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Egypt

William Hoover, Angela McCowin, Alexandrea Ledbetter, Izzy Owen


Geography and Climate
❖ Location - North/Eastern Africa
➢ Capital is Cairo: located in north/eastern Egypt
❖ Area - 386,660 Square miles
❖ Climate - Warm/hot days; cool nights
➢ Mild winter - Nov. - April
➢ Hot summer - May - Oct.
■ Hot as 114*F in some areas; cool as 42*F
● Depending on place/time of day
❖ Rainfall
➢ .79 - 7.87 in. near Mediterranean coast
➢ Drops to 0 in. Towards Cairo
Environmental Challenges
● Water quality & quantity
○ Get most water from Nile, but water quality seriously threatened by sewage, waste, and other
untreated pollutants
● Soil loss
○ Soil is not ideal, so farmers use chemically rich fertilizers which add to the water pollution
● Air pollution
○ From factories and car exhaust
○ Sky is gray rather than blue (Cairo)
● Other effects due to tourists
○ Tourists’ breath inside pyramids - cause salt encrustations
○ Graffiti on the pyramids
Population
★ Population as of July 2016 - 94,666,993
○ Fertility rate - 2.83 children/woman
○ Average 2-3 children per woman

★ Age facts
○ 37.47% 25-54 years - male 18,020,332 / female 17,448,871
○ 65 years and older - 4.17% - Male 1,937,119/Female 2,013,459
○ Under 25 - 49.53%
Historical Overview (1918 to 1954)
- Egyptian representatives at Versailles following WWI, requested independence – Britain granted
nominal independence 1922, monarchy under Faud Ali

- 1923, governance between King, the delegates of Versailles (Hizb al-Wafd), and Britain

- 1928, Islamist Muslim Brotherhood founded in Egyptian Ismailia - ideals of Qur’an & Muhammad

- 1936 to 1952, Egypt Ruled by King Farouk I (Son of Faud Ali)

- 1942, Sir Miles Lampson, ‘forces’ that a Prime Minister be elected from the Hizb al-Wafd

- 1945, The Arab League was founded in Cairo, comprised of 22 members

- 1954, Formal end to British occupation, 1954 to 1970, Arab nationalism by Gamal Abdel Nasser
Historical Overview (1918 to 1954)
Faud Ali King Farouk I Sir Miles Lampson Gamal Abdel Nasser

https://scholarship.rice.edu/bitstream/handle/1911/20908/DegNe_136_illus.jpg?sequence=1&isAllowed=y http://www.onreligion.co.uk/wp-content/uploads/2013/08/King-Farouk.jpg

http://www.theegyptianchronicles.com/History/PM39Sirri1.jpg https://libcom.org/files/images/library/Nasser_in_Mansoura,_1960.jpg
Historical Overview (1948 - 1993)
- Nasser succeeded by Anwar al-Sadat, 1977 legalized political parties, 1979 multi-party parliament
election

- 1948, Egypt does battle with Israel, bombed Israel in 1956, 1967, and 1973

- 1978, Egypt was first Arab state to recognize and be recognized by Israel (peace declaired)

- October 6, 1981, An assassination of al-Sadat from ‘Islamist extremists’

- Sadat’s successor was Husni Mubarak - Promising to only run for 2 terms, he retracted this promise in
1993 to eventually serve 4 terms and a partial 5th

- August 1990, Iraq invaded and occupied Kuwait in, Mubark sided against the invasion, (Decision came about
10 days post-invasion after convening with the Arab League)
Historical Overview (1948 - 1993)
Anwar al-Sadat Husni Mubarak Iraq invades Kuwait, 1990 Sadam Hussein

https://media1.britannica.com/eb-media/65/75565-004-FD64560F.jpg http://www.aljazeera.com/mritems/Images/2015/8/17/1221ce18a7e1407699a5c87b8e7acdc6_18.jpg

http://www.indiatimes.com/entertainment/teaser-of-akshay-kumar-s-airlift-is-a-stunning-reminder-of-the-world-s-biggest-rescue-mission-247429.html
Historical Overview (21st Century)
- March 2003, Iraq War started by United States, Mubarak openly criticized, discreet cooperation

- 2005 multiparty elections for Egypt’s presidency – Mubarak won w/ 88% – superficial institution

- January of 2011, Succession of overthrows, Tunisia overthrew its dictator, Zine al-Abidine Ben Ali

- About a month later, Egypt overthrew Muhammad Husni Mubarak - Known collectively as ‘Arab spring’

- Elections in 2011 and 2012 after Arab spring, ‘illiberal, Islamist parties’ led by Muslim Brotherhood

- July of 2013, overthrow of Muhammad Morsi by Egyptian Army, crackdown on Muslim Brotherhood

