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• “Communis” – Latin word = common

o Process of social interaction

• Influences the ideas, attitude, knowledge and

behaviour of each other

• Face-to-face situation,
• It is not a mere exchange of information,

• gestures, expressions, language, the manner

of expression and for all produce impact

• The change may be visible in terms of

knowledge and behavioural change
• E.g. Adoption of technology or practice of agriculture.
• (i) Paul Leagans,
A process by which two or more people
exchange ideas, facts, feeling of
impressions in ways that each gains a
common understanding of the message

• (ii) Howland,
The force by which an individual
communicator transmits stimuli to
modify the behaviour of other individuals
• Process of social interaction

• It apparently influences the ideas, attitude,

knowledge and behaviour of each other

• In a face-to-face situation, it is not a mere

exchange of information,
along with information, gestures, expressions,
language, the manner of expression and for all
produce impact

• The change may be visible in terms of

knowledge and behavioural change.
E.g. Adoption of technology or practice of
Scope of communication
• Oral - 70 % of his precious time on
communicating verbally
- 10 to 11 hrs/day on oral communication

• Non-verbal: gesture,
facial expressions,
movement of arts,
raising eyebrows,
rolling eyes,
starring look,
stern look etc.,
• different ways, levels and reasons
- written communication
- spoken communication.
- group communication
- self-communication

Communication in employment
Communication industry
Communication in management
Removes the time lag
Importance of Communication
in Extension work
• A favourable climate for development
• A multiplier effect
• Raises aspirations of the people
• Essential for all activities
• - To inform people,
• - To instruct people
• - To persuade and convince
• - To educate the people
• - To entertain the audience etc.
• Essential for good leadership
Functions of communication

• Information

• Instructive / command function

• Persuasive / Influence

• Integrative
Types of Communication
• Verbal communication
• Non-verbal communication
• Intrapersonal communication
• Interpersonal communication
• Group communication
• Mass communication
• Organisational communication
• Inter organisational communication
• Grapevine communication
• Cross communication
• Downward communication
• Upward communication

• Source

• Receiver

• A message

• A channel or medium
Six stages of the Communication Process

• Creation

• Encoding

• Transmission
- Who is trying to communicate?
- How long is the message?
- What is a physical distance?
- What technical means are available to
the source?
• Reception
Environmental condition
E.g. (1) Poor lighting conditions.
(2) Receiver's tiredness.
(3) Degree of congruence
(4) Fidelity

• Decoding

• Assimilation
Characteristics of Good Communicator
• Innovative in his ideas

• Greater exposure to mass media

• Cosmopolitan in nature

• Greater access to social participation

• Interested in audiences betterment
and welfare

• Interested in message (subject matter)

and ensure its helpfulness to people
• Aware of the communication
channels with more intactness
• Capable enough with professional
• Able to plan for judging the merit of
the results
• Skilled to select treat, express the
messages (verbal and written)
• Capable to gathering evidence of
Characteristics of a good message
• In line with the objective
• Clear understandable by the audience
• In line with mental, social, economic
and physical capabilities of the audience
• Significant - economically, socially or
aesthetically to the needs, interests and
values of the audience.
• Specific- no irrelevance (or) misleading
• Simple - cover only one point at a time
• Accurate - scientifically sound, factual
and current
Characteristics of a good message

• Supported by factual material covering

both sides of the argument
• Appropriate to the channels selected
• Appealing and attractive to the audience
• Applicable - can apply recommendations
to one's own particular situation
• Adequate - combining principles and
practices in effective proportion
• Manageable - can be handled by the
communicator and within the limits of
Characteristics of audience (receiver)

• Active participation increases

• A good predictor of
communication behaviour at
educational level
• Most accessible
• Lack of attention
• Receiver is liable to misinterpret
and misperceive the message
Characteristics of audience (receiver)

• Research re-emphasises the influence

of personality differences on response

• Jump to conclusions

• Incline to closed minds

• Listen to only to words than to the

Characteristics of feedback (Audience response)

• Response is a function of the whole


• Misperception is a continuous problem

• Influential groups are involved in
message response

• Mass communication intensifies

propaganda conflicts
• Much available information is imperfectly

• Lack of primary experience affects

Characteristics of feedback (Audience response)

• Communication builds on existing


• Mass communication increases the

commonality of experience

• Communication devices have the ability

for thought control
• Induced action and social interaction
might affect communication effects

