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COMPUTER AIDED PART

PROGRAMMING - APT
Methods of NC Part Programming
1. Manual part programming
2. Manual data input
3. Computer-Aided part programming
4. Part programming using CAD/CAM

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Manual Part Programming
• Variety of CNC machine tools and equal variety
of controllers
• part program for a little complex parts
– Extensive calculations
– Error prone
• multi-axis machining – impossible to program

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Computer Aided Part Programming
• Use of part programming language:
– use an “English-like” programming language
– More than 100 part programming languages
developed in the last 50 years
– describe
• geometry of the part
• tool motions
• machining parameters, and
• all other auxiliary operations
• CAD/CAM Based Part Programming:
– surface and solid models using CAD software
– models contain the geometric data 4
APT-Automatically Programmed Tool
• A compiler for simplifying NC Programming
• Developed by MIT in 1955, refined in early 1960’s
• Most widely used part programming language
• Other languages developed as variants
– APT (Automatically Programmed Tools)
– ADAPT (Adaptation of APT)
– EXAPT (Extended Subset of APT)
– UNIAPT
– SPLIT(Sundstrand Processing Language Internally Translated)
– AUTOSPOT (Automatic System for Positioning Tools)
– COMPACT II
– FAPT (Fanuc APT) 5
Why?
• Use of symbolic language
• Programming independent of machine tool
• Reduced programming time
• Reduced possibility of human error
• Capability of simple changeover of machining
sequence from machine to machine
• Only postprocessor required to include new
machine tool

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Role of part programmer
• Define the geometry of the workpiece in terms of
basic geometric elements such as point, lines,
circles, planes, etc.
• Specify the tool motion and/or operations to
guide the too along the geometric elements
defined earlier in order to machine it

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Role of computer
• Input translation
– Covert the part program into computer usable format
for further processing
• Arithmetic calculations
– complex arithmetic and trigonometric calculations to
generate the part surface data
• Cutter offset computation
– Generate the CL data after considering the tool
geometry
• Postprocessing
– Prepare the part program specific for a machine tool
on the basis of CL data, and machining instructions
such as speed, feed, machine tool constraints, etc.
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Right hand Cartesian coord. system

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APT language features
• Major words - left of slash, special meaning
• Minor word – right of slash
• Symbols - geometric elements, numerical values
L2=LINE/(POINT/100,40),PERPTO,L1
• Subscripted Symbols
• Numbers
• Angles – decimal degrees
• Arithmetic operators: + -- * / **
• Library functions
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APT Statement Types
 Geometry statements: Define the geometric elements
that comprise the work part.
 Motion statements: Used to define the path taken by
the cutting tool.
 Postprocessor Statements: These apply to specific
machine tool and control system. Used to specify feed,
speed, coolant, … etc.
 Auxiliary Statements: miscellaneous statements used
to identify the part, tool, tolerance, part, … etc.

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Geometry statements
General format
<Symbol>=Geometry/ Descriptive Data
(Definition& Modifiers)

Modifiers

INTOF PARLEL PERPTO TANTO

LARGE SMALL LEFT RIGHT XLARGE

XSMALL YLARGE YSMALL ZLARGE ZSMALL

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Geometry Types

• Point POINT
• Line LINE
• Plane PLANE
• Circle CIRCLE
• Pattern (of parts) PATERN
• Cylinder CYLNDR

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Geometry statements: POINT

• Cartesian coordinates
PTA = POINT / 40,10,0

• Center of a circle
PTG=POINT/CENTER,C4

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Geometry statements: POINT

• Polar coordinate
PTI=POINT/XYPLAN,RTHETA,45,-30
• Intersection of two lines
PTB=POINT/INTOF,LIN1, LIN2
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Geometry statements: POINT

• Intersection of a line and a circle


PTC=POINT/XSMALL,INTOF,LIN1,C1
• Intersection of two circles
PTE=POINT/XSMALL,INTOF,C2,C3
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y
Point (POINT)

PT
C

LIN
3 C
1
PT
D

x
PTC = POINT/ YLARGE, INTOF, LIN3, C1
PTC = POINT/ XLARGE, INTOF, LIN3, C1
PTD = POINT/ YSMALL, INTOF, LIN3, C1
PTD = POINT/ XSMALL, INTOF, LIN3, C1
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Geometry statements: LINE

