)
sunlight

©NgFL/SMK DC 36
Persamaan Fotosintesis
(Photosynthesis Equation)
 Glukosa yg terhasil kemudian dibawa ke bhg lain
tumbuhan utk:
a) dioksidakan melalui proses respirasi bagi
membekalkan tenaga.
b) disimpan sebagai kanji sekiranya berlebihan.
The glucose produced is transported to other parts of the
plant to be:
a) Oxidized through the process of respiration to provide
energy.
b) Stored as starch.

©NgFL/SMK DC 37
Peranan Fotosintesis
(The Role of Photosynthesis)

 Membolehkan tumbuhan hijau membuat makanan


sendiri.
(Enable green plants to make their own food.)
 Mengawal dan mengekalkan kandungan karbon dioksida
dalam atmosfera.
(Regulate and maintain carbon dioxide content in the
atmosphere.)
 Menambahkan kandungan oksigen dalam atmosfera.
(Increase oxygen content in the atmosphere.)

©NgFL/SMK DC 38
Eksperimen 1
(Experiment 1)
Pecahkan dinding sel
(Break the cell wall)

Melembutkan
daun Menyingkirkan
(Soften the klorofil
leaf ) (Remove chlorophyll)

Uji kehadiran
kanji. Tukar
kpd biru tua.
(Test for
starch. Turn Kehadiran kanji sebagai hasil fotosintesis
blue-black) (The presence ofDCstarch as a product of photosynthesis)
©NgFL/SMK 39
Eksperimen 2
(Experiment 2)
Tujuan: (Aim:)
Menunjukkan tumbuhan memerlukan karbo dioksida utk fotosintesis.
(To show plant need carbon dioxide for photosynthesis.)
 Maklumat: larutan natrium hidroksida menyerap karbon dioksida
drpd udara.
(Information: Sodium hydroxide absorbs carbon dioxide.)
Bell
jar
Green
plant

Flower
pot with Sodium
earth hydroxide
solution
Glass
©NgFL/SMK DC piece 40
Kitar karbon
(The Carbon Cycle)
 Kitar karbon adalah edaran karbon dioksida di bumi.
(The carbon cycle is the circulation of the carbon element on the
Earth.)
 Proses ini berlaku secara berterusan.
(These processes take place continuously.)
 Kitar karbon mengekalkan kandungan gas karbon dioksida
di dalam udara.
(The carbon cycle maintains the content of carbon dioxide in the
air.)

©NgFL/SMK DC 41
©NgFL/SMK DC 42
Kitar karbon
(The Carbon Cycle)
 Proses2 yg menyumbangkan karbon dioksida ke udara
termasuk:
a) respirasi atau pernafasan
b) Pembakaran
c) Pereputan
The processes that release carbon dioxide into the air include:
a) Respiration or breathing.
b) Combustion.
c) Decomposition (decay).
 Fotosintesis yg berlaku pd tumbuhan hijau menyingkirkan
karbon dioksida drpd udara.
(Photosynthesis, which takes place in green plants, removes
carbon dioxide from the air.)
©NgFL/SMK DC 43
Kitar Oksigen
(The Oxygen Cycle)
 Kitar oksigen adalah edaran oksigen di bumi.
(The oxygen cycle is the circulation of oxygen on the Earth.)
 Proses ini berlaku secara berterusan.
(These processes take place continuously.)
 Kitar oksigen mengekalkan gas kandungan oksigen di dlm
udara.
(The oxygen cycle maintains the content of oxygen in the air.)

©NgFL/SMK DC 44
Kitar Oksigen
(The Oxygen Cycle)

©NgFL/SMK DC 45
Kepentingan Pemuliharaan &
Pemeliharaan Hidupan
(The Importance of The Conservation &
Preservation of Living Organisms)

©NgFL/SMK DC 46
Kesan Rumah Hijau
(The Greenhouse Effect)
 Kesan rumah hijau terjadi apabila lapisan karbon dioksida di
atmosfera menghalang pembebasan sebahagian haba dr
permukaan bumi ke angkasa lepas.
(The greenhouse effect occurs because a layer of carbon dioxide in
the atmosphere that prevents a portion of heat from escaping to the
outer space.)

