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HYPOTHESIS TESTING

Affiliate, ESSU-Graduate School

Session Objectives

In this fraction of the course on Statistical Methods, graduate students

enrolled in the subject are expected to do the following:

2. Define important terms related to testing.

hypothesis testing (e.i. null and 5. Test hypotheses using the traditional

alternative hypotheses, test statistic, method.

critical value and region, type of test,

level of significance)

3. Differentiate Types I and II errors in

hypothesis testing.

This slideshow presentation will be made available through the official course website:

mathbychua.weebly.com.

Download the document to use it as reference.

Fundamentals of

Hypothesis Testing

Understanding the jargons

Hypothesis

In statistics, a hypothesis is a claim or statement It may or

about a property of one or more populations. may not be

true.

Examples of statistical hypotheses:

• The average Filipino adult drinks 800 ml of

carbonated drinks in a week.

• Only ten percent of children who enter Grade 1 will

be able to graduate in college.

conclusion about whether to reject or not reject the

hypothesis.

Hypothesis

The best way to determine if a hypothesis Usually impractical

was true would be to examine the entire

population. So, examine random

samples from the

The mean number of text messages received population

per day by kids aged 15-16 years old in Brgy

A is 24. If sample data is not

consistent with

The mean number of text messages received hypothesis, reject it.

per day by Filipino teenagers is 24.

Statistical

Hypothesis

There are two types of statistical

hypotheses.

there is NO statistical significance

between two variables in the

hypothesis.

It is the hypothesis that the researcher

tries to disprove.

states that there is a statistical

significance between two variables.

Usually what the researcher thinks is

true and is testing.

The hypothesis we want to test is if 𝐻1

is likely true.

• Reject H0 because of sufficient

evidence in the sample in favor or

H1;

• Do not reject H0 because of

insufficient evidence to support H1.

mean the null hypothesis is true. There

is no formal outcome that says “accept

H0." It only means that we do not have

sufficient evidence to support H1.

Stating the null and alternative hypotheses

Coca Cola Bottling Company claims There is NO significant

that the mean volume of coke in cans is difference between the

12 oz. A sample of 200 cans of the soft sample mean and the

drink was randomly selected and company’s claim.

measured in terms of its liquid volume ഥ = 𝟏𝟐 𝒐𝒛

𝑯𝟎 : 𝒙

content. The mean of this sample is

12.38 oz. Is there a significant There is a significant

difference between the sample mean difference between the

obtained and the company’s claim? sample mean and the

company’s claim.

TWO-TAILED HYPOTHESIS TEST ഥ ≠ 𝟏𝟐 𝒐𝒛

𝑯𝟏 : 𝒙

Stating the null and alternative hypotheses

The mean daily income of

The mean daily income of 20 families in the families after the

Brgy A is 250. An NGO recently livelihood program is NOT

conducted a livelihood program for significantly greater than

these families. After three months, the the mean daily income

mean daily income of these families was before it.

ഥ = 𝟐𝟗𝟓

𝑯𝟎 : 𝒙

recorded at 295 pesos. Is the mean

daily income after the livelihood The mean daily income of

program significantly greater than the the families after the

mean daily income of the families livelihood program is

before it? significantly greater than

the mean daily income

before it.

ONE-TAILED HYPOTHESIS TEST ഥ > 𝟐𝟗𝟓

𝑯𝟏 : 𝒙

Two-tailed Hypothesis Test

There is NO significant

difference between the

sample mean and the

ഥ = 𝟏𝟐 𝒐𝒛

𝒙

company’s claim.

ഥ = 𝟏𝟐 𝒐𝒛

𝑯𝟎 : 𝒙

Non rejection region

There is a significant

Critical / rejection difference between the

region sample mean and the

ഥ ≠ 𝟏𝟐 𝒐𝒛

𝒙

company’s claim.

The critical region is the set of all values of the test statistic that ഥ ≠ 𝟏𝟐 𝒐𝒛

𝑯𝟏 : 𝒙

would cause us to reject the null hypothesis.

One-tailed Hypothesis Test

The mean daily income of

the families after the

livelihood program is

NOT significantly greater

than the mean daily

income before it.

ഥ = 𝟐𝟗𝟓

𝑯𝟎 : 𝒙

ഥ = 𝟐𝟗𝟓

𝒙

The mean daily income of

the families after the

livelihood program is

significantly greater than

Critical / rejection

region the mean daily income

ഥ > 𝟐𝟗𝟓

𝒙

before it.

