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Biology:
life study of

What is Life? Properties of Life


Cellular Structure: the unit of life, one or many
Metabolism: photosynthesis, respiration, fermentation,
digestion, gas exchange, secretion, excretion, circulation--
processing materials and energy

Growth: cell enlargement, cell number


Movement: intracellular, movement, locomotion
Reproduction: avoid extinction at death
Behavior: short term response to stimuli
Evolution: long term adaptation
Gas Exchange
light
CO2 + H2O O2 + CH2O
chlorophyll

CH2O + O2 CO2 + H2O + energy


The basic metabolic interdependence of terrestrial organisms

CO2

gas
exchanges
http://static.flickr.com/45/154595356_69db69c737_o.jpg

O2

CH2O

H2O H2O
Macrocystis pyrifera http://www.westworld.com/~fabio/gallery/california-scuba-photo/california-giant-perennial-kelp.jpg

http://www.algaebase.org/webpictures/henry84.jpg

http://www.rain.org/campinternet/channelhistory/kelp/kelp98.jpg
No cell without
water-dissolved
gas contact
Leaf Cross Section
cuticle
upper epidermis

palisade mesophyll

vein – xylem and


phloem

spongy mesophyll

lower epidermis

stoma and
gas exchange guard cells
This is a cross-section of a “typical” leaf: Syringa vulgaris (lilac)

photosynthesis here

water entry here

gas exchange here


SEM of Spongy mesophyll shows each leaf cell is close to air

©1996 Norton Presentation Maker, W. W. Norton & Company


The exchange of
gases is regulated by
the opening size of
the stoma (mouth)
between the two
guard cells of leaf
epidermis.

http://www.science.smith.edu/departments/SEM/pages/marina/8stoma.jpg

flaccid turgid

H2O http://staffwww.fullcoll.edu/tmorris/elements_of_ecology/images/stomata_sem.jpg
Factors influencing stomatal diameter
enlarging stoma reducing stoma
abundant water water deficit
abundant light darkness
low internal CO2 high internal CO2
abscisic acid hormone
Even woody stems exchange gas through lenticels…
openings in the bark…
©1996 Norton Presentation Maker, W. W. Norton & Company

one ring of bundles


= dicot

http://www.sbs.utexas.edu/mauseth/weblab/webchap17bark/web17.3-1a.jpg http://www.sbs.utexas.edu/mauseth/weblab/webchap17bark/web17.3-1b.jpg
Plant roots can be asphyxiated!
Water fills all air space in soil…
Simple aquatic multicellular animals
Unicellular animals exchange gas through skin with capillary
use diffusion exchange with blood system…evaginated

©1996 Norton Presentation Maker, W. W. Norton & Company


..or invaginated Air breathers use lungs or tracheal systems
Bristleworms
(Nereis) have
capillary beds in
the parapodia
for gas
exchange

http://www.teara.govt.nz/NR/rdonlyres/7D647087-7341-4298-A423-B3D2422B6DEF/144283/p6887pc.jpg

Invaginated or Evaginated?

©1996 Norton Presentation Maker, W. W. Norton & Company


Argopecten gibbus the Calico scallop

©1996 Norton Presentation Maker, W. W. Norton & Company


Ciliated surfaces move water across gills for gas exchange
Mucilage surface traps and accumulates food particles
Cilia move food-laden mucilage to mouth for digestion
Scallop respiration and feeding

http://www.fao.org/docrep/007/y5720e/y5720e09.jpg

Figure 8: The soft tissue anatomy of the calico scallop, Argopecten gibbus, visible following removal of one of the shell valves. Key: AM - adductor
muscle; G - gills; GO - gonad O - ovary and T – testis; L - ligament; M - mantle and U - umbo. The inhalant and exhalant chambers of the mantle
cavity are identified as IC and EC respectively

http://www.fao.org/docrep/009/y5720f/y5720f1b.jpg
Evaginated gills surrounded by water Architeuthis Giant squid

http://www.mnh.si.edu/natural_partners/squid4/DispatchImages/20Feb1999/gills_inside_mantle_cavity_labeled.jpg
bearing oxygen
Mesonychoteuthis hamiltoni
Colossal squid

http://www.theage.com.au/ffximage/2007/02/22/squid_narrowweb__300x363,0.jpg
Perca flavescens http://www.tnfish.org/PhotoGalleryFish_TWRA/FishPhotoGallery_TWRA/images/YellowPerchMeltonHillNegus_jpg.jpg

oxygenated
water

operculum

deoxygenated,
carbonated water

Muscular operation of operculum


system moves water into mouth, over
evaginated gills, and out from trailing
edge of operculum

http://courses.washington.edu/chordate/453photos/gut_photos/aseptal_gills2.jpg
How do evaginated gills work?

