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Materidan

Materi danPenggolongannya
Penggolongannya

Ni Made Oka Dwicandra, S.Farm., M.Farm., Apt.

Program Studi Farmasi Klinis (Reguler)


Institut Ilmu Kesehatan Medika Persada Bali
Materi adalah sesuatu yang memiliki MASSA
dan MENEMPATI RUANG
• Secara umum materi dibagi 2, yaitu pure
substance dan mixture
• Tidak semua zat padat/cair/gas memiliki
komposisi yang sama
• Matter diklasifikasikan berdasarkan komposisi
internal, bukan stage nya (padat, cair, gas)
karena komposisi internal memiliki sifat lebih
unik/khas
• Substance adalah bentuk materi yang
memiliki komposisi yang konstan dan sifat
yang jelas berbeda dibandingkan yg lainnya

• Mixture (campuran) adalah kombinasi 2 atau


lebih substance yang mana substance
tersebut masih membawa sifat-sifat awalnya
POKOKBAHASAN
POKOK BAHASAN

Unsur kimia dan sifatnya

Senyawa dan Sifatnya

Campuran dan Sifatnya

Memisahkan Campuran
UNSURKIMIA
UNSUR KIMIADAN
DANSIFATNYA
SIFATNYA

• Unsur adalah zat yang hanya terdiri dari satu


atom, tidak bisa dipisahkan menjadi zat yg lebih
sederhana dengan rekasi kimia
• An atom is so small that its size is difficult to
imagine. (These strands are about 1/10,000 of a
centimeter (0.00001 cm) in diameter.)
• An atom is so light that its mass is also difficult
to imagine. A billion lead atoms (1,000,000,000
atoms) weigh about 3 × 10-13 grams
UNSURKIMIA
UNSUR KIMIADAN
DANSIFATNYA
SIFATNYA
UNSURKIMIA
UNSUR KIMIADAN
DANSIFATNYA
SIFATNYA

• It is rare to find collections of individual atoms


(helium, neon, and argon)
• Other elements, such as the gases hydrogen,
nitrogen, oxygen, and chlorine, are composed
of units that consist of pairs of atoms (Figure
6).
• Molecule consists of two or more atoms
joined by strong forces called chemical bonds
UNSURKIMIA
UNSUR KIMIADAN
DANSIFATNYA
SIFATNYA
POKOKBAHASAN
POKOK BAHASAN

Unsur kimia dan sifatnya

Senyawa dan Sifatnya

Campuran dan Sifatnya

Memisahkan Campuran
SENYAWADAN
SENYAWA DANSIFATNYA
SIFATNYA

• Senyawa (compound) adalah zat yang terdiri


atas 2 atau lebih atom yang berikatan secara
kimia dengan proporsi tertentu dan memiliki
sifat tertentu
• The smallest unit of a compound, known as a
molecule
SENYAWADAN
SENYAWA DANSIFATNYA
SIFATNYA

• Iron is silvery grey and can be attracted to a magnet.


• Sulfur is yellow and cannot be attracted to a magnet.
• In this chemical bond, sulfur and iron are mixed up and heated.
• The result is a compound, iron sulfide, which is black and not attracted
to magnets.
POKOKBAHASAN
POKOK BAHASAN

Unsur kimia dan sifatnya

Senyawa dan Sifatnya

Campuran dan Sifatnya

Memisahkan Campuran
CAMPURAN(MIXTURE)
CAMPURAN (MIXTURE)DAN
DAN
SIFATNYA
SIFATNYA
• Mixture (campuran) adalah kombinasi 2 atau lebih
substance yang mana substance tersebut masih
membawa sifat-sifat awalnya

• mixture can involve two or more substances of the


same phase or different phases.