ഥ > 𝟐𝟗𝟓

𝑯𝟏 : 𝒙

Test Statistic

The test statistic Claims about the Two Dependent Samples

is a sample population mean, 𝒏 > 𝟑𝟎 ഥ 𝒏

𝒅

statistic or a value ഥ−𝝁

𝒙 𝒕=

𝒛= 𝒏 𝒔

based on the 𝝈

sample data used

Two Independent

in making decision Claims about the Samples

about the population mean, 𝒏 ≤ 𝟑𝟎 ഥ𝟏 − 𝒙

𝒙 ഥ𝟐

rejection of the 𝒕=

ഥ−𝝁

𝒙

𝒏

𝒛=

null hypothesis. 𝒔 𝒔𝟐𝟏 𝒔𝟐𝟐

+

𝒏𝟏 𝒏𝟐

Types of Errors

True State of Nature

The null The null

hypothesis is hypothesis is

true. false.

Type I error

We decide to reject Correct

(rejecting a true

the null hypothesis. Decision

null hypothesis)

Decision Type II error

We decide not to (not rejecting a

Correct

reject the null false null

Decision

hypothesis. hypothesis)

Two-tailed Hypothesis Test

the null hypothesis when it of significance level, 𝜶 is

is true (Type I error) is divided equally between

called the significance the two tails that constitute

level, denoted by the the critical region.

symbol 𝜶. This value is

typically predetermined.

region

𝜶 = 𝟎. 𝟎𝟓

One-tailed Hypothesis Test

can be left tailed or right of significance level, 𝜶 is

tailed depending on which taken only on the tail that

tail the critical region is contains the critical region.

located.

Critical / rejection 𝟎. 𝟎𝟓

region

𝜶 = 𝟎. 𝟎𝟓

Conclusions in Hypothesis Testing

Start

Does the

original claim “There is sufficient evidence to warrant

No Reject Yes

contain the the rejection of the claim that … (original

Original 𝐻0 ? (Reject 𝐻0 )

condition of claim claim)”

equality? contains

equality and “There is no sufficient evidence to

becomes 𝐻0 No

(Do not reject 𝐻0 )

warrant the rejection of the claim that …

(original claim)”

No Reject Yes

“The sample data support that …

Original claim does not 𝐻0 ? (Reject 𝐻0 )

contain equality and (original claim)”

becomes 𝐻1

(Do not reject 𝐻0 ) to support the claim that … (original

claim)”

Steps in Hypothesis

Testing

Going through the process

1. State the null and alternative hypotheses.

Express the hypotheses in symbols.

2. Determine the appropriate test statistic and the

sampling distribution.

3. Identify or select the significance level and

degree of freedom.

4. Determine the critical values and the critical

region and formulate the decision rule.

Traditional 5. Compute for the test statistic.

Method of

6. Decide whether to reject or not to reject the null

Hypothesis hypothesis. Draw a conclusion.

Testing

t-test for One Sample

There is no significant difference From the t-table, we identify

A local gym advertises that with between the mean weight loss of the region to be greater than

their workout plan “you will lose the sample and the local gym’s 2.064.

5 kg of body mass in a month”. A claim of a 5-kg weight loss. Decision rule: Reject 𝐻0 if

𝐻0 : 𝑥ҧ = 5 𝑘𝑔 𝑡𝑐 > 2.064

consumers group wants to test There is a significant difference 4.21 − 5

𝒕𝒄 = 25 = −𝟓. 𝟎𝟔

this claim by getting data on 25 between the mean weight loss of 0.78

the sample and the local gym’s Since 𝑡𝑐 > 2.064, we reject the

people who went through the

claim of a 5-kg weight loss. null hypothesis.

program and found out that the 𝐻1 : 𝑥ҧ ≠ 5 𝑘𝑔

average weight loss of this There is sufficient evidence to

Since 𝑛 < 30, test statistic will be warrant the rejection of the

sample is 4.21 kg with a

obtained through two-tailed t- claim that the mean weight loss

standard deviation of 0.78 kg. test for one sample. of the sample is not

Test the claim of the gym at 𝛼 = 𝒕=

ഥ−𝝁

𝒙

𝒏

significantly different the local

𝝈 gym’s claim of a 5-kg weight

5%.

loss.