• Books, Newspapers, Magazines,

Leaflets have effects like instrumental,
prestige, reinforcement, enriched
aesthetic experience and respite

• Cultural values and the social

organization are determinants of
• Model is a simplified graphic presentation
of ideas
Aristotle's model

Speaker Speech Audience

• Invention
• Organization
• Language
• Memory
• Delivery
• Merit - imprint of Aristotle's model
• Demerit – One-way process
Berlo's model of communication
SMCR model

• Based on an impressive background

of behavioural theory and research
• Communication source
• Encoder
• Message
• Channel
• Decoder
• Communication receiver
Source & Receiver

Commn skills




• Structure
• Elements
• Content
• Code
• Treatment
• Seeing
• Hearing
• Touching
• Smelling
• tasting
Leagan’s Model of Communication (1961)

• 1 – Communicator
• 2 – message
• 3- channels
1 2 3 4 5 6

• 4- treatment of messages
• 5 – the audience
• 6- the audience response
• Roger & Shoemaker (1971)
Means by which message travel from
a source to receiver

Classification of channels
1. Interpersonal and Mass media
2. Localite and cosmopolite
S.No Characteristic Mass media Interpersonal
1 Senses stimulated One to two Almost all
2 Feedback Minimum & Maximum &
delayed immediate
3 Control of pace Uncontrollable Controllable
4 Message codes Highly verbal Highly non-verbal
& verbal
5 Multiplicative power High Low
6 Direction of message One-way Two-way
7 Power to preserve a High Low
8 Ability to select a High Low
9 Ability to meet Low High
specialised needs
10 Speed to reach large Fast Slow
11 Possible effects Knowledge gain Attitude and
action changes
Nature of Channels
• Space organised channels
Printed materials,
Still pictures
• Time organised channels
Radio braodcast
TV telecast
• Participation
• Speed
• Permanence
Selection of communication channels

• Availability – to communicator
• Suitability- audience & message
• Competency
• Frequency of use
• Ability to combine channels
• Relative effectiveness
• Efficacy of extension education
• Obstructions
1. Environmental
2. Biological
3. Vocabulary
4. Grammer
5. Emotional
6. Social
Sources & causes of Noise
• Failure of channel
• Failure of communicator’s skill
• Failure of selection of channel
• Failure to use channels
• Failure to avoid physical distraction
• Failure of audience to listen
• Failure to use enough channels
• Use of too many channels in series
Treatment of message

• The way a message is handled ,dealt with

• Technique / details of procedure
• Clear, understandable & realistic

Bases for treatment

• Matters of general organisation
• Matters of speaking and acting
• Matters of symbols variation & devices for
• To and fro communication
• To control and correct the signals and go
• To realign all the signals within the
network in relation to one another,
• Error correcting mechanism that would
overcome noise,
• Overlook the strength and power of

Feedback - rewarding,

Non-rewarding feedback
• (i) Understanding Vs knowledge

• (ii) Acceptance Vs rejection

• (iii) Remembering Vs forgetting

• (iv) Mental Vs physical action

• (v) Right Vs wrong

• Means carrying some significant
responses back to the communicator
• Source oriented
• Varies in different communication
• Affects source or communicator
• Exerts control over future messages
• Affects communication fidelity
• Maintains the stability and equilibrium of
a communication system
Feedback –continuous process
Barriers in Communication
• Noise barrier
• Semantic barriers
• Feedback barriers
• Cultural barriers
• Barriers due to perception
• Sender’s credibility
• Multi-meaning words
• Language differences
• Emotionality
• Inconsistent verbal and non-verbal
Noise barrier

• Poor timing
• Inappropriate channel
• Improper or inadequate information
• Physical distractions
• Organizational structure
• Information overload
• Network breakdown
Semantic barriers
• Same word in different ways or
different words in the same way

Feedback barriers
A student who misunderstands a
question in the exam – no provision
for clarification-end up in wrong
Cultural barriers
• Eg. Australia & France-Kids not permitted to do
TV commercials
• Not work-Sunday-Jewish; Friday-Muslims
• Astrologers in India- actions/meetings

Barriers due to perception

• A poor self-concept/self understanding/poor
understanding of others

Sender’s credibility
Receiver has
• confidence,
• trust and
• respect for sender