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TCP/IP Protocol Suite

• Transmission control
Protocol/Internet Protocol
• Developed by DARPA
• No official protocol standard
TCP/IP • Can identify five layers
• Application
• Host-to-Host (transport)
• Internet
• Network Access
• Physical
An OSI View of
Sender Receiver
Application Application
Layer HTTP Request Layer HTTP Request

Transport Transport
TCP HTTP Request TCP HTTP Request
Layer Layer

Network Network
Layer Layer

Data Link Data Link

Layer Ethernet IP TCP HTTP Request Layer Ethernet IP TCP HTTP Request

Physical Physical
Layer Layer
Comparison of

Both are based on the concept of a stack of independent protocols.

The functionality of the layers is roughly similar.
OSI makes the distinction between TCP/IP does not originally clearly distinguish
services, interfaces, and protocol. between services, interface, and protocol.
The OSI model was devised before TCP/IP model was just a description of the
the protocols were invented. It can existing protocols. The model and the
be made to work in diverse protocol fit perfectly.
heterogeneous networks.
The OSI model supports both The TCP/IP model has only one mode in the
connectionless and connection- network layer (connectionless) but supports
oriented communication in the both modes in the transport layer, giving the
network layer, but only connection- user choice.
oriented communication in the
transport layer.
OSI emphasis on providing a reliable TCP/IP treats reliability as an end to end
data transfer service, Each layer of Problem. The transport layer handles all error
the OSI model detects and handles detection and recovery, it was checksums,
errors, all data transmitted includes acknowledgments, and timeouts to control
checksums. The transport layer transmissions and provides end-to-end
checks source-destination reliability. verification.

OSI has Data Link/Physical The lower layers below the Interface or
layers. Data link layer deal with Network layer of TCP/IP seldom discussed.
error detection and correction. This protocol has not defined and varies from
Physical layer refer to the host to host and network to network.
physical connection of network.
The Session layer handles session setup,
The TCP/IP model does not have a general
data or message exchanges, and tear
session layer protocol.
down when the session ends.
In TCP/IP the term “sockets” and “ports” are
It also monitors session identification so
used to describe the path over which
only designated parties can participate
cooperating application communicates.
and security services to control access to
session information.

The Presentation Layer handles Presentation layer is not present in TCP/IP

data format information for model. Instead this function is frequently
networked communications. It handled within the applications in TCP/IP
converts data into a generic format through External Data Representation
before transmission. Standard(XDR) and Multipurpose Internet
Mail Extensions (MIME).
• Bad timing, by the time the OSI protocols
• The model does not clearly
appeared, the competition TCP/IP
distinguish the concepts of services,
protocols were already in widespread use.
interface, and protocol.
• Bad technology, both the model and the
• It is not at all general and is poorly
protocols are flawed, the model along with
suited to describing any protocol
the associated service definitions and
stack other than TCP/IP.
protocols are very complex.