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LITERARY

CONCERNS: Structure,
symbols or Symbolism,
Irony, Figures of
speech
EXPLORING YOUR
KNOWLEDGE ON
FIGURATIVE
LANGUAGE
Identify the figure of speech
in the following sentences.
“Hadn’t she felt in every touch of the
sunshine, as its golden finger tips pressed
her lids open and wound their way
through her hair?”

PERSONIFICATION
My heart is like a singing bird
Whose nest is in a water’d shoot,
My heart is like an apple tree
My heart is like a rainbow shell…

SIMILE
I am trying to solve a million
issues today!
HYPERBOLE
England won the World Cup in
1996.
SYNECDOCHE
A traffic enforcer gets caught
violating traffic rules.
IRONY
What do the following often
symbolize?
• MIRROR • RED
• WATER • FIRE
• WHITE • RUST
• CROCODILE • FLIES
• BLACK •RAINBOW
LITERARY
CONCERNS: Structure,
symbols or Symbolism,
Irony, Figures of
speech
STRUCTURE
Like in other forms of writing,
in CNF, it is also very
important to plan before you
write. This is to avoid
incoherent ideas in your article.
Types of
STRUCTURE
CHRONOLOGICAL
STRUCTURE
Events are in linear fashion,
as they occur in time
Travelogue or account of a
trip
EXPLANATION-OF-A-PROCESS
STRUCTURE
 This is the best structure for a how-to
article since it tells the readers what to
do step by step.
 Example: How to Cope with
Heartbreak, How to Use Your Time
Wisely
FLASHBACK STRUCTURE
 A flashback begins at some point in
time then moves back into the past.

 This works best when you are writing


a memoir.
PARALLEL STRUCTURE
 This type has several stories, running
side by side, with occasional cross-
cutting or convergence.
 It is a technique that has been
influenced by novels and cinema.
COLLAGE OR MOSAIC STRUCTURE
 This type was influenced by paining
and film and most convenient when
you write accounts of disasters.
 It involves pasting together of small
fragments, which all together build
up to the total picture of what
happened.
DIARY OR LOGBOOK STRUCTURE
 This type is a variation of the
chronological structure and gives a
sense of immediacy in the narrative.
 It also makes the narrative seem
more personal through the use of
conversational structure.
QUESTION & ANSWER STRUCTURE
 This type is a logical choice for
interview stories
 It allows the readers to hear the
subject’s voice without the
awkwardness of having to repeat “he
said” or “she said” before every direct
quotation.
FRAME OR THE STORY-WITHIN-A-STORY
STRUCTURE
 It is a good structure to use when
you wish to tell two stories.
 Example, in a travel narrative, the
actual physical journey is paralled
by an inner journey.
SYMBOL
S/
SYMBOL
ISM
 A symbol is a thing that
suggests more than its literal
meaning.
 It is a concrete thing that
represents something in the
abstract.
 Rock- strength
 Dove- peace
 Flower- beauty
 Apple-temptation
 Cross- burden or problem
 Storm- challenge
 Ship sailing in the ocean- life
 The only difference between
symbols in fiction and in CNF is
that symbols in CNF are actual
objects that exist or were actually
present at the time the events in
the narrative happened.