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Exercise Physiology & Fitness

Chapter 7

©2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.


Exercise Physiology & Fitness
 What is exercise physiology?
 What is the role of physical activity
and exercise in achieving physical
fitness and health?
 How do you use the FITT formula
to design a fitness program?
 What are the contributors and
deterrents to fitness?

©2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.


Exercise Physiology

 The study of the effects of exercise on the


body.
 Body’s responses and adaptations to
exercises
 System to subcellular level
 Acute (short term) to chronic (long term) adaptations
 Population served
 Elite performer
 People of all ages and abilities
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Historical Development
 Late 1800s - the use of anthropometry to
measure changes in students’ development after
training programs.
 Early 1900s – McKenzie ~ Investigating effects of
exercise on various systems of the body and the
idea of preventative medicine
 After WWII - increased interest in fitness as a
result of youth fitness tests and the results of the
physicals of men in the military.
 1968 – Dr. Kenneth H. Cooper promotes aerobic
exercise and its contribution to health; publishes
Aerobics
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Historical Development

 1970s: APS recognized exercise physiology as a


specialized area of physiology.
 1974: ACSM: Guidelines for Graded Exercise Testing and
Prescription
 1980s and 1990s: Increased understanding of the
relationship between physical activity and health.
 1996:Surgeon General’s Report Physical Activity &
Health
 2000: 1st certification exams for Clinical Exercise
Physiologists ©2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
Areas of Study

 Effects of various  Identification of factors


exercises on various that limit performance
systems of the body  Effectiveness of various
 Relationship of energy rehabilitation programs
metabolism to  Ergogenic aids and
performance exercise
 Effectiveness of training  Health and therapeutic
programs effects associated with
 Effects of environmental exercise
factors on performance  Effects of nutrition on
performance

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Specialization

 Cardiac rehabilitation
 Assessment of cardiovascular functioning
 Prevention of cardiovascular disease
 Rehabilitation of individuals with the disease
 Exercise biochemistry
 Effects of exercise at the cellular level
 Exercise epidemiology: Relationship between
physical activity and mortality
 Pediatric exercise science:Scientific study of the
response of the body to exercise during childhood and
maturation.
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Physical Fitness

 Ability of the body’s systems to function


efficiently and effectively.
 Individuals who are “physically fit” have the
ability to:
 “carry out daily tasks with vigor and

alertness, without undue fatigue, and with


ample energy to enjoy leisure-time pursuits
and to meet unforeseen emergencies.”

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Physical Fitness

 Health fitness  Performance fitness


 Body composition  Agility
 Cardiorespiratory  Balance
endurance  Coordination
 Flexibility  Endurance
 Muscular endurance  Flexibility
 Muscular strength  Muscular endurance
 Muscular strength

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Physical Activity and Health

 Chronic disease – major threat to health


today
 Hypokinetic diseases
 Diseases caused by insufficient physical activity,
often in conjunction with inappropriate dietary
practices.
 Coronary heart disease, hypertension,
osteoporosis, non-insulin diabetes, chronic back
pain, and obesity
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Physical Inactivity & Health
 Inactivity a risk factor for several
diseases
 Individuals who lead a sedentary
lifestyle have increased risk of
morbidity and mortality.
 Inactive individuals have almost twice
the risk of CHD as those who are active
 The degree of risk is similar to cigarette
smoking, hypertension, and obesity.
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Dose-response Debate
 What kind of activity?
 How much time spent in activity?
 At what intensity should it be
performed?
 How often in order to see benefits?

