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Principle of Busbar Protection

Henri GRASSET
Marketing Products

Lattes, January 2005


Principle of Busbar Protection

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HV Application: Busbar Protection

Kirchhoff’s Principle applied to a healthy system

Σ I=0

I1 I3
I2

I1 = I2 + I3
I1 - I2 - I3 = 0

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HV Application: Busbar Protection - 2

Kirchhoff’s Principle applied to a system with a fault

Σ I≠ 0

I1
I2 I3

I1 ≠ I2 + I3
I1 - I2 - I3 ≠ 0 = IF

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Differential Bubar Protection
Principle

Io1
Ii1
S1 Ii =  Σ Iin 
Io2
Ii2 Io =  Σ Ion 

S2 Ibias = Ii + Io
Io3
Ii3 Idiff = Ii - Io
S3
Io4

Simplified Substation Scheme Σ Iin = Σ Ion

Import Σ Ii Export Σ Io
S

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High Impedance Principle
(P122 & P141)
 Stability is entirely due to a stabilising resistor in the circuit.
 It is a simple, reliable and circulating current scheme
(The CTs must have the same ratio & must be of high
accuracy - class X)
 The CT knee point voltage needs to be relatively high
 Metrosil may be required
 The CTs are usually not shared with other protections
 The magnetising current can desensitise the scheme
 The scheme can be very fast
 Isolator contacts are needed to switch the full CT secondary
current between the zones
 Extending the scheme is quite simple
Buswire supervision can be offered with MVTP relays

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Low Impedance/Biased Principle
(MBCZ, P740)
 Stability is entirely due to the bias characteristic of the
scheme
 CTs can have different ratios
 Scheme bias characteristic can cater for lesser accuracy
CTs (class 5P)
 CTs with moderate knee point voltages can be used
 Metrosils are never required
 It is easier to share the CTs with other protection
 Number of // circuits does not affect the primary operating
current
 Tripping is fast
 Isolator contact are not needed to switch heavy currents.
 Extending the scheme is simple
 Self supervision and breaker fail protection is easier to
integrate
 Numerical scheme offers many fault, event and recording
capabilities
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Differential Busbar Protection
Merz-Price Principle
Busbar

P1 S1 S1 S1 S1
CTs with different ratios
P2 S2 S2 S2 S2
I1 I2 I3 I4

Interposing CTs
required

Ud Rd

Ur
Flow
control

Bias voltage image of the crossing current Differential elements

 Large CTs to avoid saturation & ensure stability

 Difficult to apply if the system topology is dynamic

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Conventional Scheme
Architecture

BB1 BB3

BB2
1 or 5 A
CT Cabling BB5

DC cabling
Trip/close order
CB and Isolator status
Relay House/
etc.
Marshalling Cubicles
Relay Room

Interposing CT

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Double Busbar Configuration

BS
Zone 1 Zone 2

Zone 3 Zone 4

BC1 BC2

F1 F2 F3 F4

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