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Heat Transfer

pada tubuh
manusia dan
pesawat
terbang
AAN DWI PRAYOGO
EDI MUFRODI
HERIYANTO
RICKY MIERZAT
RUDIHEN
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Human Body Aircraft Icing

• Asal Panas Pada Tubuh Manusia • Heat Transfer Pada ujung Pitot tube Pesawat
• Metabolisma Tubuh Manusia • Analisa Aliran panas Pada Pesawat
• Aliran energi pada tubuh Manusia
• Heat Loss
• Analisa Aliran Panas
Asal Panas Pada Tubuh Manusia

Produksi Panas :
- Metabolisme basal
- Aktifitas Otot
- Tiroksin dan epineprin
- Efek suhu terhadap sel
Metabolisma Tubuh Manusia
Metabolisma merupakan proses yang melibatkan
terbentuknya energy dan pemanfaatannya oleh
tubuh manusia
Heat Loss

Heat Loss :
- Melalui kulit (75%) : Konduksi
Konveksi
Radiasi
Evaporasi
- Melalui Paru-paru (20%)
- Melalui Faeces dan Urine (5%)
Aliran Energi Pada Tubuh Manusia
Mengapa tubuh kita memerlukan
makanan?
Analisa Aliran Panas pada tubuh manusia

Hukum Pertama termodinamika


“energi tidak bisa diciptakan dan tidak pula bisa
dimusnahkan dalam sebuah proses; ia hanya bisa
berubah bentuk.”
∆U = Q-W …………….. (1)
∆U = Perubahan energy yang tersimpan dalam tubuh
Q = Perpindahan kalor dalam tubuh manusia
W = Kerja yang dihasilkan oleh tubuh
Secara umum perpindahan kalor pada tubuh manusia dapat ditulis :
Q = Qmet + Qloss ………….. (2)
Qmet = Kalor yang diproduksi dari metabolisme tubuh (metabolic rate)
Qloss = Kalor yang dilepas oleh tubuh

Maka :
∆U = Qmet + Qloss – W ………. (3)
Energi yang dibutuhkan manusia bergantung pada berat dan tinggi
manusia tersebut, secara empiric luas tubuh manusia dapat dihitung :
Luas = 0.202x W0.425 x H 0.725 …….. (4)

W dan H menyatakan Berat dan Tinggi badan.


Contoh :
Luas tubuh seorang manusia dengan berat 70kg dan
tinggi 1.55 m adalah 1.70 m2 metabolic rate nya dalam
keadaan istirahat adalah ?
40 Cal/m2 jam x 1.70 m2 = 68 Cal/jam

Kapasitas kalor ( C ) adalah energy (kalor) yang


diperlukan untuk menaikkan temperature suatu objek
sebesar 1°C.
C = mc ……………….. (5)
C = Kapasitas Kalor
C = Kalor spesifik
m = Massa zat
Kenaikan temperature sebesar ∆T dari suatu
objek dengan kalor yang masuk kedalam tubuh
manusia Q dinyatakan dengan persamaan :

∆T =
…………….. (6)

Untuk air c = 1.0 cal/g°C = 1.0 Kcal/kg°C


Untuk tubuh manusia c = 0.83 Cal/g°C = 0.83 Kcal/kg°C , artinya adalah
diperlukan 83 Kcal (Kalori makanan) untuk menaikkan temperature tubuh
manusia dengan berat 100 kg sebesar 1 °C.
Konduksi dalam tubuh manusia :

………… (7)

Contoh : Jika tebal jaringan antara tubuh manusia bagian luar dan bagian
dalam adalah 3cm , dengan luas permukaan rata-rata untuk terjadi konduksi
adalah 1.5m2 .

Kemudian perbedaan temperature antara tubuh bagian dalam dan kulit


sebesar 2°C maka kalor yang mengalir per jam nya adalah (konduktivitas
termal jaringan) = 8 Cal cm / m2 jam °C
Konveksi pada tubuh manusia :

……………… 8

Hc = Kalor yang dipindah melalui konveksi


Kc = Koefisien konveksi
Ts = Temperatur kulit
Ta = Temperatur udara
Contoh :
Seorang manusia dalam keadaan telanjang dengan luas permukaan
1.7m2, berdiri dan luas permukaan yang terekspos adalah 1.36m2. Jika
temperatur udara 25oC dan temperatur rata-rata kulit adalah 33oC,
maka jumlah kalor yang dihilangkan adalah (Kc = 6cal/m2 –
jam – oC , tiada angin)
Radiasi :

…………………. 9
Hr = Kalor yang dipindahkan melalui radiasi.
Kr = Koefisien radiasi (6.0 cal /m2 jam °C)
Ts = Temperatur kulit
Tr = Temperatur permukaan radiasi
Ar = Luas permukaan radiasi
e = Emisivitas permukaan kulit. (= 1)

Contoh :
Seorang manusia dengan Ar = 1.5 m2 , Tr = 25 ºC , Ts = 32
ºC Maka radiasi loss nya sebesar 63 cal/jam
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