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• To list socio-cultural and demographic

influences on food choices.

• To summarize the influence of health
consciousness and health status on food
• To outline various food production
methods available to the consumer.
• To identify food resources and their impact
on food choices.

Socio-Cultural Impact on Food Choices
Demographic Influences on Food Choices
Health Consciousness & Status Factors
Food Supply & Resources
Eating Patterns Over Time

• Are composed of the social and cultural
characteristics of a person’s life
• Include:
– ethnicity
– geographic region
– religion
– personal environment
– social environment

• Is the state of belonging to a social group
with a common national or cultural
• Is one of the strongest influences on food
• Can be thought of as a person’s cultural
• Is passed from one generation to another
• Plays a role in day-to-day food patterns

• Refers to the continent, country or area of
the world in which a person resides
• Impacts ingredients available for food
preparation, as well as common foods and
food combinations

• Are known for various types of cuisine
• Include:
– coastal regions
– south
– midwest
– southwest

• Includes greater amounts of seafood
• Tends to be very diverse due to diversity of
the population
• Examples:
– Maine
• lobster
– Gulf Coast
• shrimp

• Is normally associated with:
– fried foods
– types of gravy and sauce
– grits
• Examples:
– fried chicken
– “soul food”

• Includes items such as:
– casseroles
– meat
– corn
– potatoes
• Examples:
– Nebraska
• beef
• corn

• Has Native American, Spanish and
Mexican influences
• Tends to be spicier in nature than foods
from other areas of the U.S.
• Examples:
– New Mexico
• green chile

• Is the term used to describe a set of
beliefs concerning the cause, nature and
purpose of the universe
• May influence or direct a follower’s food
– Hinduism
– Judaism
– Islam

• Forbid eating meat, fish, poultry and eggs
– although some Hindus may occasionally eat
meat, almost all avoid beef
• Prohibit consuming garlic, onions, some
types of mushrooms, alcohol and tea or
coffee containing caffeine
• Promote vegetarianism
for respect of life

• Are known as the Kashrut
• Outlines rules, such as:
– certain animals may not be consumed
– animals for consumption must be slaughtered
according with Jewish law
– meat cannot be eaten with dairy
– all foods labeled kosher must be prepared
under the supervision of a rabbi

Kosher: Hebrew word meaning fit or allowed

for consumption 15
• Forbid the consumption of certain foods,
– pork
– blood
– alcohol
• Dictate how animals
must be slaughtered, halal
• Require fasting during the daylight hours
of Ramadan, the ninth month of the
Islamic year

• Refers to a person’s home or private living
• Sets the stage for various day-to-day
choices, such as:
– food consumption habits
– family mealtimes
– lifestyle behaviors
• Is affected by other
people living within the
• Are established at infancy through parents
in most cases
• Cause people to eat certain foods as a
– eating cereal for breakfast every day
• When developed properly:
– promote superior growth and development
– decrease the chance for obesity and diet-
related diseases
– establish a healthy well-being

• Include:
– practice life skills (e.g., table etiquette and
interpersonal skills)
– practice fine motor and coordination skills
(e.g., pouring, scooping, serving)
– foster family traditions
– teach healthy food choices and regular
portion sizes

• Is a combination of cultural identity and the
people and institutions a person interacts
• May alter an individual’s typical behavior
patterns due to peer pressure
• May require people to accept food or drink
offered in some situations

1. Which of the following is NOT a socio-cultural factor?
A. Ethnicity
B. Geographic region
C. Gender
D. Religion

2. Which term best describes one’s state of belonging to a social

group with a common national or cultural tradition?
A. Ethnicity
B. Religion
C. Personal environment
D. American

3. Which socio-economic factor can impact ingredients available
for food preparation?
A. Ethnicity
B. Geographic region
C. Religion
D. Personal environment

4. Which of the following foods could be commonly served in

A. Lobster bisque
B. Grits
C. Ham and potato casserole
D. Fajitas

5. Which religion follows the Kashrut as a guide for food
A. Hinduism
B. Judaism
C. Islam
D. Christianity

• Is a system used to group people based
on various characteristics, including:
– age
– gender
– education level
– household composition
– income level
• Provide information about select
populations at any given time

