Anda di halaman 1dari 38

Using Apostrophes

Why are apostrophes important?


Possessive case
Singular nouns and plural nouns
Possessive personal pronouns
Indefinite pronouns
Special problems with possessives
Contractions
Plurals
Review A
Review B
Why are apostrophes important?

The apostrophe can serve several different


purposes.
Mainly, the apostrophe is used to show ownership,
or possession.

Here is Justin’s baseball cap.

Is this the cat’s collar?


Why are apostrophes important?

The apostrophe can also show where something is


missing in a contraction.

they will they’ll he has he’s

Sometimes, in special cases,


the apostrophe is used to
form plurals.

Dot your i’s and cross your t’s.


Why are apostrophes important?

A missing apostrophe can cause confusion.

There are two a’sininthis


as thisword.
word.

An unnecessary apostrophe is
also confusing.

Do you know it
its’s price?
price?

Knowing where to place an apostrophe—and why—


will help make your writing clearer.
[End of Section]
Possessive case
Singular nouns and plural nouns

Singular nouns
Add an apostrophe and an s to form the possessive
case of most singular nouns.

the coach’s plan

Ross’s room a bird’s nest


Possessive case
Singular nouns and plural nouns

For the possessive of a singular noun that ends in


an s or z sound, add only the apostrophe if
• the noun has two or more syllables and
• adding an apostrophe and an s will make the
word awkward to pronounce

for goodness’ sake Achilles’ battles

Otherwise, add an apostrophe and an s.

Ms. Schwartz’s car the witness’s testimony


Possessive case
Singular nouns and plural nouns

Plural nouns
If a plural noun ends in s, just add an apostrophe.

the girls’ uniforms

the Jacksons’ yard


Possessive case
Singular nouns and plural nouns

Plural nouns
Some irregular plural nouns do not end in s. Add
an apostrophe and an s to form the possessive
case.

Plural
Singular Plural
Possessive

man men men’s

goose geese geese’s


Possessive case
Possessive personal pronouns

A possessive personal pronoun never has an


apostrophe—even when the pronoun ends in s.

Did you buy yours at


I got a great
the same place he
price on
bought his?
mine.

I like your
new bike.
Possessive case
Possessive personal pronouns

Most possessive personal pronouns have two


forms.
Can you see their kite? Is that one theirs?

These my mine
forms are your yours These
used forms
his, her, its his, hers, its
before stand
nouns. our ours alone.
their theirs

Do not add an apostrophe to any of these pronouns.


Possessive case
Possessive personal pronouns

Be careful not to confuse


possessive pronouns with
contractions. Possessive pronouns
never have apostrophes.

Possessive
pronoun
Contraction
of “they are”
Their father is here.

They’re late again.


Possessive case
Possessive personal pronouns

These possessive pronouns and


contractions are often confused
because they sound alike.

Possessive Pronouns Contractions

Whose lunch is this? Who’s at the door?


Look at its fur. It’s shedding.
The trophy is theirs. There’s a trophy.

They’re good pies. Their pies are good.


Possessive case
Indefinite pronouns

In the possessive case, indefinite pronouns


need an apostrophe and an s.

Everybody’s hopes were high.

One player got in the other’s way.


Possessive case
Indefinite pronouns

An indefinite pronoun refers to one or more


persons, places, or things that may or may not
be specifically named.

all each most one


another either much other
any everyone neither several
anybody everything nobody some
anyone few none somebody
anything many no one something
both more nothing such
Possessive case
Indefinite pronouns

In casual speech, contractions


formed using indefinite pronouns
and is are very common. These
contractions look and sound
exactly like the possessive case.

Contraction of
“everything is”

Everything’s wrong.
Possessive case
Indefinite pronouns

To determine whether the word is a


contraction or the possessive case,
try saying is instead of ‘s. If is
makes sense, the word is a
contraction.

Someone’s at the door.

Someone is at the door.


In this sentence, Someone’s is a
contraction, not the possessive case.
Possessive case

Identify the possessive words in these


sentences. Add apostrophes where needed.

1. We all appreciated the gardens beauty.

2. The womens team may win a championship.

3. The twins father was washing his car.

4. The speaker had everyones attention.


Possessive case

On Your Own
For each sentence, write the possessive case of the word or
words in parentheses.
1. The ___________ toys are all over the floor. (children)
2. Are those notebooks _________? (you)
3. He did not take _________ opinion seriously. (anyone)
4. _______________ tulips are blooming. (Mrs. Katz)
5. The _________ claim to fame is _________ candy
factory. (town, it)
Possessive case
Special problems with possessives

Compound nouns
In compound nouns, only the last word is
possessive in form.

the Mississippi River’s banks

my sister-in-law’s scrapbook

the editor-in-chief’s opinions


Possessive case
Special problems with possessives

A compound noun consists of two or more


words that are used together as one noun. A
compound noun may be

• written as one word


stairway bookcase
• written as separate words
ceiling fan United States
• hyphenated
merry-go-round vice-president
Possessive case
Special problems with possessives

The names of organizations and


businesses may be compound
nouns too.