©1996 Norton Presentation Maker, W. W. Norton & Company


t ed
na
e
yg
ox

filament
enlarged…

t ed
ena
yg
eox
d
Gill filament shows counter-current exchange design:
oxyge
n ated w
a ter water and blood
blood flow in opposite
return directions
to heart

blood
from
heart

deoxyg
enated
water
©1996 Norton Presentation Maker, W. W. Norton & Company
Counter-current is more efficient than concurrent exchange

©1996 Norton Presentation Maker, W. W. Norton & Company


Counter-current mechanism maximizes:
• Oxygen removal from water
• Blood oxygen content
©1996 Norton Presentation Maker, W. W. Norton & Company
This efficient system is needed because oxygen solubility is
very low in water (10 mg/L) compared to in air (286 mg/L).
Delicate gills need protection from predators: shells, opercula
Other species evolved internalized respiratory trees…
Sea cucumber
body systems

©1996 Norton Presentation Maker, W. W. Norton & Compa

http://www.marietta.edu/~biol/biomes/images/oceans/sea_cucumber_8178_800.jpg evaginated or invaginated?


And now for a look inside our gastropod mollusc…

http://www.zetnet.co.uk/~pm/photos/snail.jpg

The shell obviously provides a hard covering for the visceral mass.
The snail shown here is a pulmonate, with a vascularized mantle cavity
serving as a lung. Vascularizing this led to loss of the gills in most
gastropods.
The gastropods, are clearly hermaphroditic, and some are self-fertile.
Free-living larval stages are the dispersal mechanisms of some species…
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Trochophore trochophore larva Adult Sea elephant (snail)…

its radula

http://tolweb.org/tree/ToLimages/AtlantaPeroni1.jpg

gas exchange by simple diffusion

veliger larva
its proboscis http://tolweb.org/tree/ToLimages/
http://tolweb.org/tree/ToLimages/Oxygyru

AtlantaSpRadula11.230a.jpg
sLarva1.jpg

http://tolweb.org/tree/ToLimages/ScutataProboscis11.200a.jpg
The slug shows the pneumostome in the mantle for breathing.

pneumostome

foot
mantle

skirt optical tentacles

sensory tentacles

http://www.nawwal.org/~mrgoff/photojournal/2003/winspr/pictures/05-17slug2.jpg
http://media-2.web.britannica.com/eb-
media/97/46897-004-E3937032.jpg

absent
Chelicerata

book gills

http://farm1.static.flickr.com/40/108057513_ff286d144f.jpg
trachea
single
within a
diversity

category
taxonomic

book lungs

international/scorpion.gif
Considerable

http://www.flightglobal.com/blogs/flight-

http://somethingscrawlinginmyhair.com/wp-
content/uploads/2007/09/tickdorsalview2007
http://weblog.pell.portland.or.us/~orc/bugs/argiope_aurantia.jpg -5-2.jpg
http://clacc.uchc.edu/Species/Aquatics/HorseshoeCrab/HorseShoeCrab1.jpg

book gills

http://www.bumblebee.org/invertebrates/images/LimulusDorsal.jpg

http://www.bumblebee.org/invertebrates/images/LimulusVentral.jpg
Centruroides vittatus (bark scorpion) has a book lung
(an evaginated surface like a gill for terrestrial gas exchange)

http://www.entomology.umn.edu/cues/tenczar/Cvittatus/Centruroides_vittatus.jpg

©1996 Norton Presentation


Maker, W. W. Norton &
Company
In an insect respiratory tree, the tracheoles contact every cell.

trachea

tracheoles

spiracles

©1996 Norton Presentation Maker, W. W. Norton & Company


An insect gas exchange--an invaginated tracheolar system

This is not particularly different from the respiratory tree model


But the segmented abdomen and musculature permits tidal flow

trac spiracle
hea

les
heo
c
tra

©1996 Norton Presentation Maker, W. W. Norton & Company


Here are two spiracles, one open with sensors functioning.
The other is closed to avoid desiccation/predation, etc.