• For example you can mix water and sand (liquid and
solid), sugar and salt (solid and solid), water and oil
(liquid and liquid) or nitrogen and oxygen (gas and gas).
CAMPURAN(MIXTURE)
CAMPURAN (MIXTURE)DAN
DAN
SIFATNYA
SIFATNYA
• Campuran : homogen dan heterogen
• Homogen : memiliki komposisi yang sama
• Heterogen : komposisi tidak seragam
CAMPURAN(MIXTURE)
CAMPURAN (MIXTURE)DAN
DAN
SIFATNYA
SIFATNYA

Figure 8. (a) Oil and vinegar salad dressing is a heterogeneous mixture because its composition is
not uniform throughout. (b) A commercial sports drink is a homogeneous mixture because its
composition is uniform throughout
CAMPURAN(MIXTURE)
CAMPURAN (MIXTURE)DAN
DAN
SIFATNYA
SIFATNYA

Campuran Homogen
• Campuran homogen : alloy dan solution
• An alloy is a homogeneous mixture of two elements, with one
being a metal (solid).
• A solution is a homogeneous mixture involving a solute and a
solvent.
• The solute (may be liquid or solid) is broken down completely
into individual ions or molecules in a way that can no longer
be seen as a separate entity.
CAMPURAN(MIXTURE)
CAMPURAN (MIXTURE)DAN
DAN
SIFATNYA
SIFATNYA

Campuran Homogen

• Wine, air, and gunpowder are other examples of common homogeneous


mixtures (Figure below).

• Their exact compositions can vary, making them mixtures rather than
pure substances.

• Wine is a liquid mixture of water, ethanol, and a variety of other


dissolved substances.

• Air is a mixture of nitrogen gas (78%), oxygen gas (21%), and small
amounts of various other gases. Gunpowder is a solid mixture comprised
of potassium nitrate (75%), charcoal (15%) and sulfur (10%).
CAMPURAN(MIXTURE)
CAMPURAN (MIXTURE)DAN
DAN
SIFATNYA
SIFATNYA

Campuran Homogen

Examples of homogenous mixtures: wine


CAMPURAN(MIXTURE)
CAMPURAN (MIXTURE)DAN
DAN
SIFATNYA
SIFATNYA

Campuran Homogen
• If you dissolve salt (solute) in water (solvent), the salt is
broken down into Sodium and Chlorine ions within the
solvent.

• This mixture will look and taste the


same everywhere in the cup, and would have salt and water
in the same proportions.

• In this example, salt is a soluble material.


CAMPURAN(MIXTURE)
CAMPURAN (MIXTURE)DAN
DAN
SIFATNYA
SIFATNYA

Campuran Homogen
CAMPURAN(MIXTURE)
CAMPURAN (MIXTURE)DAN
DAN
SIFATNYA
SIFATNYA

Campuran Homogen
• How can you identify a solution from other mixtures?
1. No particles will be visible.
2. It will have a clear look.
3. Nothing will settle at the bottom of the bottle holding it.
4. It cannot be filtered.

• What is a saturated solution?


If you keep adding a solute to a solvent, it gets concentrated. if you keep
adding, eventually, no more solute can be dissolved with temperature
remaining constant. Here, the solution is said to be saturated.
CAMPURAN(MIXTURE)
CAMPURAN (MIXTURE)DAN
DAN
SIFATNYA
SIFATNYA

Campuran Homogen
• The difference is that the composition of the pure substance is
always the same, while the composition of a homogeneous mixture
can vary.

• For example, you may dissolve a small amount or a large amount of


salt into a given sample of water. Although the ratio of salt to water
will differ, the mixtures will both be homogeneous. However, pure
water will always have the same ratio of elements that make it a
pure substance (two hydrogen atoms per oxygen atom).
CAMPURAN(MIXTURE)
CAMPURAN (MIXTURE)DAN
DAN
SIFATNYA
SIFATNYA

Campuran Heterogen

• Heterogeneous mixtures have visibly


distinguishable parts.

