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A Seminar on

BATTERY ENERGY STORAGE FOR ENABLING


DISTRIBUTED
SOLAR POWER GENERATION

Department of Electrical Engineering


Jamia Milia Islamia
New Delhi

Presented by: Under guidance of:


Md. Irfan Prof. Majid Jamil
M.Tech(EPSM)
13MEE04
Contents:
1. Objective
2. Solar Power
3. Solar Power generation System
4. Solar PV challenge
5. Need for Energy Storage
6. Energy Storage System 1.
7. Battery Energy Storage System
8. Single line Diagram of BESS
9. Reference
objective
 Battery energy storage system are being used to help integrate solar power
in to grid. Such system are capable of reducing the inherent intermittency
of Solar resource and kept foundation to design and implement next
generation smart grid.

 BESS is centrally located at substation or distributed along feeder to


provide un- interupted power supply in grid-tied solar power generation
 To mitigate such issue with solar power generation as ramp rate,frequency
and voltage issues.
What is Solar Power?
 Solar power is the conversion of
sunlight into electricity, either directly
using photovoltaic (PV) or indirectly
using concentrated solar power(CSP)

 Concentrated solar power systems


use lenses or mirrors and tracking
systems to focus a large area of
sunlight into a small beam.
Solar Power Generation System
SOLAR PV CHALLENGES
Connected to the distribution system
• Low Voltage connection
• Radial system, not designed for two-way power flow
Intermittency (3 forms):
• •Seasonal fluctuations
• Lowers capacity factor in Winter
• Daily fluctuations
•Short-term fluctuations [cloud cover ]
80% loss of power output in seconds
Poses a threat to grid stability at high
penetration rates .
WHY BESS ?
The rapid growth of solar power is a key
driver of development of grid-scale BATTERY
ENERGY STORAGE SYSTEM(BESS).
BESS co-located with solar photovoltaic (PV)
power generation improve power quality and
increase the value of energy generated.
BESS design to mitigate the negative impact
of PV integration and improving power
distribution system efficiency and operation.
BATTERY ENERGY STORAGE SYSTEM

 A BESS consists of a battery bank, a control system, and a


power electronics devices interface for bidirectional four
quadrant AC-DC power conversion.

 The BESS is connected to the power grid in a shunt


configuration, often in parallel with a renewable power
generating facility or critical load.

 It provide benefit to,whereas traditional uninterruptible


power supplies (UPS) are installed in series with their
load.
Simplified one-line diagram of a BESS in parallel with a
Solar PV facility connected to the grid on a common bus
CONTROL MODE FOR BESS
 Control modes for BESS include:
•Time Shifting / Peak Extension
•Solar Smoothing / Ramp Rate Limiting
•Solar Leveling
•Load Leveling
•Reactive Support
LOAD LEVELING
A method for reducing the large fluctuations that occur in
electricity demand.ie “load levelling” or storing off peak
electricity during period of low demand and releasing it during
Period of high demand.

 Fig:-
TIME SHIFTING/PEAK EXTENSION
 Solar power generation along with integrat ed BESS coincident
with peak demand time and meet the peak demands.

Fig:-peak extension by using bess.


Time shifting means enhancing the power demand as power
from solar facility begin to drop off in after noon hours.ie
offsetting the reduction in solar power at a time when energy is
expensive.
Such phenomenon done by charging from grid at night ,or
from solar generation during the day and BESS discharge at
such condition.

Fig:-
RAMP RATE CONTROL
As Solar PV generated power can change very quickly when
the sun becomes obscured by passing cloud cover.
OR
Solar PV generation penetration increases,then electricity grid
will subjected to sudden change in generation and power flow at
various point.
Such scenario cause serious problem with power delivery ,as
thermal unit struggle to maintain the balance of power in face of
rapid changes.
Hence,BESS must counteract quick change in output power
to ensure that the facility deliver ramp rate deemed acceptable
to the system operator.
Lllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllll
l

Fig:-Ramp Rate control to 50 kW/min for a 1 MW photovoltaic installation and


1.5 MW/1 MWh BESS. (a) Full day. (b) Detail of largest event
Above figure depict the operation of smoothing the volatile power output of
1MW solar farm
FREQUENCY RESPONSE
frequency deviation caused by the mismatch in generation
and load.
 It desirable to charge or discharge BESS accordingly over
frequecy and under frequency case.
frequecy stabilisation is reated with droop response as:-
Since, the BESS uses power electronic devices having no
inertia so it response fast way corresponding to droop.
 BESS output power command as response to frequency
as :-

Fig:-
Here,seprate line basically show the resulting power output of BESS that
How much power observing or delievering at time frequency event.
REACTIVE POWER SUPPORT
Rapid power flow change can causes adverse effect, like
voltage fluctuation.
 So,it is technical challenge to electrical grid system operator
to maintain voltage level with required stability.
On AC power distribution system voltage is local phenomenon
and are closely related to reactive power flows.
Such support provided by switched or shunt capacitor to
maintain consistent voltage and power factor to all consumer.
 But having drawback of in term of large switching transient,
and “all-or-nothing “nature of swiching the bank in.
Reactive support with BESS
 The four quadrant power clectronic convertor onBESS inject
reactive power to bus to maintain eigther pf or voltage
setpoint on bus,improve system efficiency and low losses.
Control architecture of the real-time HIL testbed at the Xtreme Power
Facility in Kyle,TX.
Fig:- Power triangle used for the calculation of reactive power needed for pf correction.
REFERENCES
1F. Katiraei and J. R. Aguero, “Solar PV Integration Challenges,” IEEE
Power Energy Mag., vol. 9, no. 3, pp. 62–71, May/Jun. 2011.
2ERCOT Protocols Section 5 [Online]. Available:
http://www.centerpointenergy.
com/staticfiles/CNP/Common/SiteAssets/doc/
Load%20Management_ERCOT_Emergency_Operation_Guidelines.

3 N. Miller, D. Manz, J. Roedel, P. Marken, and E. Kronbeck, “Utility


scale battery energy storage systems,” in Proc. IEEE Power Energy
Soc. Gen. Meeting, Minneapolis, MN, Jul. 2010.
4 C. Hill and D. Chen, “Development of a real-time testing environment
for battery energy storage systems in renewable energy applications,”
in Proc. IEEE Power Energy Soc. Gen.Meeting, Detroit, MI, Jul. 2011.
5 National Renewable Energy Laboratory—Measurement and
Instrumentation
Data Center [Online]. Available: http://www.nrel.gov/midc