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Mental health

Dr. Geetha M
Mental health- Definition

the capacity in an individual to form


harmonious relation with others and to
participate in or contribute constructively to
change in the social environment.

WHO Expert Committee


Mental health- Definition

the ability to hold a job, have a family, keep


out of trouble with law and enjoy the usual
opportunities for pleasure.

- Ginsburg
Mental health- 4-fold goals
• to understand and cure the different types of
mental disorders and defects;
• to detect the cases of incipient mental
breakdown early;
• to prevent, or at least to minimize the
occurrence of the disorders and defects; and
• improve the overall mental health of the
community
Characteristics of a mentally healthy
person
• Feels comfortable about himself, i.e., he feels
reasonably secure & adequate; neither
underestimates nor overestimates his own
ability; accepts his shortcomings; has self-
respect
Characteristics of a mentally healthy
person
• Feels right towards others; able to be
interested in others and to love them; has
friendships that are satisfying and lasting;
able to feel a part of a group without being
submerged by it; able to like and trust others;
takes responsibility for his neighbours and his
fellow-men.
Characteristics of a mentally healthy
person
• The mentally healthy person is able to meet
the demands of life. He does something about
the problems as they arise. He is able to think
for himself and to take his own decisions. He
sets reasonable goals for himself. He shoulders
his daily responsibilities. He is not bowled
over by his own emotions of fear, anger, love
or guilt
Warning signals of poor mental
health
1. Are you always worrying ?
2. Are you unable to concentrate because of
unrecognised reasons?
3. Are you continually unhappy without justified
cause?
4. Do you lose your temper easily and often?
5. Are you troubled by regular insomnia?
6. Do you have wide fluctuations in your moods
from depression to elation, back to depression,
which incapacitate you?
Warning signals of poor mental
health
7. Do you continually dislike to be with people?
8. Are you upset if the routine of your life is disturbed?
9. Do your children consistently get on your nerves ?
10. Are you "browned off " and constantly bitter?
11. Are you afraid without real cause?
12. Are you always right and the other person always
wrong?
13. Do you have numerous aches and pains for which no
doctor can find a physical cause?
William C Menninger
Mental ill-health- Causes
Organic Heredity Social-pathological
Cerebral Emotional stress
arteriosclerosis Unhappy marriages
Neoplasms Broken homes
Metabolic diseases Poverty
Neurological Industrialization
diseases Urbanization
Endocrine disorders Changing family
Chronic diseases structure
such as Population mobility
Tuberculosis, Economic insecurity
leprosy, epilepsy Rejection and
neglect
Other environmental factors
• Toxic substances (lead, mercury, manganese,
tin)
• Psychotropic drugs
• Nutritional factors
• Minerals
• Infective agents
• Traumatic factors
• Radiation
The Biopsychosocial model

Bio

Mental
health

Psych Social
Crucial phases of life

Pregnancy

First 5 years of life

School child

Adolescence

Old age
Prevention of mental-illhealth

Primary

Tertiary Secondary
Mental health services
• Early diagnosis and treatment
• Rehabilitation
• Group & Individual psychotherapy
• Mental health education
• Use of modern psychoactive drugs
• After-care services
For Individuals
• India’s first ever mental health policy unveiled
in October 2014.
Alcohol abuse
Management

Medical Psychological

• Detoxification • Workouts
therapy • Prayers
• Group therapy
• Family counselling
• A.A meeting
• Al-Anon meeting
Preventive measures

Educational

Legal Community
measures approach
Educational
• HEALTH EDUCATION-Primary prevention
• 2 types
• Education programmes for school children,
adolescents
• Public information campaigns via media
Messages should be clear, unambiguous,
specific advice
Community approach
• Preventive intervention at community level
• TEEN CENTRES – groups, organization
interested in athletics ,sports, music, artistic
activities etc.
• REHABILITATION CENTRES & DEADDICTION
CENTRES
• Strengthening the primary health care,
community participation
CAGE Questionnaire
• Have you ever felt you needed to Cut down on
your drinking?
• Have people Annoyed you by criticizing your
drinking?
• Have you ever felt Guilty about drinking?
• Have you ever felt you needed a drink first
thing in the morning (Eye-opener) to steady
your nerves or to get rid of a hangover?
Legal measures
• Drunk and driving limit (Motor vehicles Act)
• Prohibition (total and phased)
• Legal age limits
21 in most states
25 in Chandigarh, Delhi, Haryana, Meghalaya,
Punjab
18 in UP, Sikkim, Puducherry, Karnataka, HP, Goa
• Dry days
ALCO Breath-analyzer
Thank you