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“Teach A Level Maths”

Vol. 2: A2 Core Modules

4: The function
ye x

© Christine Crisp
y  ex

Module C3

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The Gradient of y  a x

We’ve already met the function y  a x


e.g.
y  4x y  3x
y  2x

(0, 1)

Functions of this type, with a > 1, are called


growth functions.
The Gradient of y  a x

We will now investigate the gradient of y  a x


e.g.
Notice first that as x
y2 x
x ( 3, 8) increases, y increases

x (2, 4)
( 1, 12 ) x (1, 2)
( 2, 1
4x
) x
x (0, 1)
The Gradient of y  a x

We will now investigate the gradient of y  a x


e.g.
Notice first that as x
y2 x
x increases, y increases
. . . and the gradient
x also increases
x
x
x x

dy
dx The gradient function

x
It looks the same as 2 x
but . . .
x
x
x x
x
The Gradient of y  a x

We will now investigate the gradient of


e.g.
Notice first that as x
y2 x
e.g. y  8x increases, y increases
. . . and the gradient
also increases

dy
dx The gradient function
dy
 5 5x
dx
The Gradient of y  a x

Putting the 2 graphs on the same axes . . .

y  2x

dy
 0.69( 2) x
dx

What do you think will happen if we repeat the


process for y  3 x ?
Well, y  3 x goes up more steeply than y  2 x
so we get a similar result but the gradient
function is above the curve.
The Gradient of y  a x

dy
It can be shown that y  3 x
  (1.10) 3 x So,
dx
y  2x y  3x
dy
 (1  10)3 x
dx

dy
 (0  69)2 x
dx
The 1st gradient graph is under the original curve . . .
and the 2nd is above the curve . . .
suggesting that there is a value of a between 2 and 3
where the gradient of y  a x is equal to a x .
The Gradient of y  a x

y  ax

The value of a where the gradient of y  a equals


x

a x is an irrational number, written as e, where


e  2  718 ( 3 d.p.)
The Gradient of y  a x

y  ex

The value of a where the gradient of y  a equals


x

a x is an irrational number, written as e, where


e  2  718 ( 3 d.p.)
Using a letter for an irrational number isn’t a new
idea to you.
You have used p ( the Greek p ) for 3  142 ( 3 d . p. )
The Gradient of y  a x

y  ex

The value of a where the gradient of y  a equals


x

a x is an irrational number, written as e, where


e  2  718 ( 3 d.p.)
dy
ye x
 e x
dx
y  ex

More Indices and Logs


We know that
y  10 x  x  log 10 y
( since an index is a log )
The function y  e x contains the index x, so x is a
log.
BUT the base of the log is e not 10, so
Logs with a base e
y  e  x  log e y are called natural logs
x

We write log e as ln ( n for natural ) so,

y  e x  x  ln y
y  ex
The Inverse of y  ex
f ( x )  e x is a one-to-one function so has an inverse
function.
yx We can sketch the inverse
by reflecting in y = x.

y  ln x
ye x Finding the equation of
the inverse function is
easy!

We’ve already done the 1st step of rearranging:


ye  x  ln y
x
1
Now swap letters: y  ln x So, f ( x )  ln x
N.B. The domain is x  0 .
y  ex
SUMMARY

• f ( x )  e x is a growth function.
• e  2 718 (3 d.p.)

• At every point on y  e , the gradient equals y:


x

dy
ye x
  ex yx
dx
• The inverse of f ( x)  e x
is 1
f ( x )  ln x
y  ln x
y  ex
( log with base e )
ln x is defined for x > 0 only
y  ex

Can you suggest equations for the unlabelled graphs


below?

y  ex

HINT:
Both graphs are stretches of ye x
.
y  ex

y  2e x
y  ex

This . . . is a stretch with scale factor 2 parallel


to the y-axis.
The equation is
y  2e x
y  ex

y  e 2x
y  ex

This . . . is a stretch with scale factor 12


parallel to the x-axis.
The equation is
y  e 2x
y  ex
y  ex

The following slides contain repeats of


information on earlier slides, shown without
colour, so that they can be printed and
photocopied.
For most purposes the slides can be printed
as “Handouts” with up to 6 slides per sheet.
y  ex
More Indices and Logs
We know that
y  10 x  x  log10 y
( since an index is a log )
The function y  e x contains the index x, so x is a
log.
BUT the base of the log is e not 10, so
Logs with a base e
y  e  x  log e y are called natural logs
x

We write log e as ln ( n for natural ) so,

ye x
 x  ln y
y  ex
SUMMARY

• f ( x )  e x is a growth function.
• e  2 718 (3 d.p.)

• At every point on y  e , the gradient equals y:


x

dy
ye x
  ex yx
dx
• The inverse of f ( x)  e x
is 1 y  ln x
f ( x )  ln x y  ex
( log with base e )
ln x is defined for x > 0 only