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SURVEY DESIGN

CHAPTER 12
• SURVEY RESEARCH DESIGNS

—are procedures in quantitative research in which


investigators administer a survey to a sample or to the
entire population of people to describe the attitudes,
opinions, behaviors, or characteristics of the population.
WHEN DO YOU USE A SURVEY RESEARCH?

• To assess trends
• To assess opinions, beliefs, and attitudes of individuals
• For follow-up analyses
• For program evaluation
HOW DID SURVEY RESEARCH DEVELOP?

• 1817 International Survey of Education Systems


• 1890 Stanley Hall survey of children
• 1907 The Pittsburgh Survey examined social problems
• WWI and WWII sampling techniques improved
• Wide applications in social sciences-marketing research,
public opinion research, journalism
• Universities established social science research centers
• Private organizations such as Gallup, Rand Corporation,
and Roper formed
• Internet-based surveys widely used
WHAT ARE THE TYPES OF SURVEY DESIGNS?
WHAT ARE THE KEY CHARACTERISTICS OF SURVEY
RESEARCH ?

• Sampling from a population


• Collecting data through questionnaires or interviews
• Designing instruments for data collection
• Obtaining a high response rate
POPULATION, TARGET POPULATION, SAMPLING
FRAME, AND SAMPLE
REDUCING ERROR IN SURVEY RESEARCH

• Reducing coverage error: Have a good sampling frame list


on which to select individuals
• Reducing sampling error: Select as large a sample from
the population as possible
• Reducing measurement error: Use a good instrument
with clear, unambiguous questions and response options
• Reducing nonresponse error: Use rigorous administration
procedures to achieve as large a return rate as possible
FORMS OF DATA COLLECTION BASED ON WHO
COMPLETES OR RECORDS THE DATA
REDUCING ERROR IN SURVEY RESEARCH

• Reducing coverage error: Have a good sampling frame list


on which to select individuals
• Reducing sampling error: Select as large a sample from
the population as possible
• Reducing measurement error: Use a good instrument
with clear, unambiguous questions and response options
• Reducing nonresponse error: Use rigorous administration
procedures to achieve as large a return rate as possible
FORMS OF DATA COLLECTION BASED ON WHO
COMPLETES OR RECORDS THE DATA
STEPS IN DESIGNING AN INSTRUMENT

• Write different types of questions


• Use strategies to construct good questions
• Perform a pilot test of the questions
ASPECTS OF SURVEY INSTRUMENT DESIGN: TYPES OF
QUESTIONS
• Personal
• Attitudinal
• Behavioral
• Sensitive
• Closed-ended
• Open-ended
QUESTION CONSTRUCTION PROBLEMS

• Question is unclear because of vague words


• Two or more questions in one
• Question is wordy
• Question contains negatives
• Question contains jargon
• Overlapping response options
• Unbalanced response options
• Mismatch between questions and response options
• Respondent does not have understanding to answer the
question
• Not all respondents can answer the question—need
branching
PILOT TESTING

• Test on a small number of individuals in the sample


• Ask for written feedback on the questions
• Revise the survey based on the written comments
• Exclude the pilot participants from the final sample for the
study
STRATEGIES TO IMPROVE RESPONSE RATES

• Prenotify participants
• Use follow-up procedures
• Study a problem interesting to the population under study
• Use a brief instrument
• Consider the use of incentives
THREE-PHASE SURVEY ADMINISTRATION PROCEDURE
RESPONSE BIAS

• The responses do not accurately reflect the views of the


sample and the population.
• Overly positive or negative
• Assess response bias, particularly when response rates
remain low
• Wave analysis
CONSTRUCT AND ANALYZE A MAILED
QUESTIONNAIRE

• Write a cover letter to invite the participants to complete


the questionnaire
• Form and construct the questionnaire
• Identify what statistical procedures will be used to analyze
data from the mailed questionnaire
PLANNING AND DESIGNING AN INTERVIEW SURVEY

• The interviewer should maintain a neutral stance during


the interview
• Train the interviewers prior to the interview
• Take good notes of responses or use an audio recorder
• For telephone interviews, develop a telephone interview
guide prior to the interview
POTENTIAL ETHICAL ISSUES IN SURVEY RESEARCH

• Overstating the benefits of participating in the study


• Placing interviewers or participants in unsafe situations
• Protecting confidentiality of survey responses
• Disclosing identity of individuals through data analysis of a
subset
• Not destroying instruments at the conclusion of the study
STEPS IN CONDUCTING SURVEY RESEARCH

1. Decide if a survey is the best design to use


2. Identify the research questions or hypotheses
3. Identify the population, the sampling frame, and the
sample
4. Determine the survey design and data collection
procedures
5. Develop or locate an instrument
6. Administer the instrument
7. Analyze the data to address the research questions or
hypotheses
8. Write the report
EVALUATING SURVEY RESEARCH

• Describes the target population


• Identifies and uses a systematic approach to identifying
the sample
• Identifies the size of the sample and means for identifying
the sample size
• Identifies the type of survey used
• Mention survey instrument for data collection
• Reports the reliability and validity of past scores on the
instrument
• Discusses procedures for administering the instrument
• Administration procedures provide a discussion about the
follow-up procedures to ensure a high return rate
• Provides a systematic procedure for analyzing the survey
data
THANK YOU :)
WE HOPE YOU'VE LEARN SOMETHING NEW FROM US

Presented by: GROUP 6


Agapor, Ron Ron
Bobis, Ma. Alissa
Catequista, Jazmin
Gonzales, Trisha