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Matakuliah : T0234 / Sistem Informasi Geografis

Tahun : 2005
Versi : 01/revisi 1

Pertemuan 03
Komponen SIG :
Manajemen Data & Pengguna

Learning Outcomes

Pada akhir pertemuan ini, diharapkan mahasiswa

akan mampu :
• Menjelaskan mengenai komponen SIG :
Manajemen Data dan Pengguna
(C2, TIK03)

Outline Materi

• Materi 1 : Manajemen Data SIG

• Materi 2 : Pengguna SIG

Manajemen Data SIG (1)
• Data spasial & non-spasial (atribut) harus diorganisasi-
kan secara baik ke dalam sebuah basis data sehingga
mudah untuk dipanggil, di-update, dan di-edit.
Laporan OUTPUT
Pengukuran Storage Peta

Lapangan (database)
Data Digital
Input Retrieval Output
lain Laporan

Peta (tematik,
topografi, dll.
Processing digital
Citra Satelit (softcopy)

Foto Udara
Data lain
Manajemen Data SIG (2)
The Relational Database Model
• At present, the relational database model dominates GIS
(Heywood, p.76, 2002).
• Many GIS software packages link directly to commercial
relational database packages, and others include their own
custom-designed relational database software.
• Some GIS use a relational database to handle spatial as
well as attribute data.
• The relational data model is based on concepts proposed
by Codd (1970).
• 4 stages to entity relationship modeling : the identification of
entities, the identification of relationships between entities,
the identification of attributes of entities, and the derivation
of tables from this 5
Manajemen Data SIG (3)
Linking Spatial and Attribute Data
• The relationship between GIS and databases varies.
(Heywood, p.81, 2002).
• For a simple raster GIS, where one cell in a layer of data
contains a single value that represents the attributes of
that cell, a database is not necessary.
• Here the attribute values are likely to be held in the same
file as the data layer itself.
• However, there are few ‘real’ GIS like this, and those
which exist are designed for analysis, rather than
attribute data handling.

Manajemen Data SIG (4)
Linking Spatial and Attribute Data
• The improvement is the ability to handle attribute values in a
file separate from the raster image.
• Although this method also lacks the flexibility of a true
relational DBMS, it is possible to link the GIS software with
proprietary relational DBMS to upgrade the capabilities.
• Most GIS, particularly vector-based systems, offer a hybrid
approach (Batty, 1990; Maquire et al., 1990; Cassettari,
• In this case, spatial data are stored as part of the GIS data
structure and attribute data are stored in a relational DBMS.
• This approach allows integration of existing databases with
graphics by the allocation of a unique identifier to each
feature in the GIS. (See Next Figure) 7
Manajemen Data SIG (5)
Linking Spatial and Attribute Data
• Hybrid Approach
User Interface

GIS Tools

Graphical DBMS
Manipulation S / W
Spatial Data Attribute Data

ID Co-ordinate ID Attributes
1001 (x1, y1) 1001 Name 1
1002 (x2, y2) 1002 Name 2
……. ……. ……. …….

Manajemen Data SIG (6)
Linking Spatial and Attribute Data
• Finally, an alternative approach is an extended GIS, where
all aspects of the spatial and attribute data are in a single
• Seaborn (1995) considers these “all-relational” GIS to have
considerable potential, and cites examples of major
organizations such as British Telecom, Electricite de France
and New Zealand Lands who have adopted this approach.
• However, more attention has been focused on the
development of object-oriented (OO) approaches to
database design.
• The fundamental aim of the OO model is to allow data
modeling that is closer to real-world things and events.
(Longley et al., 2001)

Manajemen Data SIG (7)
Linking Spatial and Attribute Data
• In a GIS, each class of object is stored in the form of a
database table: each row represents an object and each
column is a state.
• The OO approach is possibly more appropriate for
geographical data than relational model, since it allows the
modeling of complex, real-world object, does not distinguish
between spatial & attribute data and is appropriate for
graphics operations.
• Longley et al. (2001) list 3 features that good for GIS :
 Encapsulation
 Inheritance
 Polymorphism
Pengguna SIG (1)

High Application Skill Low Application Skill

GIS Analysts : Computer Technicians :
High ‘Applications Specialists’ ‘Computer Specialists’
GIS E.q. system manager, E.q. programmers, data
analyst, cartographer processor, database
administrator, digitizing
Managers : Customers :
‘Occasional ‘ The Public ‘
Professionals’ E.q. Customers
E.q. end-users, decision

Adopted from Brown(1989), Grimshaw(1994), Eason(1994)

Pengguna SIG (2)

GIS Analysts : Applications Specialists

• System Manager : maintain GIS every time. Have a good

understanding of the applications’ context and GIS.
• Analyst : able to translate the managers’ requirements into
real GIS analysis. Have a good understanding of the
applications’ context and GIS.
• Cartographer : help to produce spatial information into GIS

• They all also have a role in designing and maintaining the

GIS, including the development of new application for the
Pengguna SIG (3)

Managers :Occasional Professionals

• End Users Decision Makers : required strategic

information from the GIS to make decision, but are
unlikely ever to use the system in a ‘hands-on’ way. They
are more interested in hard-copy output, such as maps.
They have a good knowledge of the context of the
application, but little GIS knowledge or experience.
• E.q. : Company directors, managers.

Pengguna SIG (4)

Computer Technicians : Computer Specialists

• Have other responsibility in addition to the GIS.
• Responsible for the wages and personnel computer
system, which has no GIS element.
• Assist data formatting and input, hardware maintenance
and system upgrading.
• They are not GIS experts.
E.q. :
 Programmer
 Data Processor
 D/B Administrator
 Digitizing Technicians

Pengguna SIG (5)

Customers : Public user

• Using GIS to get spatial information by searching,
retrieving, etc.
• Customers also receive any products or services as a
result of the GIS analysts’ manipulations of the customer
• Do not need to know that it is a GIS they are interacting
with. Unlikely to have any business, GIS or computer
• They are end-users of the products and services offered
by the company.


• Mahasiswa diharapkan telah mampu

menjelaskan mengenai komponen SIG,
khususnya Manajemen Data dan Pengguna