• Two points
• One of the coordinated axes
• Passing through a point and parallel to a line
• Passing through a point and perpendicular to a
line
• Passing through a point and at angle with a
line or axis
• Passing through a point and tangent to a circle

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Line (LINE)
y

P2

P1
LIN1

LIN1 = LINE/ P1, P2

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Line (LINE)
L1A

PT51 C11

L1A = LINE/ PT51, LEFT, TANTO, C11

LEFT or RIGHT modifiers indicates whether


the line is to the left or right tangent point
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Geometry statements: LINE

• LIN1 = LINE/P1,LEFT,TANTO,C1
• LIN2 = LINE/P1,RIGHT,TANTO,C1
• LIN3 = LINE/P2,RIGHT,TANTO,C1
• LIN4 = LINE/P2,LEFT,TANTO,C1
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Geometry statements: LINE

• LIN2 = LINE/P1,PARLEL,LIN1
• LIN3 = LINE/P2,PERPTO,LIN1

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Line (LINE)

L6
Right C4
Left
C3
Right
Left

L8 L9
L7

L8=LINE/RIGHT,TANTO,C3,LEFT,TANTO,C4
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Geometry statements: CIRCLE

y
C1
40.3

PT3
(70,60,5)

C1 = CIRCLE/ 70, 60, 5, 40.3


C1 = CIRCLE/ CENTER, PT3, RADIUS, 4.3
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Geometry statements: CIRCLE
Y Y

LN4
PT5

PT6 PT8
C3 C7

X X

C3 = CIRCLE/ CENTER, PT6, TANTO, LN4


C7 = CIRCLE/ CENTER, PT8, PT5
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Geometry statements: PLANE

• PLAN1 = PLANE/P1,P2,P3
• PLAN2 = PLANE/P4,PARLEL,PLAN1
• PLAN2 = PLANE/PARLEL,PLAN1,ZLARGE,4.5
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Motion Statements - PTP

Rapid from current position to a specified location


FROM/ <point location>: starting point for the tool, with
the end of the tool at that point.
Ex: FROM/TRAG
FROM/-2.0,-2.0,0.0
GOTO/ <point location>: rapid, straight- line move to the
point specified in absolute mode.
Ex: GOTO/P2
GODLTA/ <coordinate increments>: move incremental
distance from the current position.
Ex: GODELTA/2.0,7.0,0.0 27
Motion Statements – Continuous
or Contouring Motions

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X
THREE MAIN MODIFIER WORDS

TO ON PAST

Drive Surface
Tool

Check Surface
Continuous Path Motion Commands

GOLFT/ : Move left along the drive surface

GORGT/ : Move right along the drive surface

GOFWD/ : Move forward from a tangent position

GOBACK/ : Move backward from a tangent position


GOUP/ : Move up along the drive surface
GODOWN/ : Move down along the drive surface

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Postprocessor Statements
COOLNT/ : coolant to be turned on or off:
COOLNT/ MIST
COOLNT/ FLOOD
COOLNT/ OFF
UNITS
UNITS/METRIC/INCH
RAPID
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Postprocessor Statements

FEDRAT/ : feedrate for moving the tool along the part surface
FEDRAT/ 75,MMPM
SPINDL/ : spindle rotation in revolutions per minute
SPINDL/ 850,RPM
SPINDL/ON
LOADTL/ : load a specific tool from an ATC tool changer
LOADTL/ 11

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Auxiliary Statements
MACHIN: specify machine tool and call the postprocessor
MACHIN/ MILL, 3
PARTNO: part program number, inserted at the start of the
program.
PARTNO EXAMPLE6
PRINT: Display of tool geometry on screen (ON/OFF)
PRINT/ON
CLPRNT: indicates that a cutter location printout is desired.