Set 𝛼 = 0.05, 𝑑𝑓 = 24

t-test for One Sample

The mean rating of the From the t-table, we identify

As a means to assess its faculty, probationary instructors is not the region to be greater than

the Graduate School of ESSU significantly greater than the 1.706.

conducts a faculty evaluation mean rating of all faculty Decision rule: Reject 𝐻0 if 𝑡𝑐 >

members. 𝐻0 : 𝑥ҧ = 3.39 1.706

before the end of every term. The mean rating of the

For the current semester, the probationary instructors is

𝒕𝒄 =

3.76 − 3.39

27 = 𝟐. 𝟐𝟏𝟎

average rating of all instructors significantly greater than the 0.87

mean rating of all faculty

is 3.39 with a standard deviation members. 𝐻1 : 𝑥ҧ > 3.39 Since 𝑡𝑐 > 1.706, we reject the

of 0.87. On the other hand, null hypothesis.

twenty-seven newly hired Since 𝑛 < 30, test statistic will be

obtained through one-tailed t- There is sufficient evidence to

probationary instructors got a test for one sample. warrant the rejection of the

mean rating of 3.76. Based from 𝒕=

ഥ−𝝁

𝒙

𝒏

claim that mean rating of the

probationary instructors is not

the data, did the probationary 𝝈

significantly greater than the

instructors get a better rating Set 𝛼 = 0.05, 𝑑𝑓 = 26 mean rating of all faculty

than the faculty as a whole? members.

z-test for One Sample

There is no significant difference From the z-table, we identify

A company which manufactures between the mean of the the region that is 0.025 from

battery-operated toy cars randomly selected sample and each tail or 0.475 from the

claims that its products have a the company’s claim. 𝐻0 : 𝑥ҧ = 5 mean, 𝑧 = 1.96.

There is a significant difference Decision rule: Reject 𝐻0 if

mean life span of 5 years with a between the mean of the 𝑧𝑐 > 1.96

standard deviation of 2 years. A randomly selected sample and

sample of 40 toys was tested the company’s claim. 𝐻1 : 𝑥ҧ ≠ 5 3−5

𝒛𝒄 = 40 = −𝟔. 𝟑𝟐

2

and found to have a mean life Since 𝑛 > 30, test statistic will be

span of only 3 years. Using a 5 obtained through two-tailed z- Since 𝑧𝑐 > 1.96, we reject the

test for one sample. null hypothesis.

percent level of significance, ഥ−𝝁

𝒙

determine if there is a 𝒛=

𝝈

𝒏

There is sufficient evidence to

significant difference between warrant the rejection of the

𝛼 = 0.05 claim that the mean life span of

the mean of the randomly the company’s battery-

selected sample and the operated toy cars is 5 years.

company’s claim.

Test concerning two dependent samples

A professor who teaches Algebra offered his students a two-hour lecture on Math anxiety and

ways to overcome it. The following table shows the test score in Algebra of seven students before

and after they attended the lecture. Test at 2.5% level of significance if attending the lecture

helped improve the score in Algebra.

Before 56 69 48 74 65 71 58

After 62 73 44 85 71 70 69

d

Test concerning two independent samples

Filipino freshmen high school From the z-table, we identify the

A local researcher studied the

students did not perform better region that is 0.05 from each tail or

Mathematics achievement of in Mathematics than their 0.45 from the mean, 𝑧 = 1.645

Amerasians and Filipinos. According to Amerasian counterparts. Decision rule: Reject 𝐻0 if

the study, the mean score on a 𝐻0 : 𝑥𝐹 = 𝑥𝐴 𝑧𝑐 > 1.645

mathematics test given to 120 Filipino freshmen high school

Amerasian freshmen high school students performed better in 𝟔𝟖. 𝟗 − 𝟔𝟖

𝒛𝒄 = = 𝟏. 𝟏𝟔𝟐

students was 68 with a standard Mathematics than their 𝟕. 𝟖 𝟐 𝟓. 𝟔 𝟐

deviation of 5.6. The same test was Amerasian counterparts. +

𝟏𝟖𝟎 𝟏𝟐𝟎

given to 180 Filipino freshmen high 𝐻1 : 𝑥𝐹 > 𝑥𝐴

school students and the mean score Since𝑧𝑐 < 1.645, we do not reject the

Test statistic will be obtained null hypothesis.

obtained was 68.9 with a standard through one-tailed z-test for two

deviation of 7.8. Using the 5% level of independent samples. There is no sufficient evidence to

significance, does the data show that ഥ𝟏 − 𝒙

𝒙 ഥ𝟐 warrant the rejection of the claim

Filipino freshmen high school students 𝒛 =

𝟐 𝟐 that the Filipino freshmen high

performed better in Mathematics than 𝒔 𝒔

𝟏

+ 𝟐 school students did not perform

𝒏𝟏 𝒏𝟐

their Amerasian counterparts? better in Mathematics than their

Amerasian counterparts.

𝛼 = 0.05

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