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Shourav Ahmed

INTRODUCTION
 The beds, columns, bases and housing are
together called the structure of a machine tool
 It also form the backbone of the machine tools

 The weight of the structure is around three


fourth of the weight of a machine tool
 In modern machine tools the structure is
normally lighter.
 The structure transmits the static load (due to
various parts such as the headstock) and the
operational load (caused by the cutting force and
by power transmission) to the support.
CLASSIFICATION
 According to the purpose:
 Bed. frame works etc.
 Bases, bed plates
 Housing, boxes, columns etc.
 Casing and covers.
 According to the method of manufacture:
 Cast
 Welded
 Partly cast, partly welded.
 Accordance with the pattern of the
transmission of the operational loads:
 Closed
 Open structure
REQUIREMENTS OF A MACHINE TOOL
STRUCTURE
 The suitability of a machine tool structure is judged
from the following standpoints:
 sufficiently high strength (high static and
dynamic rigidity)
 The shape and layout of the machine tool should
 facilitate easy chip removal,
 easy machining operation (with least possible fatigue of the
operator and his
 permit easy and safe observation of the cutting operation,
 permit easy assembly and dismantling of parts and
 allow easy accessibility and maintenance of the machine tool.
 cost considerations,
 easiness in installation and transportation and
 aesthetic appeal.
STRENGTH, STATIC AND DYNAMIC RIGIDITY
 The forces and the torque are caused by the
cutting forces, the drive elements (such as belts,
gears etc ) and the reactions in the bearings
 For machine parts running at high speeds the
dynamic load, causing forced self exited or/and
parametric vibrations, is also important
 In the case of resonance vibrations, the
magnitude of stress is very high.
 The actual stress is kept low with the help of
various re-enforcing stiffeners
STRENGTH, STATIC AND DYNAMIC RIGIDITY
 It was earlier thought that heavy (machine tool)
structure is necessary to dampen the vibration
 Experiments that structure should rather be light
and rigid
 Consequently, the modern machine tools structure
are more and more made of welded sheet structure
and have suitably arranged ribs
 Hence the different pans of a machine tool structure
do not always have uniform cross-section
 Apertures or holes are brought in the structure, for
example for easy removal of chips, easy assembly and
dismantling of the machine tools
 The apertures decrease the rigidity, specially the
torsional rigidity to a grant extent.
STRENGTH, STATIC AND DYNAMIC RIGIDITY

Fig. Torsional deflection of box-type beams with an


aperture in one side (Bielefeld)
STRENGTH, STATIC AND DYNAMIC RIGIDITY
 The reduction of rigidity caused by the apertures
can be to a large extent neutralized through
suitable arrangement of stiffeners
 The straight traverse stiffeners increase the
torsional rigidity by 34%, but its effectiveness
(rigidity to weight ratio) does not increase
 Investigation of V. Kaminskaya and D.N.
Reschtow on lathe beds have shown that the bed
height should be approximately equal to bed
width, which has the biggest influence on the
rigidity of the bed
STRENGTH, STATIC AND DYNAMIC RIGIDITY
MATERIALS OF THE STRUCTURAL
COMPONENTS

 Cast iron is most widely used as structural


material
 Modern machine tools are also made of steel

 Both the materials have economic and


technological advantages and disadvantages
 Researchers have shown that materials like
ceramics, different types of concrete, granite can
be good materials as well
 Their comparative advantages depend on:
 material properties and its availability
 manufacturing process and
 cost economy.
MATERIALS OF THE STRUCTURAL
COMPONENTS
 The selection of a certain particular material for
the construction of machine tool structures is
based on the following factors:
 high static stiffness (deformation against
bending and torsion),
 good dynamic rigidity (obtained through high
natural frequency and high damping ratio),
 good machinability,
 low coefficient of thermal expansion,
 dimensional stability during the life of the
machine tool (specially resistance to wear),
 reduced weight (for easiness to transport)
 easy availability
 sliding properties (low friction and no stick-slip
effect) and
 low cost in lot production.
MANUFACTURING PROCESSES
 While manufacturing machine tool structures
with a given material, it should be kept in mind
to construct the same with least material
 Points to be kept in mind are:
 while manufacturing the structure the minimum
wall thickness required must be maintained
 in casting sharp change-over of cross-section may
cause casting faults
 Ordinary sand casting needs more machining
allowance
 Internal stresses are to be remove as for as
possible
 Production facilities and manpower
DIFFERENT MATERIALS USED
 Different materials are used for manufacturing of
machine components. Study advantages,
disadvantages and application of each of the
following materials:
 Cast Iron (Cl)
 Steel
 Ceramics
 Concrete
 Epoxy Concrete
 Polymer-impregnated Concrete (PIC)
 Ferro-Cement
 Fiber Reinforced Cemented Composites
EFFECT OF CHIPS ON THE DESIGN OF THE
STRUCTURE
 Modern machine tools are designed to remove material at a
high rate which has two distinct consequences:
 it results in a very high volume of chip formation
 chip acts as a source of heat.
 Thermal expansion of the machine structure causes the
development of internal stress
 It also causes loss of dimensional accuracy
 This is avoided by incorporating modification in the design
of the machine tool structure and by the use of mechanized
chip (material) handling equipments.
 The space between the stiffeners (webs) can be sufficiently
large to facilitate free falling of the chips.
 It can be further improved if the bed is inclined.
 The quick removal of large volume of chips is attained by
screw or belt conveyors
INSTALLATION OF MACHINE TOOL
 The installation of machine tools also influences the
design of machine tool structure
 Machine tool, being a source of chatter and other
vibrations, may cause vibration of other equipments
and machines
 In earlier days, a heavy mass was bolted to the
structure to reduce resonance frequency
 This method has two main problems:
 Cost involved in the foundation
 Reduced flexibility in factory layout
 However, machine tools are nowadays more slick less
weight and are placed on spring with dampers.
 These dampers also reduces outside vibration
(Passive isolation)
INSTALLATION OF MACHINE TOOL

Fig.: Machine tool structure bolted to the foundation