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Ê A Nation: a population with a historic

sense of self.
A nation is a population with a certain
sense of itself, a cohesiveness, a
commonality of attitudes and ideals, and
often (but not always) a common

Ê A State: he government structure of a

A state is a government structure, usually
sovereign and powerful enough to
enforce its right. (˜ ˜˜ 

Ê 3any argue that nations must have
developed before states. States are
rather artificial creations; they come and
go and change form through the
But, in most cases, it was state
(government structure) that created their
nations around them
Õ   ˜   
˜˜ ˜

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Ê is the body of people and institutions that

make and enforce laws for a society

anarchy is society without government

anarchy is the absence of government

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Ê 6erritory: in general, every nation accupies a specific
geographical area. 6he principle of definite boundaries is
accepted by all nations
Ê Population
Population:: every nation/state has people within its
borders. Ideally, it should be a population with a sense of
cohesion, of being a distinct nationality. Each natin rgards
a certain people as its citizens and all others as alliens.
A Citizen is a person who has a legal status of being a full
member of a particular nation. 6his status includes being
loyal to that nation above all others; reciving its
protection; and enjoying the right to participate in its
political processes. By the same token, each nation
regards any non-
non-citizen as an aliens (a person isneother
a citizen nor a national of the nation in which he/she

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Ê Independence
6he nation should also be independent, means
that it governs itself as a sovereignty (the full
and exlusive legal power to make and enforce
laws for particular people in a particular
Each nation has supreme lega authority over its
own affairs and, in that respect, is fully equal to
every other nation (6he principle of the
sovereign equality of nations)

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Ê Sovernment
Each nation has an officially designated set of persons
and institutions authorized to make and enforce laws
for all people within its territory
Unitary Government are those which the national
government are legally supreme over regional and
local government
Federal Government are those in which power is
formally divided between the national government and
certain regional governments,each of wich is legally
supreme in its own sphere

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Ê Nationalism
All nation are rooted in nationalism (people¶s
psychological attachment to a particular nation,
based upon a common history, common
language and literature, comon culture, and
desire for political independence)
3any people are more loyal to their nations
than to their religions, their social classes, their
races, even their families

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Ê 6erritory, population, government,
sovereigny (3iriam Budiharjo)
Ê 6erritory, population, independence,
government (3ichael Roskin

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6he process of constructing a nation
depends on the success of conducting 5
aspects (identity,
(identity, legitimacy, penetration,
participation and distribution)
distribution) in the same
stages of sequence


Ê irst hurdle in building a nation. People

who previously identified with a tribe, or
other subnational group must come to
think of themselves as first and foremost
citizens of the nation.
6his does not happen easily, quickly, or

Ê A government must cultivate the respect

and willing obedience of its citizens,
widespread feeling among the people
that the regime¶s rule is rightful. Regime
with legitimcy problems are prone to
overthrow or revolution. Ultimately, no
legitimacy means no nation.
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Related to both identity and legitimacy, the crisis of
penetration means the need of the nation to get
substantially all the population to obey the government
One quick check of penetration; do all areas pay taxes?
If not, there is a penetration problem. 6he regime
establishes its rule first in the capital, the slowly
extends its rule over the country.
Lack of penetration mean that a government can have a
law on its books, but much of the country, including
some officials, disregard the law
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People become more aware that they are

being governed, they demand to have a
say in their governance. 6his feeling
typically starts with the educated, better-
off an prominent people
6he crisis of distribution is never permanently resolved. It
concerns the classic question of ³who gets what´.
Once the broad masses of citizens are participating in
elections, it usually occurs to them that the economic
rewards of the nation are unfairly apportioned, and they
want to change the distribution of the nation¶s income
in their favor.
6he distribution question is never settled, however,
because the poorer sector of society always want more
welfare, whereas the better off represente by the more
conservative parties argue the the welfare state has
gotten out of hand, the taxes are too high and benefits
too generous