• Classifies people based on life stage or
chronological age
• May be divided into categories such as:
– children
– teenagers
– young adults
– adults
– middle-age adults
– senior citizens
• Impacts food choices due to varying
nutritional needs and food preferences
– example:
• an adult might choose to eat a salad instead of a
French fries due to concerns about body weight
• Classifies people as male or female
• Impacts food choices due to varying
nutritional needs and desired outcomes of
– example:
• women tend to be
more concerned with
body weight when
choosing the foods
they consume

• Classifies people based on their highest
level of schooling
• Can influence food choice through the
awareness of more nutritious alternatives
• Classifies people based on the number of
people living in one residence and the
relationships between individuals
• Can impact food choices due the number
of people in the residence, nutritional
needs of household and food preferences

• Classifies people based on the amount of
money earned annually
• Impacts food choices based on amount of
money a person has to spend on food
– example:
• a person might choose
to purchase a generic
brand over a name
brand due to price


1. Which of the following is NOT a demographic factor?
A. Age
B. Education level
C. Religion
D. Income level

2. Which of the following demographic factors classifies people

based on life-stage?
A. Age
B. Education level
C. Religion
D. Income level

3. Which of the following demographic factors classifies people
based on highest level of schooling?
A. Age
B. Education level
C. Religion
D. Income level

4. Which of the following demographic factors classifies people

based on the number of people living in one residence?
A. Age
B. Education level
C. Household composition
D. Income level

5. Which of the following demographic factors classifies people
based on money earned annually?
A. Age
B. Education level
C. Religion
D. Income level

• Is the concern about and actions taken to
address a person’s health status
• Is associated with characteristics such as:
– preventative health measures
– effort to improve overall health
– interest in seeking new health information and

Health Status: measure of how healthy or

unhealthy a person is
• Are actions taken to keep the body as healthy
as possible
• Can decrease risk of developing chronic
• Include behaviors such as:
– consumption of nutrient dense foods
– regular exercise
– maintenance of healthy body weight
– abstaining from tobacco and heavy alcohol use
– annual physical exams

• Are high in nutrients and low in calories
• Include foods such as:
– fruits and vegetables
– whole grains
– lean protein
– low-fat dairy

• Promotes a healthy cardiovascular system
• Helps regulate hormone levels
• Aids in the maintenance of a healthy body
• Improves mood and self-esteem

• Decreases the risk of developing chronic
• Is associated with having a body mass
index (BMI) of 18.5 to 24.9

Body Mass Index (BMI): ratio of weight to

height, used as an indicator of obesity or being
• Reduces the risk of developing numerous
chronic illnesses, including:
– cancer
– heart disease
– hypertension or high blood pressure
– osteoporosis

• Provide a track record of a person’s
• Enable a physician to diagnose a chronic
illness in the early stages
– some illnesses can be managed through diet

• Are used to control various conditions,
such as:
– food allergies
– diabetes
– hypertension

• Are caused by an autoimmune response
triggered by a specific protein in a food
• Can be deadly
• Can be confirmed by blood or skin tests
• Are mainly treated by avoiding the food
• Example:
– peanut allergy

• Is a condition in which the body cannot
properly utilize the hormone insulin
– causes high blood sugar levels
– damages the body over time
• Requires a person to adopt a food
consumption pattern which regulates
blood sugar levels

• Is the medically correct term for chronic
high blood pressure
• Can be controlled by a healthy diet,
keeping sodium levels low and abstaining
from smoking and alcohol consumption


1. Which of the following is NOT a behavior of a health conscious
A. Consuming nutrient dense foods
B. Refusing to change habits
C. Exercising regularly
D. Having regular physical exams

2. Which term best describes foods which are high in nutrients

and low in calories?
A. Nutrient dense
B. Figure friendly
C. Fresh
D. Processed

3. What is the normal BMI range?
A. 13.4-16.8
B. 16.6-20.1
C. 18.5-24.9
D. 26.9-32.9

4. Which food component is responsible for food allergies?

A. Carbohydrates
B. Protein
C. Fat
D. Water

5. Which of the following is the medically correct term for high
blood pressure?
A. Cardiopulmonary disease
B. Hypertension
C. Hypotension
D. Heart disease