©NgFL/SMK DC 47
Kesan Rumah Hijau
(The Greenhouse Effect)
 Kesan rumah hijau meningkatkan suhu Bumi.
(The greenhouse effect raises the Earth’s temperature.)
 Ini dikenali sebagai pemanasan global.
(This is known as global warming.)
 Fenomena ini menyebabkan mengakibatkan perubahan cuaca
dan iklim dunia.
(This phenomenon causes changes in the world’s weather and
climate.)

©NgFL/SMK DC 48
Kesan Pemanasan Global
(Effect of Global Warming)

 Paras air laut naik dan ini


menyebabkan kws tepi laut
yr rendah ditenggelami air.
(The sea level increases and  Pencairan ais di kedua-dua
this results in the flooding of kutub bumi.
low-lying coastal areas.) (The melting of icebergs at
both of the Earth’s poles.)
©NgFL/SMK DC 49
Penipisan Lapisan Ozon
(The Thinning of the Ozone Layer)
 Lapisan ozon menyerap sinar ultraungu sebelum sinar UV
sampai ke Bumi.
(The ozone layer absorbs most of the ultraviolet rays before it
reaches the earth’s surface.)
 Bahan kimia klorofluorokarbon (CFC) digunakan dlm
pembuatan bhn spt penyembur aerosol, peti sejuk &
penyaman udara telah menjadi bahan pencemar yg
menguraikan molekul ozon dlm lapisan ozon.
(Chemicals such as chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), used in the
manufacture of aerosol sprays, refrigerators and air conditioners,
are pollutants that break down the ozone molecules in the ozone
layer.)
©NgFL/SMK DC 50
Penipisan Lapisan Ozon
(The Thinning of the Ozone Layer)

©NgFL/SMK DC 51
Kesan Penipisan Lapisan Ozon
(Effects of Thinning of the Ozone Layer)
 Sinar ultraungu yg sampai ke Bumi akan menyebabkan:
a) kanser kulit
b) katarak (selaput mata menebal)
c) sistem pengimunan badan terjejas
Ultraviolet rays that reach the Earth cause:
a) Skin cancer
b) Cataract of the eyes
c) The human immune system to malfunction.

©NgFL/SMK DC 52
Hujan Asid
(Acid rain)
 Gas spt sulfur dioksida
& nitrogen dioksida
larut dlm air hujan utk
menghasilkan hujan
asid.
(Gases such as sulphur
dioxide & nitrogen dioxide
dissolve in rain water to
form acid rain.)

©NgFL/SMK DC 53
Kesan Hujan Asid
(Effect of Acid Rain)
 Memusnahkan habitat hidupan.
(Destroy the habitat of living things.)
 Merendahkan pH tanah dan menjadikannya kurang sesuai utk
tumbuhan.
(Lower the soil pH value and make it unsuitable for plants.)
 Air sungai yg dicemari huajn asid tdk sesuai didiami oleh
organisma akuatik.
(River water that is polluted by acid rain is no longer suitable for
aquatic organisms.)

©NgFL/SMK DC 54
©NgFL/SMK DC 55
Peranan Manusia Dalam
Mengekalkan Keseimbangan Alam
(The Role of Humans In Maintaining The
Balance of Nature)

©NgFL/SMK DC 56
 Pengurusan pencemaran alam sekitar dpt menyelamatkan Bumi.
(Managing environmental pollution can save our Earth.)
 Langkah-langkah utk mengurangkan pencemaran alam sekitar:
a) penggunaan petrol tanpa plumbum
b) Mengharamkan ujian nuklear
c) menyediakan tempat khas bagi pembankaran sampah-sarap
d) mengetatkan undang-undang bagi pembuangan bahan toksik
dari kilang.
e) mengadakan kempen utk mengelakkan pencemaran
f) Kitar semula, Guna Semula & Pengurangan Pembaziran bahan
The following are steps that can be taken to reduce environmental
pollution:
a) Use unleaded petrol.
b) Ban nuclear testing.
c) Create special places to burn rubbish.
d) Tighten law regarding the disposal of toxic waste from factories.
e) Hold campaigns to prevent pollution.
f) Recycle, reuse and reduce materials.
©NgFL/SMK DC 57
©NgFL/SMK DC 58