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Auxiliary Statements
CUTTER: cutter diameter for offset
CUTTER/ 46
TOLERANCE : Nonlinear motion accomplished
with straight-line segments
INTOL/ 0.015
OUTTOL/ 0.01
FINI: specifies the end of the program

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Specifie
Specified d path
path

OUTTOL
INTOL

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Exercise

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PARTNO EXAMPLE5
$$POSTPROCESSOR STATEMENTS
CLPRNT
MACHIN/MILL,3
INTOL/0
OUTTOL/0.01
PRINT/ON
$$ GEOMETRY STATEMENTS
SP=POINT/0,0,10
P0=POINT/-70,-140
ZSURF/-10
$$ ALL GEOMTERY DEFINITIONS HAVE Z=-10

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$$ CIRCLE DEFINITIONS
C1=CIRCLE/0,0,30
C2=CIRCLE/-100,80,25
C3=CIRCLE/-100,-80,25
C4=CIRCLE/100,0,30
$$ LINE DEFINITIONS
L1=LINE/RIGHT,TANTO,C1,LEFT,TANTO,C2
L2=LINE/LEFT,TANTO,C1,RIGHT,TANTO,C3
L3=LINE/LEFT,TANTO,C2,LEFT,TANTO,C4
L4=LINE/RIGHT,TANTO,C3,RIGHT,TANTO,C4

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$$ TOOL PATH DEFINITION
CUTTER/20
LOADTL/1
SPINDL/1200,RPM,CLW
COOLNT/ ON
$$ MOTION STATEMENTS
FROM/SP
RAPID
TLLFT
GOTO/P0
GODLTA/-20
AUTOPS
GO/TO,L4
FEDRAT/50

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$$ CONTINUOUS PATH MOTION STATEMENTS
GOLFT/L4,TANTO,C3
GOFWD/C3,TANTO,L2
GOFWD/L2,TANTO,C1
GOFWD/C1,TANTO,L1
GOFWD/L1,TANTO,C2
GOFWD/C2,TANTO,L3
GOFWD/L3,TANTO,C4
GOFWD/C4,TANTO,L4
GOFWD/L4,TANTO,C3

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GODLTA/20
GOTO/P0
COOLNT/OFF
SPINDL/OFF
RAPID
GOTO/SP
END $$ End of this program
FINI $$ End of APT processing

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CL File
$$ GEOMETRY STATEMENTS
SP=POINT/0,0,10
*SP .0000 .0000 10.0000
P0=POINT/-70,-140
*P0 -70.0000 -140.0000 .0000
ZSURF/-10
$$ ALL GEOMTERY DEFINITIONS HAVE Z=-10
$$ CIRCLE DEFINITIONS
C1=CIRCLE/0,0,30
*C1 .0000 .0000 30.0000
C2=CIRCLE/-100,80,25
*C2 -100.0000 80.0000 25.0000
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CL File

$$ LINE DEFINITIONS
L1=LINE/RIGHT,TANTO,C1,LEFT,TANTO,C2
*L1 .2288 .9735 .0000 30.0000
L2=LINE/LEFT,TANTO,C1,RIGHT,TANTO,C3
*L2 -.2288 .9735 .0000 -30.0000
L3=LINE/LEFT,TANTO,C2,LEFT,TANTO,C4
*L3 .3497 .9368 .0000 64.9739

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CL File
$$ CONTINUOUS PATH MOTION STATEMENTS
GOLFT/L4,TANTO,C3
*FEED -87.7591 -112.7897 -20.0000
GOFWD/C3,TANTO,L2
*CIR -100.0000 -80.0000 35.0000 CLW
-108.0074 -45.9283 -20.0000
GOFWD/L2,TANTO,C1
*FEED 4.5756 -19.4695 -20.0000
GOFWD/C1,TANTO,L1
*CIR .0000 .0000 20.0000 CCLW
4.5756 19.4696 -20.0000
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Postprocessing - Part Prgram
N5 G20
N10 T01 M06
N15 S1200 M21
N20 M03
N25 M08
N30 G00 X-70.00 Y-140.00 Z.00
N35 G01 Z-20.00 F50.
N40 X-81.09 Y-110.30
N45 X-87.76 Y-112.79
N50 G02 X-100.00 Y-115.00 I35.
N55 X-135.00 Y-80.00 I35.
N60 X-108.01 Y-45.93 I35. 45