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Problem Solving

Problem Solving Method
 is a teaching strategy that employs
the scientific method in searching
for information.
 is a technique that requires a
learner to work actively in the
solution of a difficulty or an
undesirable situation.
Steps in Problem Solving:
Sensing and defining the problem.

Formulating hypothesis.

Testing the hypothesis.

Analysis, interpretation and

evaluation of evidence.

Formulating conclusion.
Advantages of Problem-Solving Method
 This method develop learners science
processes skills.
 Develops higher level thinking skills.
 A keen sense of responsibility, originality and
resourcefulness are developed.
 Provide learners an opportunity to develop
their critical thinking, open-mindedness and
wise judgment.
 The students learn to accept the opinions and
evidence shared by others.
Guidelines For Its Effective Use
 Problem must be clear and concise.
 Problem is adapted to the age, interests and
skills of the students.
 Group the students and allow each one to
share in the task to be performed.
 Prepare supplementary materials to substitute
for that are not available.
 Guide them in every step by asking leading
 See to it that the process or procedure is done
correctly and well.
 Set criteria for evaluation.
Project Method
Project Method
 It is a teaching method that requires the students
to present in concrete form the results of
information gathered about a concept, principle
or innovation.
 It is referred as “self-directed study”
 It is planned and systematic.
 According to Kilpatrick(1918), it is a whole-
hearted purposeful activity proceeding in a social
Steps in Project Method:
• The teacher must consider the needs,
Purposing abilities, and interests of the learners.

• When activities are planned by the

Planning students, they do their parts willingly and

• Carrying out or implementing activities

Executing as planned and envisioned by the class.

• The finished product must be displayed

Evaluating for assessment by both teacher and
Advantages of Project Method
 It is a teaching method that emphasizes “learning
by doing”.
 Constructing projects develops students’
manipulative skill.
 The students become resourceful and innovative.
 The finished product can serve as evidence of
learning achieved.
 It instills the value of initiative , industry and
creativity. In addition to learning a concept,
students become productive and enterprising.
 Develops the spirit of cooperation and sharing of
Guidelines for Its Effective Use

1. Assign projects according to the interest and

ability of the students.
2. Set clear objectives for evaluation.
3. Provide minimal supervision to set
directions and monitor progress.
4. Encourage the use of local materials.
5. The design of the project must be carefully
checked before the group/student starts.
Cooperative Learning
Cooperative Learning
 Makes use of a classroom organization
where learners work in groups or teams to
help each other learn.
 This approach help small groups in solving
problem and acquire information through
collective effort.
 It is a learning structure where students
depend on one another and work
together to achieve the shared goals.
Characteristics Features
 2 Components of Cooperative Learning
a cooperative incentive structure - one where
two or more individuals are interdependent
for a reward. They will share if they are
a cooperative task structure - a situation in
which two or more individuals are allowed,
encouraged or required to work together on
some tasks, coordinating their efforts to
complete the task
 Students work in teams to tackle academic
 Reward systems are group-oriented rather than
 The interactions within the group is controlled
by the members themselves.
 Each individual learner is accountable for
his/her learning.
 The group reflects on and evaluates the group
process they underwent.
Positive Interdependence

Elements of Individual Accountability

Learning Equal Participation

Simultaneous Interaction
Guidelines for Its Effective Use
 Heterogeneous grouping.
 Make sure that the students exhibit the
necessary social skills to work cooperatively in
group situations.
 Provide adequate space for ease and speed in
 Provide adequate learning tools.
 Provide adequate learning tools so as not to
make others wait at a time they are needed.
 Make sure each group understands the goal,
procedures, tasks and method of evaluation.
Selected Structures in Cooperative
Each student in turn shares something with his
2. Word-webbing
Students write simultaneously on a piece of
paper representing the relation of ideas in a
certain topic.
red yellow
orange Yellow-orange
green Primary

Secondary Tertiary
colors colors

Colors red-violet blue-violet
3. Numbered Heads Together
The teacher asks a question, students consult to
make sure everyone knows the answer, then one
student is called upon to answer.
“A good teacher is one, that never stops
listening; a good listener is one , that
never stops teaching.”- Anthony Liccoine
Thank you for listening!