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Matakuliah : T0234 / Sistem Informasi Geografis

Tahun : 2005
Versi : 01/revisi 1

Pertemuan 03
Komponen SIG :
Manajemen Data & Pengguna

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Learning Outcomes

Pada akhir pertemuan ini, diharapkan mahasiswa


akan mampu :
• Menjelaskan mengenai komponen SIG :
Manajemen Data dan Pengguna
(C2, TIK03)

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Outline Materi

• Materi 1 : Manajemen Data SIG

• Materi 2 : Pengguna SIG

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Manajemen Data SIG (1)
• Data spasial & non-spasial (atribut) harus diorganisasi-
kan secara baik ke dalam sebuah basis data sehingga
mudah untuk dipanggil, di-update, dan di-edit.
Tabel
DATA MANAGEMENT &
Laporan OUTPUT
MANIPULATION
Pengukuran Storage Peta
DATA INPUT

Lapangan (database)
Tabel
Data Digital
Input Retrieval Output
lain Laporan

Peta (tematik,
Informasi
topografi, dll.
Processing digital
Citra Satelit (softcopy)

Foto Udara
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Data lain
Manajemen Data SIG (2)
The Relational Database Model
• At present, the relational database model dominates GIS
(Heywood, p.76, 2002).
• Many GIS software packages link directly to commercial
relational database packages, and others include their own
custom-designed relational database software.
• Some GIS use a relational database to handle spatial as
well as attribute data.
• The relational data model is based on concepts proposed
by Codd (1970).
• 4 stages to entity relationship modeling : the identification of
entities, the identification of relationships between entities,
the identification of attributes of entities, and the derivation
of tables from this 5
Manajemen Data SIG (3)
Linking Spatial and Attribute Data
• The relationship between GIS and databases varies.
(Heywood, p.81, 2002).
• For a simple raster GIS, where one cell in a layer of data
contains a single value that represents the attributes of
that cell, a database is not necessary.
• Here the attribute values are likely to be held in the same
file as the data layer itself.
• However, there are few ‘real’ GIS like this, and those
which exist are designed for analysis, rather than
attribute data handling.

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Manajemen Data SIG (4)
Linking Spatial and Attribute Data
• The improvement is the ability to handle attribute values in a
file separate from the raster image.
• Although this method also lacks the flexibility of a true
relational DBMS, it is possible to link the GIS software with
proprietary relational DBMS to upgrade the capabilities.
• Most GIS, particularly vector-based systems, offer a hybrid
approach (Batty, 1990; Maquire et al., 1990; Cassettari,
1993)
• In this case, spatial data are stored as part of the GIS data
structure and attribute data are stored in a relational DBMS.
• This approach allows integration of existing databases with
graphics by the allocation of a unique identifier to each
feature in the GIS. (See Next Figure) 7
Manajemen Data SIG (5)
Linking Spatial and Attribute Data
• Hybrid Approach
User Interface

GIS Tools

Graphical DBMS
Manipulation S / W
Spatial Data Attribute Data

ID Co-ordinate ID Attributes
1001 (x1, y1) 1001 Name 1
1002 (x2, y2) 1002 Name 2
……. ……. ……. …….

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Manajemen Data SIG (6)
Linking Spatial and Attribute Data
• Finally, an alternative approach is an extended GIS, where
all aspects of the spatial and attribute data are in a single
DBMS.
• Seaborn (1995) considers these “all-relational” GIS to have
considerable potential, and cites examples of major
organizations such as British Telecom, Electricite de France
and New Zealand Lands who have adopted this approach.
• However, more attention has been focused on the
development of object-oriented (OO) approaches to
database design.
• The fundamental aim of the OO model is to allow data
modeling that is closer to real-world things and events.
(Longley et al., 2001)

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Manajemen Data SIG (7)
Linking Spatial and Attribute Data
• In a GIS, each class of object is stored in the form of a
database table: each row represents an object and each
column is a state.
• The OO approach is possibly more appropriate for
geographical data than relational model, since it allows the
modeling of complex, real-world object, does not distinguish
between spatial & attribute data and is appropriate for
graphics operations.
• Longley et al. (2001) list 3 features that good for GIS :
 Encapsulation
 Inheritance
 Polymorphism
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Pengguna SIG (1)

High Application Skill Low Application Skill


GIS Analysts : Computer Technicians :
High ‘Applications Specialists’ ‘Computer Specialists’
GIS E.q. system manager, E.q. programmers, data
analyst, cartographer processor, database
Skill
administrator, digitizing
technicians
Managers : Customers :
Low
‘Occasional ‘ The Public ‘
GIS
Professionals’ E.q. Customers
Skill
E.q. end-users, decision
makers

Adopted from Brown(1989), Grimshaw(1994), Eason(1994)

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Pengguna SIG (2)

GIS Analysts : Applications Specialists

• System Manager : maintain GIS every time. Have a good


understanding of the applications’ context and GIS.
• Analyst : able to translate the managers’ requirements into
real GIS analysis. Have a good understanding of the
applications’ context and GIS.
• Cartographer : help to produce spatial information into GIS

• They all also have a role in designing and maintaining the


GIS, including the development of new application for the
system.
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Pengguna SIG (3)

Managers :Occasional Professionals

• End Users Decision Makers : required strategic


information from the GIS to make decision, but are
unlikely ever to use the system in a ‘hands-on’ way. They
are more interested in hard-copy output, such as maps.
They have a good knowledge of the context of the
application, but little GIS knowledge or experience.
• E.q. : Company directors, managers.

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Pengguna SIG (4)

Computer Technicians : Computer Specialists


• Have other responsibility in addition to the GIS.
• Responsible for the wages and personnel computer
system, which has no GIS element.
• Assist data formatting and input, hardware maintenance
and system upgrading.
• They are not GIS experts.
E.q. :
 Programmer
 Data Processor
 D/B Administrator
 Digitizing Technicians

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Pengguna SIG (5)

Customers : Public user


• Using GIS to get spatial information by searching,
retrieving, etc.
• Customers also receive any products or services as a
result of the GIS analysts’ manipulations of the customer
databases.
• Do not need to know that it is a GIS they are interacting
with. Unlikely to have any business, GIS or computer
expertise.
• They are end-users of the products and services offered
by the company.

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Penutup

• Mahasiswa diharapkan telah mampu


menjelaskan mengenai komponen SIG,
khususnya Manajemen Data dan Pengguna

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