• Is created by farmers and ranchers as well
any imported foods
• Feeds its citizens as well as people all
over the world
• Provides the American consumer with
options beyond the traditional production
– natural
– organic

• Do not have a definition under the United
States Department of Agriculture (USDA)
• Usually do not contain artificial
• Can be grown using synthetic fertilizers
and pesticides

• Are regulated and defined by the USDA
• Are produced without synthetic fertilizers
and pesticides with sustainable practices
and strict guidelines

• Are resources available for obtaining,
preparing and consuming foods
• Include:
– time
– money
– access to food

• Plays a role in determining the types of
foods one will eat, for example:
– if ample time is available, a homemade meal
can be prepared
– if time is limited, convenience foods may need
to be prepared

• Plays a role in determining
the amount, variety and
quality of foods one is able
to purchase, for example:
– if ample money is available,
various types of foods can
be purchased
– if money is limited,
inexpensive foods in small
quantities may need to be
• Plays a role in determining the options
available to the consumer, for example:
– living in a large city provides many shopping
– living in a rural area may limit food shopping


1. Which two professions are responsible for providing food to
the American consumer?
A. Attorneys and accountants
B. Politicians and lobbyists
C. Farmers and ranchers
D. Teachers and coaches

2. What is the definition of a natural agricultural product?

A. Any product grown naturally on a farm
B. Meat and poultry raised in an environment free of
C. Any product which does not enter a processing plant
D. There is no USDA definition for this term

3. Which type of agricultural products are produced without
synthetic fertilizers and pesticides using sustainable practices
and following strict guidelines?
A. Organic products
B. Natural products
C. Free-range products
D. Hormone-free products

4. Which of the following is NOT a resource for obtaining,

preparing or consuming food?
A. Time
B. Money
C. Access to food
D. Cooking technique

5. Which of the following is responsible in determining the
amount, variety and quality of foods one is able to purchase?
A. Access to food
B. Money
C. Time
D. Lifestyle

16th Century Europeans
• Did not value taste – appreciated food for
its appearance, symbolic value or rarity
– a prized cook was one who could make a fish
look like a piece of venison instead of making
it taste good
• Valued bread as the fundamental food
– some lower class members ate nothing else
– only upper class could afford meat regularly

Early American Colonists
• Copied the diets of the Indians
• Survived mostly on fish and animals
indigenous to the settled region
• Feasted on poisonous snakes, bad-
smelling musk turtles and horses during
periods of starvation

The Birth of the 20th Century
• Made Americans optimistic for the century
– preferred eating rich, hearty, meat-filled
meals; stylish restaurants offered elk, caribou,
bear and moose
• Introduced the American Sweet-Tooth
– by 1909, the average person consumed 65
pounds of sugar per year

20th Century: 1910-1919
• Found immigration at an all-time high
which brought in many new food variations
• Was the beginning of the processed foods
– revolutionized self-service market
– instead of handing a list of goods to a clerk,
people could shop for their own items
– A&P offered buyers up to 1,000 items to
choose from

The 20s
• Enacted Prohibition
– speakeasies became places to drink and
listen to jazz
• when hungry, owners offered finger foods; finger
foods became popular and people carried the idea
home, thus the birth of the cocktail party
• Considered salads effeminate and French,
making them unpopular

The Great Depression
• Caused food rationing
– meat used sparingly; therefore, people ate
vegetables and beans as fillers
• Made dishes such as meat loaf, chili and
many kinds of casseroles popular
• Introduced Ritz® crackers and Spam®

The 40s
• Increased food rationing due to World War
– government limited people to 28 oz. of meat a
– limited amounts of sugar, butter, milk, cheese,
eggs and coffee
• Encouraged people to plant “Victory
– more people began eating vegetables they
had grown in their backyards