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Consensus Statement
 There is an inverse and generally linear
relationship for rates of all-cause mortality, total
CVD, and CHD incidence and mortality and for
the incidence of type 2 diabetes.
 Accumulation of at least 30 minutes of
moderate-intensity PA on most days of the week
is associated with a significant 20%-30%
reduction in all-cause mortality.
 Additional benefits can be derived from
increasing the amount and/or intensity of physial
activity.
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Health Benefits

 Enhanced cardiovascular function


 Reduction of many cardiovascular disease risk
factors
 Increase ability to perform tasks of daily living
 Reduced risk of muscle and joint injury
 Improved work performance
 Improved physical appearance, self-image, and
sound mental health
 Reduction of susceptibility to depression and
anxiety
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Health Benefits
 Management of stress
 Enhancement of self-concept and esteem
 Socialization through participation in physical
activities
 Improved overall general motor performance
 Energy
 Resistance to fatigue
 Mitigate the debilitating effects of old-age or
retain a more desirable level of health for a
longer period of time
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Energy Production for PA

 Use of ATP as energy to perform muscular


activity. Two ways to produce ATP:
 Anaerobic system
 Without oxygen
 High energy expenditure, short time (6-60 seconds)
 Aerobic system
 With oxygen
 Lower rate of energy expenditure, longer period of
time (more than 3 minutes)
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Principles of Fitness Training

 Principle of overload
 To improve improvements in health and fitness, an
increased workload must be placed on the body.
 Principle of specificity
 Design program to reflect specific goals.
 Principle of progression
 Overload should be applied gradually, and steadily
increased as the body adapts.
 Principle of diminishing returns
 As fitness increases, gains achieved become less and
less as individuals approach limits of adaptability
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Principles of Fitness Training
 Principle of variation
 Variation helps maintain individuals’ interest and
provides a change of pace while continuing to make
progress toward desired goals
 Principle of reversibility
 “Use it or lose it” – inactivity leads to gradual erosion
of benefits achieved
 Cardiovascular gains can disappear within 5-
10 weeks of inactivity
 Some strength gains persist for 6 months to 1
year after cessation of training
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Principles of Fitness Training
 Principle of individuality
 Individuals respond differently to exercise and
will vary in their rate of improvement and
levels of achievement.
 Principle of recovery
 Rest allows the body to recover and adapt to
the changes placed on it
 Principles of safety
 Safety is paramount
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Principles of Fitness Training
 Include warm-up and cool down as
part of the training program
 Helps prevent injury and prepares body for
exercise as well as returns it to a normal
state.
 Consider behavioral factors
 Motivation of individual to adhere to fitness
program
 Promote adherence through strategies as
goal-setting and enhancing self-efficacy
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Planning a Fitness Program

 Threshold of training
 Minimal level of exercise needed to achieve desired
benefits.
 Target zone
 Defines the upper limits of training and the optimal
level of exercise.
 Needs and goals of individual
 Program should meet the goals of the individual
 FITT Formula
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FITT formula

 Frequency
 Number of sessions each week
 Intensity
 Degree of effort put forth during exercise.
 Time
 Duration of activity
 Type
 Mode of exercise being performed
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Cardiorespiratory Endurance
 Body’s ability to deliver oxygen
effectively to the working muscles to
perform physical activity.
 Most important component of health
fitness.
 Helps prevent hypokinetic disease.
 Concerned with the aerobic efficiency
of the body.
©2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
Cardiorespiratory Endurance

 Frequency: 3 to 5 times per week


 Intensity: 55% - 90% HRMAX
40% - 85% HRR
 Time: 20 - 60 minutes
 Type: Aerobic activities

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Target Zone

 HRMAX= 220 bpm - age


 Target zone = 55% to 90% HRMAX
 Lower threshold target HR= HRMAX x
55%
 Upper threshold target HR= HRMAX x
90%

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Body Composition

 Percentage of body weight composed of


fat as compared with fat-free or lean
tissue.
 Obesity is associated with numerous
health problems and earlier mortality.
 Determination of the cause of obesity is
important.

©2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.