©1996 Norton Presentation Maker, W. W. Norton & Company

The convergence with stomata in plant leaves is interesting!


Argyroneta aquatica, the water spider, traps air with body
hairs at surface and brings the air down to the hydrophobic
web for later use…sometimes called the “water bell” spider.

http://mmem.spschools.org/grade5science/wetland/waterspider.jpeg
Pycnogonida, Sea spiders
http://peterbrueggeman.com/nsf/gallery/kc3803-63.jpg
http://farm1.static.flickr.com/40/108057513_ff286d144f.jpg

Where does O2 go?


How does it get there?
CO2?
Diffusion!
http://www.pmel.noaa.gov/vents/nemo/explorer/bio
_gallery/biogallery-ImageF.00060.jpeg
Respiratory Pigments
Function: deliver O2 to the cells
http://upload.wikimedia.org/
wikipedia/commons/7/79/

• Hemerythrin – red color but no heme


Hemerythrin.jpg

group Fe, low oxygen binding, few inverts,


Methylococcus (methanotropic bacterium)
• Hemocyanin – blue color, Cu group,
http://upload.wikimedia.org/
Wikipedia/commons/f/fb/

moderate oxygen binding, most molluscs


Hemocyanin2.jpg

• Hemoglobin – red color, heme Fe group,


high oxygen binding, 4 polypeptides,
vertebrates and some invertebrates
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/

• Some organisms have none of these:


commons/d/d2/Hemoglobin.gif

high surface to body area ratio so


exchange occurs at body surface by
simple diffusion
In larval aquatic stages of arthropod metamorphosis,
larvae may demonstrate evaginated gills rather than
invaginated tracheoles.

Could this be
another example of
“ontogeny
recapitulating
phylogeny”?

©1996 Norton Presentation Maker, W. W. Norton & Company


Vertebrates evolved an invaginated gas exchange system:
The alveolate lung: recall pulmonate gastropod lung

©1996 Norton Presentation Maker, W. W. Norton & Company


Notice in this sequence how exchange surface area increases!
©1996 Norton Presentation Maker, W. W. Norton & Company
Tidal flow in “blind
pouch” exchange
system
warms, humidifes,
traps particles

closes
glottis for
exhaled air swallowing
vibrates cords
for voice

mucus,
cartilage ridges particles
keep airway open cilia lift mucus with swallowed
particles upward
The human breathing system: the larger structures

©1996 Norton Presentation Maker, W. W. Norton & Company


bronchiole
The mammalian lung gas exchange fine structure: the alveolus

Note the convergence of the oxygen


contact feature with spongy
mesophyll of plants ©1996 Norton Presentation Maker, W. W. Norton & Company
How the alveolate lung works “Artificial
inhalation exhalation respiration” is
possible
because of this!

Notice this is not a Terrestrial animals do


counter-current not need efficient
mechanism and is exchange because air
inefficient holds much oxygen
compared to gills compared to water

©1996 Norton Presentation Maker, W. W. Norton & Company


The ventilation movement in vertebrates with lungs has two parts
lungs nearly empty lungs nearly full

rib
muscles
lift

contracts to
drop floor
©1996 Norton Presentation Maker, W. W. Norton & Company

For many singers and public speakers, the first lesson is


re-learning how to breathe!
Bird lungs have additional air sacs attached to their lungs

anterior sacs
lung

posterior sacs

©1996 Norton Presentation Maker, W. W. Norton & Company


©1996 Norton Presentation Maker, W. W. Norton & Company
This apomorphy increases the efficiency of the lungs by
permitting a counter-current exchange:

QuickTime™ and a
Animation decompressor
are needed to see this picture.
SEM of bird lung: note-cells are close to gas exchange surfaces
Does this look familiar? Plant leaves, spongy mesophyll

©1996 Norton Presentation Maker, W. W. Norton & Company


Gas Exchange Path for Cooling: Canine Panting

©1996 Norton Presentation Maker, W. W. Norton & Company


In wintering aquatic birds, the feet isolate body from cold water

©1996 Norton Presentation Maker, W. W. Norton & Company


Feathers provide
body insulation