The 50s
• Are considered by experts to be the worst
decade in 20th century American cuisine
• Showed an increase in popularity of
restaurant chains along the highways due
to construction of the national highway
• Valued time efficiency making dinners from
a can, tray, package or pouch popular

The 60s
• Made dining luxuries “en vogue” again
– large section of middle class could now afford
food luxuries once only available to the upper
class (e.g., expensive French food)
• Brought French dining to many Americans
through Julia Child’s show, The French
• Abandoned prepackaged foods and
advocated making products from scratch

The 70s
• Encouraged the widespread ability to eat a
wide-range of foods
– in a week, a person could eat:
• McDonald’s® cheeseburger
• fettuccine alfredo
• tofu and black bean salad
• homemade crock-pot chili
• Brought millions of Asians and their unique
cultural cuisines to the U.S. through The
Immigration Act of 1965

The 80s
• Made Nouvelle Cuisine, a form of French
cuisine using reduced sauces and fresh
ingredients, popular
– people paid high prices for small amounts of
food on large plates
– considered a status symbol
• Made many types of cuisine popular
– Ethiopian cuisine
– Spanish tapas
– Tex-Mex

The 90s
• Led to people trying to shed pounds due to
the excessive eating of the 80s
• Saw an increase in low-fat, low-calorie and
low-sodium foods from food manufacturers
• Increased popularity of the movement for
simplicity and using natural ingredients

The 21 st Century
• Introduced MyPlate: The New Food Guide
– replaced MyPyramid and other food guides of
the past and emphasized physical activity
– shaped like a plate to help consumers
visualize healthy portions of food groups on a
plate in relation to each other


1. The new food guide introduced in the 21st century is known as
which of the following?
A. MyBowl
B. The New Food Plate
C. MyPlate
D. The Pyramid

2. Which aspect of food did 16th century Europeans NOT value?

A. Taste
B. Texture
C. Appearance
D. Smell

3. The 1990s saw an increase in what kinds of foods from food
A. Fat free foods
B. Foods with “low” in the name
C. Organic foods
D. Fried foods

4. Whose television show brought French foods to the homes of

many Americans in the 60s?
A. Martha Steward
B. Ina Garten
C. Giada De Laurentiis
D. Julia Child

5. Which decade is considered to be the worst decade in
American cuisine?
A. The Great Depression
B. The 50s
C. The 70s
D. The 90s

Final Assessment 82
1. Which region of the United States are casseroles commonly
A. Coastal
B. South
C. Midwest
D. Southwest

2. Which religion promotes vegetarianism?

A. Hinduism
B. Judaism
C. Islam
D. Christianity

3. Which food should be avoided by one following the Kashrut?
A. Cheeseburger
B. Milk
C. Spinach
D. Bread

4. Which of the following foods is forbidden under Islamic dietary

A. Pork
B. Beef
C. Chicken
D. Fish

5. Joe is typically a healthy eater, but when he is around friends
he tends to consume large amounts of junk food. Which socio-
cultural factor is at play?
A. Ethnicity
B. Religion
C. Personal environment
D. Social environment

6. Which term best describes a system used to group people

based on various characteristics, including age, sex, education
level, household composition and income level?
A. Demographics
B. Sociology
C. Social groupings
D. Individual preferences
7. Which of the following is NOT an outcome of regular
A. Improved hormone regulation
B. Maintained body weight
C. Improved mood
D. Weakened bones

8. During World War II, people grew what kind of gardens?

A. Rose gardens
B. Victory gardens
C. Rationed gardens
D. Lettuce gardens

9. Jenna is in a hurry to get to work. She goes through a fast
food restaurant for breakfast on her way to work. Which food
resource does she need more of?
A. Time
B. Money
C. Access to food
D. Clothing

10. Which of the following requires a therapeutic diet?

A. Eczema
B. Diabetes
C. Croup
D. Influenza

• Anonymous. (2004). Welcome. Retrieved from
• Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2012, March
05). Alcohol & public health. Retrieved from
• American Academy of Family Physicians. (2008). Food
allergies just the facts. Retrieved from
• ExitCare, LLC. (2004, December 20). Diabetes, frequently
asked questions. Retrieved from

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