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Local Area Networks

Metropolitan Area
Wide Area Networks

Network Classifications
Client Client Local
Client Client Networks
A lo c a l a re a
n e tw o rk (LAN) is a
Client Client
c o mp ute r n e tw o rk
c o ve rin g a s ma ll
ge o gra p hic a re a ,
like a ho me , o ffic e ,
o r gro up o f
build in gs
The communication
infrastructures that have
been developed in and
around large cities
Wide Area Networks
Wide Area Network
(WAN) is a computer
network that covers a
broad area (i.e., any
network whose
communications links
cross metropolitan,
regional, or national
Or, less formally,
a network that uses
routers and public
An intranet is a private network that is contained
within an enterprise.
It may consist of many interlinked local area
networks and also use leased lines in the wide
area network

An intranet uses TCP/IP, HTTP, and other Internet
protocols and in general looks like a private version of
the Internet.
With tunneling, companies can send private
messages through the public network, using the
public network with special encryption/decryption
and other security safeguards to connect one part of
their intranet to another.
The Internet is the global system
of interconnected computer
networks that use the Internet
protocol suite (TCP/IP) to link
devices worldwide.

It is a network of networks that consists
of private, public, academic, business,
and government networks of local to
global scope, linked by a broad array of
electronic, wireless, and optical
networking technologies.
International standard organization (ISO)
established a committee in 1977 to develop an
architecture for computer communication.

Open Systems Interconnection (OSI)

reference model is the result of this effort.

Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) Model

In 1984, the Open Term “open” denotes

Systems the ability to connect
Interconnection (OSI) any two systems which
reference model was conform to the reference
approved as an model and associated
international standards.
standard for
The OSI model describes how information or data makes
its way from application programmes (such as
spreadsheets) through a network medium (such as wire)
to another application programme located on another
The OSI reference model divides
OSI Reference the problem of moving
information between computers
Model over a network medium into
SEVEN smaller and more
manageable problems .

This separation into smaller more manageable

functions is known as layering.
• the
• Open System
on (OSI)
The process of breaking up the functions or tasks of
networking into layers reduces complexity.

Each layer provides a service to the layer

above it in the protocol specification.

OSI: A Layered Network Model

The lower 4 layers (transport, network, data link and
physical —Layers 4, 3, 2, and 1) are concerned with the
flow of data from end to end through the network.

The upper Three layers of the OSI model

(application, presentation and session—Layers 7, 6
and 5) are orientated more toward services to the
Physical Transmission Line configuration. In
characteristics of mode. The physical a point-to-point
interfaces and layer also defines configuration, two
media. Defines the the direction of devices are connected
characteristics of the transmission together through a
interface between between two dedicated link. In a
the devices and the devices: simplex, multipoint
transmission media. half-duplex, or full- configuration, a link is
Physical Layer shared between several
The physical layer coordinates the functions required
devices. to transmit a
bit stream over a physical medium. It deals with the mechanical and
electrical specifications of the interface and transmission media.

Representa Data rate. Synchronization Physical

tion of bits. The of bits. The topology. The
The physical transmission sender and physical
layer rate the receiver must not topology
defines the number of only use the same defines how
type of bits sent each bit rate but must devices are
The data link layer Framing. The data link layer divides
transforms the physical the stream of bits received from the
layer, a raw transmission network layer into manageable data
facility, to a reliable link. It units called frames.
makes the physical layer Physical addressing. The data link
appear error free to the layer adds a header to the frame to
upper layer (network define the sender and/or Receiver of
layer). the frame.
the data link layer oversees Flow control. The data link layer
deliveryLink Layer
of the packet imposes a flow control mechanism to
between two systems on prevent overwhelming the receiver.
the same network. Error control. To detect and
retransmit damaged or lost frames. It
also uses a mechanism to prevent
duplication of frames. Error control is
normally achieved through a trailer
added to the end of the frame.
Access control. When two or more
The network layer is Logical addressing. If a packet
responsible for the passes the network boundary, we
source-to-destination need another addressing system
delivery of a packet to help distinguish the source
possibly across and destination systems. The
multiple networks network layer adds a header to
the packet coming from the
Network Layer upper layer that, among other
things, includes the logical
addresses of the sender and
Routing. When independent
networks or links are connected
together to create internetworks
(network of networks) or a large
network, the connecting devices
(called routers or switches)
Service-point addressing. The transport layer header includes a
type of address called a service-point address (or port address). The
transport layer gets the entire message to the correct process on
that computer. and reassembly. A message is divided into
transmittable segments, each segment containing a sequence
number. These numbers enable the transport layer to reassemble
the message correctly upon arriving at the destination and to
identify and replace packets
Transport that were lost in the transmission.
The transport layer is responsible for end-
to-end delivery of the entire message.

Connection control. The transport layer can be either

connectionless or connection-oriented.
Flow control. Flow control at this layer is performed end to end
rather than across a single link.
Error control. Error control at this layer is performed end to end
rather than across a single link.
The session layer is the
network dialog
controller. It establishes, Dialog control. The session
maintains, and layer allows two systems to
synchronizes the enter into a dialog. It allows the
interaction between communication between two
communicating system processes to take place either in
Session Layer half-duplex (one way at a time)
or full-duplex (two ways at a

Synchronization. The session

layer allows a process to add
checkpoints (synchronization
points) into a stream of data. For
example, if a system is sending a
file of 2,000 pages, it is advisable
Translation. The presentation layer
The presentation layer is is responsible for interoperability
concerned with the between these different encoding
syntax and semantics of methods through a Common format.
the information
exchanged between two Encryption. To carry sensitive
systems. information a system must be able to
Presentation Layer assure privacy. Encryption means that
the sender transforms the original
information to another form and
sends the resulting message out over
the network. Decryption reverses the
original process to transform the
message back to its original form.

Compression. Data Compression

reduces the number of bits contained
in the information. Data compression
The application layer enables the user, whether human or
software, to access the network. It provides user interfaces and
support for services such as electronic mail, remote file access
and transfer, shared database management, and other types of
distributed information services.

Application Layer