- May of 2015, Muhammad Morsi was executed in prison.‘civil and uncivil acts of disobedience’ against
both ‘government and security forces’ - This unrest continues to this day (Abdel Fattah al-Sisi now President)
Historical Overview (21st Century)
Iraq War, 2003 Zine al-Abidine Ben Ali Muhammad Morsi Pro-Morsi protest

http://www.cnn.com/2013/03/18/opinion/iraq-war-hans-blix/ http://static.guim.co.uk/sys-images/Guardian/About/General/2009/10/22/1256211432779/President-Zine-El-Abidine-001.jpg
https://ceasefiremagazine.co.uk/wp-content/uploads/Ramzy-Baroud-Mohammed-Morsi-Egypt-Palestine.jpg https://i0.wp.com/www.barenakedislam.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/07/Mideast-Egypt-
pro-Morsi-protests-july12.jpg?resize=660%2C371
Roles and Positions of Women
- No indication that women held a political or military role of note in the Lust Text.

- Less than 25% of Egyptian workforce are women ~37 Billion,


Google
- Unemployment of women is 4 x’s that of men. Conversion

- 1/3 Egyptian women over age 10 cannot read

- 1/5 Egyptian girls marry before 15, impacts education and job outlook

- “International Monetary Fund estimates that closing the [pay] gap between men and women in the labor force
would expand Egypt’s economy by 34 percent.” ( 2.5 trillion Egyptian pounds, … roughly 3,000 pounds per
person [$ 165.24 USD - Google]) https://www.humanrights.gov/dyn/02/-the-role-of-women-in-overcoming-egypts-economic-and-
security-challenges-in-the-21st-century/
Ethnicities

- 99.6 Percent of Egypt is Egyptian, with only 0.4 Percent termed other

http://i.dailymail.co.uk/i/pix/2013/01/09/article-2259449-16D382D9000005DC-775_634x421.jpg -Market in Cairo


Economy: Issues & Foreign Policy

● Job to population ratio


● Suffer from chronic budget deficits
● Must receive aid from other countries in order to sustain the economy
● US aid accounts for almost half of the economic assistance Egypt receives
○ Close relationship
● In partnership with many countries
○ Export natural resources, gold, agricultural products to those countries
that assist them
Economy: Business

● Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, and Kuwait have given or pledged
about $35 billion to Egypt in aid in the form of oil shipments, cash grants,
and central bank deposits since the previous president's removal
● Struggling economy
○ In 2015 had a negative trade balance (more imports than exports)
● 2015 Gross Domestic Product (GDP)
○ $286.5 billion; $10,900 per capita
○ Industry: 24% , agriculture: 29% , services 47%
Economy: Exports

● Leading exports: Oil and petroleum


○ Bright prospects for increase in natural gas export
● Insulated wire
● Gold
● Top export destinations include:
○ Saudi Arabia
○ The United States
○ Italy
○ Germany
○ Turkey
http://www.iraq-businessnews.com/list-of-international-oil-companies-in-
iraq/international-oil-companies-egyptian-general-petroleum-corporation-egpc/
Economy:
Exports

● Growth of Egyptian
Exports from 1960 -
2007
Economy: Debts

● Borrows money every year


● Struggling with budget deficits
● In 2014 President Sisi announced the enlargement project of the Suez
canal - doubling revenue earned from transit fees
○ Trying to develop more independent sources of revenue
● Budget (2015)
○ Revenues: $60.09 billion
○ Expenditures: $92.37 billion
Social Structure

● President makes all decisions


○ Similar to Pharaoh rule - elite
● Percent of the population under
25 : 49.53%
● Population below the poverty line:
25.2% (2011)
Government

● Republic
● Claimed Independence: February
28, 1922
● President is all power, parliament
is present but has little power
○ Egyptian politics are deeply
entrenched in executive dominance
● Current President: Abdel-Fattah
al-Sisi
http://www.aljazeera.com/indepth/opinion/2015/05/sisi-year-150528121209779.html
Government

● Parliament
○ 596 seats
○ 80% of seats are based on single-member district
● Political parties : 9 total
○ Do not play a huge role in elections
● Egyptian citizens support in 2015:
○ 8% indifferent to the party ideology
○ 13% support Islamic parties
○ 24% undecided
○ 55% support civil, non-islamic parties
Health Care

● Universal Health Care


○ Ministry of Health
○ Health Insurance Organization
● Mosque Clinics
● Herbal and “Supernatural” Medicine

https://www.justlanded.com/english/Egypt/Egypt-Guide/Health/Introduction
Religions

● Muslim (Sunni) 90%


○ Qur’an
○ 5 Pillars of Faith
● Christian 10%
Education

● Primary
○ Kindergarten
○ Grade 1-9
○ 4-15 yrs old
● Secondary
○ Grade 10-12
○ 15-17 yrs old
● Vocational
○ Grade 10-12

http://www.classbase.com/Countries/egypt/Education-System
Let’s Review - Quick Quiz

Top 5 scorers will receive a prize!

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