Body Composition

 Body composition is influenced by nutrition


and physical activity.
 Energy balance is important to achieving a
favorable body composition.
 Energy expenditure through:
 basal metabolism (maintenance of essential life
functions)
 work (including exercise)
 excretion of body wastes
©2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
Body Mass Index
Classifications for BMI

 Estimated – Classification BMI

<18.5 kg/m2
 Weight in pounds Underweight

X 703 divided by Normal weight 18.5 - 24.9 kg/m2

height in inches Overweight 25 - 29.9 kg/m2


squared
Obesity (Class 1) 30 - 34.9 kg/m2
 Often used in Obesity (Class 2) 35 - 39.9 kg/m2
large scale surveys Extreme Obesity (Class 3)  40 kg/m2
because of ease of
collecting large
amounts of data
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Energy Balance

 Number of calories taken into the body as food


minus number of calories expended
 Caloric expenditure
 Neutral balance
 Caloric intake equals expenditure.
 Positive balance
 More calories consumed than expended.
 Negative balance
 More calories are expended than consumed.
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Body Composition Improvement

 Decreasing percentage of fat


 Decrease caloric intake through diet.
 Increase caloric expenditure through physical activity
and exercise.
 Moderate decrease in caloric intake and moderate
increase in caloric expenditure.
 Follow sound practices
 Obsession with weight loss, in conjunction with many
other factors, may contribute to the development of an
eating disorder.
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Measurement of Body
Composition

 Hydrostatic weighing
 Skinfold measurements
 Body mass index (BMI)
 Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA)
 Bioelectrical impedance

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Muscular Strength & Endurance

 Muscular strength is the ability of a muscle or a


muscle group to exert a single force against a
resistance.
 Muscular endurance is the ability of a muscle or
muscle group to exert force repeatedly or over a
period of time.
 Maintenance of proper posture; protect joints.
 Production of power to enhance performance.
 Use it of lose it!
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Exercises

 Isometric exercises
 Muscle exerts force against an immovable object.
 Static contraction
 Isotonic exercises
 Force is generated while the muscle is changing in
length.
 Concentric and Eccentric contractions
 Isokinetic exercises
 Contractions are performed at a constant velocity
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Development of Muscular
Strength and Endurance
 Principle of Overload is critical.
 Repetition - performance of a movement
through the full range of motion.
 Set - number of repetitions performed without
rest.
 Strength
 Low number of repetitions with a heavy resistance.
 Endurance
 High number of repetitions with a low resistance
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Flexibility

 Maximum range of motion possible at a joint


 Joint specific: better range of motion in some
joints than in others.
 Can prevent muscle injuries & low-back pain
 Decreased flexibility can be caused by:
 Sedentary lifestyle (lack of use of muscles)
 Age
 High amounts of body fat
 Stress
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Improvement of Flexibility
 Ballistic stretching
 Momentum generated from repeated bouncing to
stretch. (Not recommended)
 Static stretching
 Slowly moving into a stretching position and holding for
a certain period of time (10-30 seconds; 5 times).
 Contract-relax technique
 Relaxing of the muscle to be stretched by contracting
the opposite muscle (hamstrings/quadriceps)
 Measurement of flexibility - goniometer
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Conducting Fitness Programs

 Provide for cognitive and affective goals as


well as physical activity.
 Make fitness enjoyable.
 Establish goals and a plan of action to
attain them.
 Monitor progress.
 Provide for maintenance of fitness.
 Fitness requires personal commitment.
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Effects of Training

 Lower oxygen consumption


 Lower pulse rate
 Larger stroke volume
 Lower rise in blood pressure
 Slower respiration rate
 Lower rate of lactic acid formation
 Faster return to “normal”
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Effects of Training
 Greater cardiorespiratory efficiency.
 Greater endurance.
 More “work” can be performed at less
cost.
 Improvement in fitness components.
 Coordination and timing of movements
are better.
©2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
Physical Activity & Health
 Adults - 30 minutes of physical activity equal to
brisk walking on most, preferably all, days of the
week.
 Children – 60 minutes of physical activity on most,
preferably all, days of the week
 Activity of greater intensity will yield greater health
benefits.
 Strength-developing activities at least twice a
week.
 Physical activity as an integral part of one’s
lifestyle.
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Environmental Considerations
 Hot and humid weather
 Use extreme caution
 Heat cramps, heat exhaustion, heat stroke
 Fluid replacement
 Adaptation
 Extreme cold weather
 Heat conservation
 Hypothermia
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Nutrition and Fitness

 Nutrients  Maintaining water


 carbohydrates balance is
 fats important.
 proteins
 vitamins  A well-balanced diet
 minerals is necessary to
 water obtain all the
nutrients required
by the body.