Examples of heterogeneous mixtures: (lef) oil and vinegar and (right) soil.
CAMPURAN(MIXTURE)
CAMPURAN (MIXTURE)DAN
DAN
SIFATNYA
SIFATNYA
CAMPURAN(MIXTURE)
CAMPURAN (MIXTURE)DAN
DAN
SIFATNYA
SIFATNYA
• Apa perbedaan Campuran dan Senyawa?
CAMPURAN(MIXTURE)
CAMPURAN (MIXTURE)DAN
DAN
SIFATNYA
SIFATNYA
Compounds Mixtures
1. Compounds are pure substances. 1. Mixtures are impure substances.
2. They are made up of two or more 2. They are made up of two or more
elements combined chemically. substances mixed physically.
3. The constituents of a compound are 3. The constituents of a mixture are
present in a fixed ratio. present in varying ratios.
4. Compounds have fixed properties. For 4. Mixtures do not have fixed properties.
example, a particular compound will have Their properties depend on the nature of
fixed temperatures at which it melts and their components and the ratios in which
boils. they are combined.
5. A compound can have properties 5. In mixtures, no new substance is
different from its constituents, as a new formed. The properties of a mixture are
substance is formed when the the same as the properties of its
constituents are chemically combined. constituents.
6. The constituents of a compound can 6. The constituents of a mixture can be
be separated only by chemical methods. separated easily by physical methods.
POKOKBAHASAN
POKOK BAHASAN

Unsur kimia dan sifatnya

Senyawa dan Sifatnya

Campuran dan Sifatnya

Memisahkan Campuran
MEMISAHKANCAMPURAN
MEMISAHKAN CAMPURAN

• Kromatografi
• Filtrasi
• Evaporasi
• Simple distillation
• Fractional distillation
• Magnetism
• Separating funnel
• Solid Liquid extraction
MEMISAHKANCAMPURAN
MEMISAHKAN CAMPURAN

Kromatografi Kertas

different rates of attractions to the solvent,


MEMISAHKANCAMPURAN
MEMISAHKAN CAMPURAN

Filtrasi

• separating an insoluble solid from a liquid. An


example of such a mixture is sand and water.
MEMISAHKANCAMPURAN
MEMISAHKAN CAMPURAN

Evaporation

• Evaporation is great for separating a mixture (solution) of a


soluble solid and a solvent. The process involves heating
the solution until the solvent evaporates (turns into gas)
leaving behind the solid residue.
MEMISAHKANCAMPURAN
MEMISAHKAN CAMPURAN

Distilasi
MEMISAHKANCAMPURAN
MEMISAHKAN CAMPURAN

Distilasi bertingkat
MEMISAHKANCAMPURAN
MEMISAHKAN CAMPURAN

Magnetism
MEMISAHKANCAMPURAN
MEMISAHKAN CAMPURAN

Separating funnel
MEMISAHKANCAMPURAN
MEMISAHKAN CAMPURAN

Solid Liquid extraction


Terimakasi
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Tugas
• Jelaskan sifat fisika dan sifat kimia suatu senyawa obat, pengawet,
racun, toksin,
• Senyawa yang digunakan bebas, dikoordinasikan dengan 1 angkatan.
Tidak boleh menggunakan senyawa kimia yang sama.
• Sifat fisika (5 point)
• Sifat kimia (5 point)
• Tidak ada penambahan nilai untuk point yg melebihi ketentuan yang
diberikan
• Tugas ditulis tangan dengan kertas double folio
• Tugas dikumpulkan pada pertemuan berikutnya
• Tugas yang dikumpulkan melebihi batas waktu akan diberikan nilai 0
Acetaminophen
1. Rumus Kimia: …
2. Sifat Fisika
a. Titik leleh adalah ……….. Titik leleh acetaminophen ..oC
b. dst
3. Sifat Kimia
a. Konstanta disosiasi, artinya ……….. Konstanta disosiasi
acetaminophen = ….
b. Dst
4. Daftar Pustaka