National Public Radio’s new


schedule

the Girl Scout Council’s


annual conference
Possessive case
Special problems with possessives

Joint possession
When two or more nouns share possession, only
the last noun is possessive in form.

Brad, Suki, and Dawn’s band

Three people have a band


together.
Possessive case
Special problems with possessives

Joint possession
When one of the words showing joint possession
is a pronoun, both words should be in the
possessive form.

His and Jared’s paper

Two boys are working on


a paper together.
Possessive case
Special problems with possessives

Two or more persons possessing


something individually
When two or more persons each possess
something, each of their names should be in the
possessive form.

Tim’s and Jake’s skateboards

Each boy has his own skateboard.


The noun skateboards is plural.
Possessive case
Special problems with possessives

With words showing joint or individual possession,


be sure to check your apostrophes when you
change a noun to a pronoun.

Ty and Yoko’s piano Two people own


one piano
together.
Ty’s and her piano

Two people Mark’s and Kim’s pianos


each own
pianos.
Mark’s and her pianos
Possessive case
Special problems with possessives

Times and amounts


Use apostrophes for the possessive forms of
• words indicating time, such as minute, hour,
day, week, month, and year

a day’s rest thirty minutes’ work

• words indicating amounts in cents or dollars

one dollar’s worth two cents’ worth


Possessive case
Special problems with possessives

Choose the correct form of the word or


words in parentheses.

1. I bought fifty (dollars, dollars’) worth of


books.

2. Will plans to work at his (brother-in-law’s,


brother’s-in-law’s) law firm this summer.

3. Has (Helen and Gina’s, Helen’s and Gina’s)


song been entered in the contest?
Possessive case
Special problems with possessives

On Your Own
For each sentence, write the possessive case of the word or
word group in parentheses.
1. In history class we read about __________________
expedition. (Lewis and Clark)
2. Mandy saved two _________________ pay to buy the
sweater. (weeks)
3. Have you seen the ________________________ new
exhibit? (Natural History Museum)
4. Were ________________ grades good? (Rob and Katie)

[End of Section]
Contractions

An apostrophe shows where letters, words, or


numerals have been omitted from a contraction.

have not haven’t


they had they’d

you will you’ll

of the clock o’clock

1950 ’50
Contractions

Usually, when the word not is shortened to n’t


and added to a verb, the spelling of the verb
doesn’t change.

should not shouldn’t


does not doesn’t
The two exceptions to this rule are

will not won’t


cannot can’t
[End of Section]
Plurals

In most cases, do not use an apostrophe to form


the plural of a noun.

state states glass glasses

To prevent confusion, a few kinds of nouns do


form plurals by adding an apostrophe and an s.

• lowercase letters m’s and n’s i’s

• some capital letters A’s U’s S’s


Plurals

Also use an apostrophe and an s to form the


plural of

• symbols %’s $’s &’s

• numerals 5’s 6’s 7’s

• some words that are referred to as words

He uses too many but’s and and’s.


Plurals

Some writers add only an s to


form the plurals of letters,
numerals, and symbols if the
plural forms cannot be misread.

Most of his grades were Cs.

Use apostrophes consistently.


The printed T’s looked like I’s.
Without the apostrophe the plural of
I would spell Is. The apostrophe in the
plural of T is included for consistency.
Contractions and plurals

Choose the correct form of the word or


words in parentheses.

1. I (cant, can’t) tell the difference between


your (i’s, is) and your (t’s, ts’).

2. Put ($’s, $s’) after all the figures.

3. (He’s, Hes) gotten mostly (As, A’s) this year.

4. How many (ums, um’s) did you hear?


Contractions and plurals

On Your Own
Add apostrophes where needed in the following
sentences. If the sentence is already correct, write C.
1. My little sister doesnt write her bs or ds clearly.
2. How many double ss are in Mississippi?
3. It’s almost time to go see the dentist.
4. Lets see whats going on.
5. Ill add the &s and *s to the report later.

[End of Section]
Review A

In the following sentences, circle any words that need


apostrophes or have incorrect apostrophes.
1. The childrens’ tickets didnt cost as much as the
adults tickets.
2. Is that someones journal lying there?
3. We’re leaving for Pauls party at nine o clock.
4. Wev’e found youre no help at all.
5. Your handwritten ws look like vs.

[End of Section]
Review B

Correct the errors in possessive forms, contractions,


and plurals in the following sentences.
1. Ben and Terrells bikes are both ten-speeds.
2. This will be Jeffs first time babysitting the Rosses
children.
3. We did not get a moments rest.
4. Dont forget to dot your is and cross your ts.
5. The usher gathered everybodys tickets.
6. Ive left my jacket in the car; may I borrow yours?

[End of Section]
The End