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Nutrition

 Food pyramid offers guidelines for eating a


balanced diet.
 Current U.S. diet is too high in fat,
cholesterol, sugar, and sodium and lacking
in carbohydrates and fiber.
 Carefully monitor caloric intake AND
caloric expenditure.
 Special diets for special situations.
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US Dietary Guidelines - 2005

 Consume adequate nutrients within caloric


needs
 Maintain body weight within a healthy range
 Engage in regular physical activity (PA)
 30 minutes of moderate-intensity PA/day to reduce
risk of chronic disease
 Greater health benefits can be accrued from
engaging in PA for a longer time and/or at a greater
level of intensity

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US Dietary Guidelines - 2005

 Consume a sufficient amount and variety of fruits and


vegetables
 Consume at least half of your grains from whole grains
 Consume 3 cups/day of fat-free or low-fat milk or
equivalent mild products
 Limit consumption of saturated fatty acids and trans
fatty acids
 Limit consumption of sodium
 Consume potassium-rich foods
 Drink alcoholic beverages in moderation
 Safely prepare foods to avoid illness
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Ergogenic Aids
 Work-producing substances or phenomena
believed to increase performance
 Used to enhance energy use, production,
and/or recovery in quest for improved
performance
 Forms
 Mechanical
 Psychological
 Pharmacological
 Physiological
 Nutritional
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Caffeine
 Stimulant, restricted by IOC – standard up to 6
to 8 cups of coffee
 Enhances muscle tension development,
increased alertness, decreased perception of
fatigue, increased endurance performance
 Effect depends on dosage and amount of
caffeine athlete typically consumes
 Side effects – very rapid heart rate, diuresis,
insomnia, nervousness, diarrhea, anxiety

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Carbohydrate Leading
 Used in endurance events lasting 60 to 90
minutes or longer in order to maintain pace
and delay fatigue
 Change training regimen and modify diet to eat
more complex carbohydrates than normal in
order to store additional glycogen in muscles
and liver to provide extra energy
 Pre-event meal – 1 to 5 grams of carbohydrate
per kilogram of body weight 1 to 4 hours prior
to event
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Hydration, Energy & Sports
Drinks
 Proper hydration is important for safety reasons
and to improve performance.
 Fluid replacement during exercise is associated
with lower heart rate, body core temperature,
and levels of perceived exertion.
 Water – 4-6 ounces for every 15-20 minutes of
exercise
 Sports and/or energy drinks – add fluid as well
as replace lost electrolytes and supply additional
carbohydrates
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Creatine
 Used in an effort to increase stores of muscle
phosophocreatine and have more fuel available
to support short, high intensity activity
 Used in conjunction with a resistance training
program to maximize muscle strength and
increase fat-free mass
 ACSM – creatine supplementation enhances
exercise performance in events involving short
periods of extremely powerful activity, especially
during repeated efforts.
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Anabolic-Androgenic Steroids
 Synthetic forms of male hormone testosterone –
testosterone secreted by testes is responsible for the
development of masculine characteristics and
promotion of growth of tissue, muscle mass, weight,
and bone growth
 Taken orally or injected in 10 to 100 times the
recommended therapeutic dosage
 Banned by IOC and some sport organizations
 Serious side effects, some irreversible, associated with
chronic use including increased risk of heart disease,
liver tumors, cancer, hypertension, mood swings,
aggressive behavior.
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